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Are Essay Mills committing fraud? An analysis of their behaviours vs the persausive, 2006 Fraud Act (UK) © The Author(s) 2017. Published: 25 January 2017. Many strategies have been proposed to address the use of Essay Mills and other ‘contract cheating’ services by students. Generate A List Of Narrative Essay? These services generally offer bespoke custom-written essays or other assignments to persausive, students in exchange for a fee. There have been calls for the use of legal approaches to tackle the problem. Here we determine whether the UK Fraud Act (2006) might be used to tackle some of the activities of companies providing these services in the UK, by comparing their common practises, and their Terms and Conditions, with the Act. We found that all the sites examined have disclaimers regarding the use of their products but there are some obvious contradictions in the activities of the sites which undermine these disclaimers, for example all sites offer plagiarism-free guarantees for the work and at least eight have advertising which appears to contradict their terms and conditions. We identify possible areas in which the Act could be used to pursue a legal case but overall conclude that such an new job application essay, approach is unlikely to essay, be effective. We call for a new offence to be created in UK law which specifically targets the undesirable behaviours of these companies in the UK, although the principles could be applied elsewhere. We also highlight other UK legal approaches that may be more successful.
The use of so-called ‘contract cheating’ services by students has been a source of controversy and debate within Higher Education, particularly in the last decade. ‘Contract cheating’ refers, basically, to the outsourcing of personal group work assessments by students, to third parties who complete work on their behalf in return for persausive essay, a fee or some other benefit (Lancaster and research proposal, Clarke 2016 ). These services offer ‘custom assignments’ of almost any form, although custom written essays appear to persausive essay, be the most common. Students are often able to specify the grade they want (although there is no guarantee this will be delivered), request drafts, referencing styles and almost any other custom feature (Newton and Lang 2016 ). Services available are quick and cheap (Wallace and Newton 2014 ) and students underestimate the severity with which universities penalise the use of contract cheating services (Newton 2015 ). Perhaps the simplest arrangements are directly between students and ‘custom essay writing companies’, many of whom are ‘listed’ companies with sophisticated advertising campaigns. However there are many ways in which students can use third parties to complete work for them, with the contract spread across continents; writers may act as freelancers, working in graduate proposal, a different country to the student and their institution. These freelance writers may make use of persausive online auction services to advertise and organise their work and components, these may be in essay, yet another country, and there may be another intermediary; an individual who receives the order from the student and then posts the graduate research, work on an auction site (Newton and Lang 2016 ; Sivasubramaniam et al. 2016 ). Thus there are multiple actors in contract cheating, one or more of whom may be liable if their actions violate the law; students, their universities, the essay, persons paying tuition fees, writers, those who employ writers, the websites which host the writers, advertising companies, those who host the advertising, and so on. The Crucible Essay? Here we focus primarily on UK-registered essay-writing companies. Across education, a student who completes an persausive essay, assessment to earn credit towards an award is normally required to do so on personal the explicit basis that the submission is their own independent work. Ideally, both students and staff are given guidance about what constitutes academic misconduct and the consequences of such misconduct (Morris 2015 ), in a manner that promotes a positive, constructive approach to fostering ‘academic integrity’ (Thomas and Scott 2016 ). If a student submits work that is shown to comprise, in persausive essay, whole or in part, material that is not their own independent work then that student will normally face a range of penalties, administered by their university, for academic misconduct. In the UK these usually include cancellation of personal essay work marks for the relevant module or the relevant component of the module subject to any mitigating circumstances (Tennant and Duggan 2008 ). Historically, these behaviours have not been dealt with through legal mechanisms in the UK (QAA 2016 ) and this applies to plagiarism outside academic circumstances which, in the words of Saunders,”. is not in itself illegal; it is persausive essay only illegal if it breaches an essay, established legal right, such as copyright, or offends against the law of misrepresentation or other legal rules” (Saunders 2010 ). However, a commonly used test in making legal decisions is to determine how a ‘reasonable person’ might view a particular behaviour.
If asked to persausive, describe the purchasing of essays for submission for the purposes of gaining academic credit it seems logical to conclude that a reasonable person would conclude that such behaviour is ‘fraudulent’, particularly given the language associated with it (e.g. ‘cheating’). If another individual has knowingly assisted in that activity then they might reasonably be said to have assisted, conspired or colluded in such academic fraud, cheating or dishonesty. If a student has purchased written work from another individual or a company for the purpose of passing it off as his or her own work then it is clear that the student commits academic misconduct, but what of the individual or company that supplied the work in return for payment? To what extent is that individual or company (an ‘assistor’) complicit in such misconduct? What is the potential liability of the assistor and can action be taken against them? Are the essay group work, assistors by their action inciting academic fraud? Unless the assistor is a student in the same institution an essay, educational institution cannot normally take action against the assistor under internal disciplinary procedures. Graduate Proposal? In addition, and persausive, perhaps more importantly, is of narrative essay components there the possibility of fraudulent behaviour in essay, the relationship between the student and the company? Broadly, legal wrongs committed in England and Wales may be addressed through the civil or criminal law (UK Government 2016a ). An action in civil law is taken by a wronged individual at their initial cost.
This cost is often prohibitive and also normally requires the formulation of a claim recognised by the law that evidences loss or damage to essay, the individual claimant caused by the defendant and for which a remedy is sought. Thus the ability of educational institutions (or a student for essay, that matter) to take civil action against assistors is research limited. Persausive? Action in relation to UK criminal law is normally undertaken by and at the cost of the state through the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) but requires a criminal offence to have been committed (private prosecutions at private cost are possible but relatively rare). The Code for Crown Prosecutors sets out the basic principles to be followed by Crown Prosecutors when they make case decisions. Crown Prosecutors must be satisfied that there is enough evidence to persuasive essay, provide a “realistic prospect of conviction” and that it is the public interest to pursue a prosecution (UK Government 2013 ). A purpose of this paper is to assess the extent that a business organisation who supplies an essay or written work upon instructions from a student in return for money might be liable under the persausive, criminal law of England and Wales for the crucible, an offence under the Fraud Act 2006 (The Act) (UK Government 2006 ). The Act commenced operation on essay 15 January 2007 by the Fraud Act 2006 (Commencement) Order 2006 SI 2006/3200. The Act applies to offences committed wholly on or after 15 January 2007 and extends to personal, England, Wales and essay, Northern Ireland. In August 2016 the UK regulator of Higher Education, the Quality Assurance agency, considered all approaches to deal with contract cheating, a problem which they stated “poses a serious risk to the academic standards and research, the integrity of UK higher education” (QAA 2016 ). Their consideration of possible legal approaches under existing law concluded that the Fraud Act was the “nearest applicable legislation”, but they did not reach a firm conclusion on its use, stating that “Case law appears to indicate a reluctance on the part of the courts to essay, be involved in the crucible persuasive, cases involving plagiarism, deeming this to be a matter for academic judgement that falls outside the competence of the court (Hines v Birkbeck College  3 All ER 15)” (QAA 2016 ). In their conclusion, the QAA state that the UK 2006 Fraud Act is persausive “untested in this context”.
Here we explore the detail of the Fraud Act further, and compare it to the established business practises of UK-registered essay-writing companies, with a particular focus on their Terms and Conditions. We first compare the commonly observed practises of essay-writing companies (Newton and Lang 2016 ) to the UK Fraud Act 2006 (UK Government 2006 ). We then specifically compared the Terms and Conditions of some UK-based companies and their advertising to Sections 1-7 of the Act to determine whether or not these companies are committing an offence under these sections of the Act. As part of a separate project we identified approximately 1000 distinct websites offering essay-writing or related services to students in Higher Education. We analysed the sites to identify those which indicated that they are owned by companies listed at Companies House in graduate research, the UK, meaning that they are able to run as ‘legitimate’ businesses and that they are subject to essay, regulation by a list, UK law, having been ‘incorporated’ under the Companies Act 2006 (UK Government 2016b ). We analysed 26 sites operated by a total of 21 apparently distinct companies; each had separate listings at Companies House. We also analysed a handful of additional sites from Australia and the USA, making a total of 31 sites. We have not included the identity of the specific companies in this publication for the following reasons: 1. We do not wish to further advertise the services of these companies, either through this publication or through any publicity associated with it. Essay? 2. Essay Group Work? We have no guarantee that the company number given on these websites is actually that of the company which runs the persausive essay, site. In some cases the names are the same but in others this is not the case. Research Proposal? 3. The content of persausive essay this article is the crucible academic opinion and not the basis for legal proceedings. We have shared, confidentially, the persausive essay, identities of the personal, companies with the reviewers of this manuscript and essay, also with the UK Quality Assurance Agency who also identified a number of the crucible persuasive essay UK-based companies in their recent report on essay mills (QAA 2016 ). Questions asked of the different websites and the number/percentage of sites for which the answered was considered to be ‘yes’ Is there a disclaimer of persausive essay liability in respect of application essay use? Are there contractual terms and conditions relating to use?
Are customers able to specify the quality (grade) of the work)? Is the Intellectual Property in persausive, the work retained by the company? Does the work come with a ‘plagiarism-free’ guarantee? Does the site state that the products are to be used for ‘research’ only? Does the site offer ‘qualified’ or ‘expert’ writers? Is the advertising potentially misleading (compared to disclaimer/terms + conditions)?
Shown below are questions that we asked of the personal essay group, websites. We then considered the Fraud Act in detail, informed by answers to the questions below. The Act (UK Government 2006 ) provides for persausive, a general offence of fraud, defined through the three ways of committing it, which are (1) by false representation, (2) by failing to disclose information and (3) by abuse of position. Each is dealt with in a separate Section of the Act. It is essay also an offence, under the Act, to obtain services dishonestly and/or to possess, make or supply articles for use in fraud(s). Section 3 Fraud by failing to persausive essay, disclose information. We will consider Section 2 of the act (‘fraud by false representation’) later in this paper but at this point it is appropriate to briefly address Section 3 of the Act which makes it an offence to fail to disclose, to another, information for which there is graduate research paper proposal a legal duty to disclose. Essay? For instance failing to disclose information in relation to a contract of speech writing services insurance or a doctor failing to disclose to essay, a hospital that certain patients referred by him or her for treatment are private patients, thereby avoiding a charge for the services provided. A legal duty to disclose information can arise as a result of a contract between two parties or because of the the crucible, existence of a particular type of professional relationship between them; for example, a solicitor/client relationship. In its report on Fraud (Report on a reference under section 3(1)(e) of the Law Commissions Act 1965 No. 276 Cm 5560 2002) the Law Commission made the following comments about the circumstances in which a legal duty might arise: “7.28 … Such a duty may derive from statute (such as the persausive essay, provisions governing company prospectuses), from the fact that the essay, transaction in question is persausive essay one of the the crucible persuasive essay, utmost good faith (such as a contract of insurance), from the persausive, express or implied terms of apa a contract, from the custom of a particular trade or market, or from the existence of a fiduciary relationship between the essay, parties (such as that of agent and principal).
7.29 For this purpose there is a legal duty to disclose information not only if the of narrative, defendant’s failure to disclose it gives the victim a cause of action for damages, but also if the law gives the victim a right to set aside any change in his or her legal position to which he or she may consent as a result of the persausive essay, non- disclosure. For example, a person in a fiduciary position has a duty to disclose material information when entering into wedding speech, a contract with his or her beneficiary, in the sense that a failure to make such disclosure will entitle the beneficiary to rescind the contract and to reclaim any property transferred under it.” Thus a key question is whether essay mills owe a legal duty to their customers to disclose information? For example, whether they are under a legal duty to persausive essay, disclose to customers that if they submit the purchased essay without proper attribution that they are committing academic fraud. There is no obvious legal fiduciary relationship between the assistor and the customer (a fiduciary is someone who has undertaken to the crucible persuasive essay, act for or on behalf of another in a particular matter in circumstances which give rise to a relationship of trust and persausive essay, confidence). Thus the relationship between student customer and essay mills appears to be entirely contractual. In the first instance therefore the legal duty on the part of the company is simply to comply with the terms and conditions of the contract which for the most part are set in the terms and essay, conditions of business drafted by them. These do not routinely place a legal duty on the company to disclose information about the possible consequences of essay use by wedding speech, a student and in any event as discussed below they routinely warn against essay the submitting of the essay without proper attribution. Section 3b (i) and (ii) of the Act go on to provide that an offence is only committed if by failing to disclose information the defendant “ intended to make a gain for him or to cause loss to another or expose another to a risk of loss” . By failing to give information that use of the essay through submission at an educational institution may lead to an academic misconduct claim a company intends to make a financial gain, i.e. continue in business and there is potential for thesis apa, risk of loss by the student customer. Essay? However essay mills are not usually under a legal duty in the first place to provide this information and in fact as discussed below the terms and conditions of business usually specifically address this point through disclaimers in relation to use of the essay (Similarly an offence under section 4 of the Act – abuse of thesis apa position - is effectively negated).
We consider the position in relation to advertising used by essay mills later in this paper – there is a legal duty not to mislead established other than through the Fraud Act 2006. Making a false representation – section 2. This section of the persausive essay, Act states the following. Owl Purdue Thesis Apa? dishonestly makes a false representation, and. to make a gain for himself or another, or. to cause loss to another or to expose another to a risk of loss. Persausive Essay? it is untrue or misleading, and. the proposal, person making it knows that it is, or might be, untrue or misleading. the person making the representation, or. any other person. A representation may be express or implied. Essay? For the purposes of this section a representation may be regarded as made if it (or anything implying it) is submitted in any form to any system or device designed to receive, convey or respond to communications (with or without human intervention)” (UK Government 2006 ). The Crucible Persuasive Essay? Thus Section 2 of the Act makes it an offence to persausive essay, commit fraud by false representation. Subsection (1)(a) states that the representation must be made dishonestly. Generate A List Of Narrative Components? The current definition of essay dishonesty was established in R v Ghosh 1982. (Campbell 1984 ) That judgment sets a two-stage test. The first question is whether a defendant’s behaviour would be regarded as dishonest by the ordinary standards of essay work reasonable and honest people. If answered positively, the essay, second question is personal group whether the essay, defendant was aware that his or her conduct was dishonest and would be regarded as dishonest by essay, reasonable and honest people. It seems reasonable to assume that the activities of essay writing companies would be considered ‘dishonest’ by ordinary standards, particularly when considering the media coverage given to their activities (Henry et al.
2014 ; Andrew Bomford BBC Radio 4’s PM programme ). However it is by no means certain that the second limb of the test would be satisfied given the rationale and justification for essay writing services usually deployed by persausive essay, essay mills (for example, that they offer similar services to those offered by legitimate providers, such as librarians, or they supplement study skills support that may be lacking in educational institutions (Newton and Lang 2016 )) and the terms and graduate research paper, conditions of business (Table 1 ). However, given the essay, aforementioned publicity around their activity, a claim that they were not aware that their conduct was dishonest and would be regarded as dishonest by reasonable and honest people is subject to legitimate challenge. In any event dishonesty is personal only a relevant consideration if there is, first of all, a false representation. In simple terms this would mean, for example, advertising that the purchased essays were legitimate to use as a student’s own work. Furthermore subsection (1)(b) of the essay, Act requires for the offence to be made out that a person must make the representation with the intention of making a gain or causing loss or risk of essay work loss to another. The gain or loss however does not actually have to persausive, take place. Subsection (2) defines the meaning of “false” in this context and subsection (3) gives the meaning of persuasive “representation”. A representation is false if it is untrue or misleading and the person making it knows that it is, or might be, untrue or misleading. Subsection (3) goes on to provide that a representation means any representation as to fact or law, including a representation as to persausive essay, a person’s state of thesis mind.
Subsection (4) provides that a representation may be expressed or implied. It can be stated in words or communicated by conduct. There is no limitation on persausive essay the way in which the wedding, representation be expressed and therefore it could be written or spoken or posted on a website advertising essay writing services. Section 5 of the Act defines the meaning of “gain” and “loss” for the purposes of sections 2 to 4. Under these definitions, “gain” and “loss” are limited to gain and loss in persausive, money or other property. The definitions are essentially the same as those in section 34(2)(a) of the essay, Theft Act 1968 and section 32(2)(b) of the persausive essay, Theft Act (Northern Ireland) 1969. The definition of “property” which applies in this context is based on section 4(1) of the paper proposal, Theft Act 1968 1 which includes money and all forms of property including intellectual property. Therefore in each case of a potential offence under sections 2-4 of the persausive, Act, the defendant’s conduct must be dishonest and their intention must be to graduate paper proposal, make a gain or cause a loss, or the risk of a loss, to another. Unlike the deception-based offences in the Theft Acts, no gain or loss need actually have been made. An individual or company providing an persausive essay, essay or coursework to a student for money clearly intends to the crucible persuasive, make a gain for the purposes of the Act even if a student fails to pay. Here now we consider the specific questions addressed in Table 1 to essay, determine whether or not false representations that were dishonest (in the in the R v Ghosh sense) were being made with the intention of thesis apa making a gain.
All of the persausive essay, companies analysed made some sort of statement, in their terms and conditions, that essays supplied are to be used solely for persuasive, ‘research purposes and for essay, assistance only’ or use a variant of this form of disclaimer. Some go further and state that no permission is given to copy the graduate paper proposal, work in relation for use with third parties without reference to the company. With reference to the terms and persausive, conditions alone it cannot reasonably be argued that an individual or company is making a false representation for the purposes of the Act as they clearly present, in the terms and conditions, the new job application, services being supplied to student customers and persausive essay, the use to which essays may be put, although it has been demonstrated that every few consumers actually read online terms and conditions (Bakos et al. 2014 ). However ignorance of the terms is not a ground in the civil law that they should be ignored. 2 A degree of protection is given to consumers under the Consumer Rights Act (UK Government 2015 ) which applies a ‘fairness’ test to all ‘non-individually negotiated’ contracts. These give limited protection when agreeing to unfair terms by checking a box on a website relating to terms and conditions. Some websites also carry advertising and research paper, exhortations designed to persuade and legitimise activity, for persausive, example statements to the effect that students need not ‘waste time’ doing the a list components, work themselves; the recent QAA report contained numerous examples of these (QAA 2016 ). The test for potential liability under section 2 of the Act is persausive whether or not the representation is untrue or misleading and the person making it knows that it is, or might be, untrue or misleading (italics are authors emphasis) . It is arguable that there is nothing false about such statements – the essay mills are being quite open about the rationale for their services.
As such the representations made by essay mills are not necessarily untrue but may be misleading in that they create an impression that essays may be used legitimately, albeit contradicted by the terms and conditions accepted by graduate research proposal, the student. There has been significant publicity over persausive the use of purchased essays by students and it is legitimate to suggest that those offering such services are aware or ought reasonably to be aware of this use. This is evidenced in part by the terms and conditions of some of the essay mills which acknowledge that the essays supplied may be submitted in some form by students as their own work subject to a disclaimer that proper referencing as to a list components, the source is made by persausive essay, the student. Therefore a reasonable and speech writing services, honest person might well take the view that such advertising is misleading as it might cause a student to reasonably conclude that purchasing an essay and submitting it as their own independent work is a legitimate option, but when purchasing essays students are required to acknowledge by checking a box that they have read the terms and conditions of persausive supply which usually contradict and clarify statements made by way of advertising. Essay Mills may also point out that students would know or ought to know what actions on their part constitute academic misconduct. The Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations 2008 are designed to owl purdue apa, protect customers from false or deceptive advertising or advertisements that leave out persausive essay important information.
Local Authority Trading Standards Services and generate essay, the Office of Fair Trading have a duty to enforce the persausive, regulations using the “most appropriate means”. These range from informal regulatory (or self-regulatory) procedures to a civil action for an enforcement order, and, in the worst cases, criminal proceedings (UK Government 2016c ). A reasonable person might also consider that some of the persuasive, statements used by Essay Mills in persausive, their advertising constitute an incitement to commit academic fraud. However, as we explained previously, courts are reluctant to owl purdue thesis apa, engage with plagiarism cases in Universities and academic fraud is not normally a criminal offence; the student falsely represents the work as his or her own but the immediate gain made by the student is academic credit and persausive essay, not money or property directly. However there is nothing in the section that requires the gain to be immediate and gain in terms of higher remuneration or salary may be made later but there is a question of new job application whether this gain is too ‘remote’ – this ‘remoteness’ is essay a perceived weakness of the Fraud Act as currently drafted (e.g. see http://www.criminallawandjustice.co.uk/features/Fraudulent-Education ). In addition, although the objective test of dishonesty in R v Ghosh may be made out, the second aspect of the test (whether the persuasive, student subjectively views the persausive essay, act of submission as dishonest) may be difficult to establish beyond all reasonable doubt particularly given the advertising adopted by essay writing companies. The advice given by the educational institution concerning academic misconduct will be important in this context. Making or supplying articles for use in frauds (Section 7) Section 7 of the owl purdue thesis apa, Act makes it an offence to persausive, make, adapt, supply or offer to supply any article knowing that it is designed or adapted for use in the course of or in connection with fraud, or intending it to be used to personal essay group, commit or facilitate fraud.
Section 8 extends the meaning of “article” for persausive, the purposes of sections 6 and personal essay group, 7 and certain other connected provisions so as to include any program or data held in electronic form. This should include an persausive, essay stored or supplied electronically. 3. makes, adapts, supplies or offers to supply any article; for use in the course of or in connection with fraud; knowing that it is essay designed or adapted for use in the course of or in connection with fraud (Section 7 (1) (a)) or. intending it to be used to commit or assist in the commission of fraud (Section 7 (1) (b). “Knowledge” in persausive essay, Section 7 (1) (a) is a strict requirement 4 although in practice, the wedding writing services, use to which the article can be put is likely to provide sufficient evidence of the defendant’s state of essay mind. Furthermore as noted above the publicity over student use of supplied essays would lead to a reasonable conclusion that a supplier of an essay has relevant knowledge for the purposes of the of narrative essay components, offence. However the manufacture of essay articles that are capable of being used in owl purdue apa, or in connection with fraud but have other innocent uses will not fall foul of this section unless the manufacturer intends that it should be used in a dishonest way (Section 7 (1) (b)).
The terms and conditions of business will mitigate against the commission of an offence as essays are usually required to be used in persausive essay, a legitimate manner. had possession or control of; for new job application essay, use in the course of or in connection with any fraud. This section is based on Section 25 of the persausive, Theft Act 1968. It must be shown that the new job, Defendant had the article (essay) for the purpose or with the intention that it be used in the course of or in connection with an offence. Therefore a general intention that he or another will commit fraud under Sections 1-4 of the Act will satisfy this requirement. “In our view, to establish an offence under Section 25 (1) the prosecution must prove that the Defendant was in possession of the essay, article, and intended the article to be used in the course of or in connection with some future burglary, theft or cheat. But it is not necessary to prove that he intended it to be used in the course of or in thesis apa, connection with any specific burglary, theft or cheat; it is enough to prove a general intention to persausive, use it for services, some burglary, theft or cheat; we think that this view is supported by the use of the word “any” in Section 25 (1). Nor, in persausive, our view, is it necessary to provide that the defendant intended to use it himself; it will be enough to prove that he had it with him with the intention that it should be used by someone else.” Section 7(2) of the Companies Act 2006 also is a further contraindication of the wedding speech writing services, commission of an essay, offence under the Fraud Act 2006 by graduate research paper proposal, a company providing essay writing services. This provides that a company must not be formed for an unlawful purpose. 5 The decision by the Registrar of companies to persausive essay, incorporate a company suggests in the first instance that the services, business of the persausive, company is lawful. That decision is subject to judicial review 6 and a certificate of essay incorporation is not conclusive evidence that all the company’s business is legal.
If a company is registered with an illegal or immoral purpose then the Crown (but not an individual citizen) might apply through the Attorney –General to cancel the registration made by the Registrar. 7. Although companies that offer essay writing services may have been established prior to the coming into force of the Companies Act 2006 the essay, requirement of application incorporation for lawful purposes only is an persausive, established principle applying in respect of the incorporation of companies prior to this date. Thus at persuasive essay, the time of incorporation the Registrar must have been satisfied that the essay writing companies were formed for a lawful purpose. The conclusion drawn by the authors therefore is that the terms and conditions of business accepted by students (notwithstanding the protections given by the civil law) effectively negate or make it difficult to establish the persausive, elements of owl purdue thesis apa a criminal offence under the Fraud Act 2006. In their recent report “Plagiarism in Higher Education”, the QAA recommend investigating legislative approaches to tackle contract cheating in the UK and persausive essay, identified the UK 2006 Fraud Act as the most obvious means to pursue action (QAA 2016 ). Here we conclude that the Act, as it currently stands, is unlikely to provide a successful platform for addressing contract cheating through legal means – particularly if the aim is to the crucible essay, prosecute the companies who offer these services. This is despite there being some obvious contradictions within the websites – all of the sites contain some form of statement that their products are ‘to be used for research purposes only’ yet all also offer some form of ‘plagiarism-free guarantee’. It is difficult to conceive of a situation where a plagiarism-free guarantee would be needed for a custom-written essay, unless it was to be used for submitting as the persausive, customer (student’s) own work.
The companies may need to wedding, protect themselves from copyright violation, but this is distinct from plagiarism and would be a matter for the companies rather than something advertised to their customers. It might be considered that the persausive, behaviours of students using these services could fit UK legal definitions of fraud although, as explained earlier, the courts have traditionally been reluctant to intervene in academic issues. There are also a number of potentially damaging consequences to the criminalisation of student behaviour in this way, such as the undermining of trust between students and their universities and the role of university staff in such a situation; which would turn academic misconduct into a legal situation. At the very least, this would seem likely to deter action. There is a general presumption that some form of intention or knowledge (mens rea) is necessary for the commission of a criminal offence because of the impact of criminal penalties (including loss of liberty). However, some offences are specifically enacted as offences of ‘strict liability’, meaning, basically, that there is no requirement to demonstrate ‘intent’, fault’ or ‘negligence’, although these may then be considered when determining a penalty. Strict liability normally applies in circumstances where protection of the public is paramount (eg a breach of health and safety regulations). The authors propose that a new strict liability criminal offence is graduate research paper enacted specifically addressing the supply of academic essays to persausive, avoid the essay group work, need for a prosecutor to establish intention or knowledge as a prerequisite to criminal liability.
The integrity of assessment in Higher Education is at stake and most students progress to roles or employment that will have a significant impact on members of the public, some very directly (e.g. Essay? nurses, doctors, lawyers) “No person shall, for a list essay, financial consideration, or the promise of persausive financial consideration, prepare, offer to prepare, cause to be prepared, sell or offer or advertise for sale to any person any written material which may be submitted as a coursework, dissertation, essay, project report or any other form of assignment (written or otherwise) by wedding writing services, a student in a university, college, academy, school or other educational institution to such institution or to a course, seminar or degree program held by such institution” Offences of persausive strict liability promote high standards of care, provide a strong deterrent, make enforcement easier and persuasive, usually operate in relation to businesses in which the penalty is a fine so that individual liberty is not at stake. However the penalty should be substantial to essay, avoid companies simply viewing a fine as an expense of the business or a nominal tax on illegal enterprise. A strict liability offence may be coupled with a defence of all due care to mitigate against the potential harshness of a strict liability offence. New Job Essay? The defendant can avoid conviction by proving that he or she took all due care to avoid committing the persausive, offence. “No person shall, for graduate research paper, financial consideration, or the promise of financial consideration, prepare, offer to prepare, cause to be prepared, sell or offer or advertise for sale to essay, any person any written material which the seller knows, is informed or has reason to graduate research paper, believe is intended for submission as a coursework, dissertation, essay, project report or any other form of assignment (written or otherwise) by a student in a University, college, academy, school or other educational institution to essay, such institution or to a course, seminar or degree program held by such institution” Internationally there have been efforts to pursue contract cheating through legal means and these were described in detail in a recent chapter of the Handbook of personal group work Academic Integrity (Newton and Lang 2016 ). To summarise here, there are specific laws preventing contract cheating in 17 states of the USA, but these laws date back to the 1970s and have rarely been used successfully. More recently New Zealand developed a law which made it illegal to persausive essay, advertise or to provide ‘third party assistance to cheat’ and owl purdue, this includes circumstances beyond essay writing, such as sitting an exam on behalf of another. Again, this law does not appear to have been commonly used. Partly this may be due to the jurisdictional issues posed by contract cheating. As described in the introduction, there are multiple actors involved and persausive essay, each may be in a different country. Perhaps the greatest value in establishing a law preventing contract cheating would be to de-legitimise these services in thesis apa, the eyes of students; having a deterrent, rather than a curative, effect. Despite our conclusion that the current activities of UK-based essay writing companies do not appear to violate the terms of the essay, 2006 Fraud Act, we have identified other possible legal approaches to addressing contract cheating via a legal means.
The first is in generate components, the apparent discrepancy between the persausive, terms and conditions used by the companies, which frequently urges caution in the use of purchased assignments for misconduct, and their advertising which can actively encourage it. In the UK this is, potentially, a violation of the “Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations 2008” which are designed to persuasive essay, protect customers from essay, false or deceptive advertising or advertisements that leave out important information. Local Authority Trading Standards Services and the Office of Fair Trading have a duty to enforce the regulations using the “most appropriate means”. These range from informal regulatory (or self-regulatory) procedures to a civil action for an enforcement order, and, in the worst cases, criminal proceedings (UK Government 2016c ). Legal approaches should be viewed as just one means by which contract cheating could be tackled, particularly given the limitations of a legal approach outlined above. Other strategies could include the increased use of assessment modalities which are not so easily purchased, such as face-to-face presentations and graduate research proposal, practical skills assessments (reviewed in (Newton and Lang 2016 )). Additional approaches would also benefit from support through regulation, such as a requirement from accrediting organisations to include a minimum proportion of face-to-face assessment. In summary then, the current status of the UK Fraud Act ( 2006 ) does not lend itself to successful legal pursuit of essay writing companies in the UK. However this could be addressed with a modification to the Act. The principles identified could be adopted in other countries.
Read with section 34(1) of that Act and section 4(1) of the Theft Act (Northern Ireland) 1969 (read with section 32(1) of essay that Act). L’Estrange v F. Group Work? Groucob Ltd  2 KB 394. R v Akpom  EWCA Crim 2662 The defendant worked in a registry office. It was alleged that he had deliberately issued false birth certificates for persausive, non-existent children, knowing that they would be used for a list of narrative components, fraud. Five birth certificates were found in the possession of professional fraudsters for their use in making fraudulent claims for benefits. A certificate was held to be an ‘article’ R v Montila  UKHL 50. R v Registrar of Joint Stick Companies, ex parte More  2 KB 197. R v Registrar of companies, ex parte A-G  BCLC 476 – attempted registration of a company to carry on the business of prostitution. Bowman v Secular Society  AC 406. The authors would like to persausive essay, thank Dr Patrick Bishop of the College of a list essay components Law and Criminology for reviewing the manuscript prior to submission. MD is Associate Professor in the College of Law and Criminology and Director of the Swansea Academy for Inclusivity and Learner Success.
He is a solicitor of the senior courts of England and Wales (non practising). He analysed the content of the persausive, websites against the UK 2006 Fraud Act and wrote the manuscript with PN. VI Is a student author who undertook a research role as part of the Swansea University student internship scheme. Wedding Writing Services? PN is the persausive essay, Director of Learning and Teaching at the Swansea University Medical School and has a research interest in academic integrity. He identified the sites and their common practises. He also wrote the manuscript with MD. The Crucible? All authors read and approved the final manuscript. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to persausive essay, the Creative Commons license, and personal essay group, indicate if changes were made. Andrew Bomford BBC Radio 4’s PM programme The man who helps students to persausive essay, cheat.
In: BBC News. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-36276324 . A List Of Narrative Essay? Accessed 1 June 2016 Bakos Y, Marotta-Wurgler F, Trossen DR (2014) Does anyone read the fine print? Consumer attention to standard form contracts. Social Science Research Network, Rochester, NY Google Scholar Campbell K (1984) The Test of Dishonesty in persausive, R. v. Ghosh. Camb Law J 43:349–360. Persuasive Essay? doi: 10.1017/S0008197300112632View ArticleGoogle Scholar Henry R, Flyn C, Glass K (2014) ?630 and I’ll put you on persausive essay the way to a first’ Google Scholar Lancaster T, Clarke R (2016) Contract cheating: the outsourcing of assessed student work. In: Bretag T (ed) Handbook of academic integrity. Persuasive? Springer, Singapore, pp 639–654 Google Scholar Morris EJ (2015) Academic integrity: a teaching and learning approach. In: Bretag TA (ed) Handbook of academic integrity. Springer, Singapore, pp 1–14 View ArticleGoogle Scholar Newton P (2015) Academic integrity: a quantitative study of confidence and understanding in students at the start of their higher education. Persausive? Assess Eval High Educ 0:1–16. doi: 10.1080/02602938.2015.1024199Google Scholar Newton PM, Lang C (2016) Custom essay writers, freelancers, and other paid third parties.
In: Bretag T (ed) Handbook of academic integrity. Springer, Singapore, pp 249–271 Google Scholar QAA (2016) Plagiarism in Higher Education - Custom essay writing services: an exploration and next steps for the UK higher education sector Google Scholar Saunders J (2010) Plagiarism and the law. Learn Publ 23:279–292. doi: 10.1087/20100402View ArticleGoogle Scholar Sivasubramaniam S, Kostelidou K, Ramachandran S (2016) A close encounter with ghost-writers: an initial exploration study on background, strategies and attitudes of independent essay providers. Int J Educ Integr. doi: 10.1007/s40979-016-0007-9Google Scholar Tennant P, Duggan F (2008) Academic Misconduct Benchmarking Research (AMBeR) Project Part II Executive Summary Google Scholar Thomas J, Scott J (2016) UK perspectives of academic integrity. In: Bretag T (ed) Handbook of academic integrity. Springer, Singapore, pp 39–53 Google Scholar UK Government E (2006) Fraud Act 2006. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2006/35/contents . Accessed 10 Sept 2016 UK Government (2013) The CPS : The Code for the crucible persuasive essay, Crown Prosecutors Google Scholar UK Government (2015) Consumer Rights Act 2015 Google Scholar UK Government (2016a) Your rights and the law - GOV.UK. Google Scholar UK Government (2016b) Incorporation and essay, names - Publications - GOV.UK. Google Scholar UK Government (2016c) Marketing and advertising: the law - GOV.UK Google Scholar Wallace MJ, Newton PM (2014) Turnaround time and market capacity in contract cheating. Educ Stud 40:233–236. doi: 10.1080/03055698.2014.889597View ArticleGoogle Scholar. The Crucible Persuasive? Share on Twitter Share on persausive Facebook Share on LinkedIn Share on Weibo Share on thesis apa Google Plus Share on persausive essay Reddit.
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Image Analysis Essay Essays and Research Papers. does an image mean?’ or ‘What is essay, this ad saying?’. Since there is new job, no law which can guarantee that things will have ‘one, true meaning’, or that . the persausive essay, meaning won’t change over time, work in this area is bound to be interpretative – a debate between, not who is the crucible persuasive essay, ‘right’ and who is ‘wrong’, but between equally plausible, though sometimes competing and contested, meanings and interpretations” Hall, S. (1997) Representation: Cultural Representation and Signifying Practices Using visual analysis , discuss. 2003 invasion of Iraq , Fashion , Iraq War 1413 Words | 5 Pages. ? Andrew Cox Image Analysis Essay - Final Draft ENG 111/25F/TR 2:30-3:50 11/13/2014 email@example.com . Men’s magazines feature articles concerning topic of interest to essay their subscribers: alcohol, sports cars, hunting and fishing, politics, scientifc and owl purdue thesis, technological breakthroughs, travel, and dating. Some also boast of interviews with the persausive, rich and famous and personal work, of short stories by persausive essay popular writers. Wedding? You can expect there to be jokes and cartoons too mostly about sexul matters. The main. Advertising , Attention , Girl 1052 Words | 6 Pages. Eleanor Stalick English 101, sec DE July 26, 2013 Final Draft Essay 1 - Image Analysis on Maus Some said . Persausive Essay? they were too powerful, some said they were too different.
Words like ‘inferior’, ‘outsiders’, and ‘scapegoat’ were their labels. Those not afraid of them would ask: Did you actually cause the a list components, Black Plague? What about the spread of persausive, AIDS in Europe? Did you kill Jesus Christ? Regardless of how peacefully they walked down the street, people would cross to generate components the opposite side. Ever since the. Antisemitism , Hungary , Israel 1883 Words | 5 Pages.
consequences of binge drinking Pennsylvania Liquor Control Board released a series of Public Service Announcements and launched a website to educate its . target young audience to be careful while drinking. The public service announcements use very specific image and text placement, typography, and persausive, color to make their message evident in generate a list of narrative essay, the still PSAs. In general when a person looks at persausive, something they scan left to right, top to bottom, or at wedding speech services, least primarily in English speaking areas, as that is persausive essay, how we read. Advertising , Binge drinking , Drinking culture 914 Words | 4 Pages. Rhetorical Analysis on Ads in Magazines Magazines are gaining in popularity nowadays as a tool not only to provide information, but also to . advertise ads on new job application, products that are available on the market. Since magazines gain readers with different kinds of persausive essay, interest, what are the rhetorical strategies used by advertisers to market similar products to different target audiences of wedding speech, similar culture?
Capturing the target audiences’ attention requires understanding about the audiences which open new avenues. Advertising , Audience , Audience theory 1818 Words | 4 Pages. down in front of persausive, a glass wall. The young girl, appearing to of narrative be a young teenager, has a look of inspiration on her face as she stares through the persausive, foggy glass . at a small dog. The focus of the picture is the dog and it’s owner because of the blurred image of the girl behind the glass. However, the actual focus of the picture is the little girl, patiently hoping to get out of generate a list, radiation, and to live her life happily like the dog. Persausive Essay? The vantage point of speech writing, this photo instills power into the photo because it. Chernobyl disaster , Lists of nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents , Nuclear fission 1334 Words | 4 Pages.
There are various image analysis concepts that are used in essay, the Bell Ross watch advertisement to portray its meaning. These . include image choice and cropping, visual modality, anchorage, and topography. Personal Group? This essay will analyse the persausive, different analysis concepts used and explain how these are used by the advertiser to personal convey the potential meanings behind this particular advertisement. This will be done through its visual content, both image and text. Essay? Image choice and of narrative essay components, cropping is a media-specific code.
1920s , Advertising , Clock 1104 Words | 3 Pages. Analyzing the persausive, Power and the Impact of Images Assignment: In a text based, thesis driven essay , develop a detailed explanation . of the relationship between image and group, reality, and analyze the persausive essay, significance of your findings. To develop your discussion, consider the psychological and/or emotional appeals behind the images presented by the media, and generate of narrative components, the intended impact thereof. Further, juxtapose what these images convey, the stereotypes and/or the promises they make, with reality, to persausive essay expose the. Bibliography , Essay , Essays 808 Words | 3 Pages. and van Leeuwen theoretical framework, an wedding speech writing image simultaneously performs three semiotic tasks to persausive make meaning which are representational . metafunction, interpersonal metafunction, and compositional metafunction. In this paper, I will analysis the wedding services, below image (Firgure 1) basic on these three metafunctions. The choosen image is an re-made image extract from South Chinese Morning Post. Persausive? It is a combination of image and text.
This paper will mainly focus on speech writing, image analysing. [pic] Figure 1. Agence France-Presse , Aung San Suu Kyi , E-participation 1228 Words | 4 Pages. ‘Esquire Magazine’ (March 1965) Contextual Studies Essay , GD Year 1, Sophie Costello Image Analysis I’ll be . Essay? researching the image on the front cover of an Esquire magazine, titled 'The Masculinisation of the thesis apa, American Woman' Issue no. 376 (March, 1965), the Verna Lisi cover in a photo shoot showcasing the iconic blonde caught mid-shave. I found the image in a book by Richard Hollis called ‘Graphic Design, A concise History’ (2001). The reason I chose to study this advert was because it stood. How to Murder Your Wife , Jessica Simpson , La Reine Margot 2095 Words | 6 Pages. ? Image Analysis Introduction For this . term, I choice the image above about a sculpture called “The Young Family” by Patricia Piccinini in the Bendigo Art Gallery. This series as her the most famous work have been exhibited in many galleries and museums. The Young Family, which Piccinini created for the 50th Venice Biennale, shows a creature between animal and essay, human that we respect her as something more than just.
Art , Human , Meaning of life 1101 Words | 4 Pages. 093-46C Advertisement Analysis Essay #2 March 19, 2013 Pepsi Next “Dancing Baby” There are several different types of . advertising in the world today, like newspaper ads and magazine ads. Then there are commercials, they can be very manipulative in persuading specific audiences to buy their products. In the Pepsi Next “Dancing Baby” commercial, they use what is called a trick image . It is the funniest part of the commercial and is what makes it so appealing. This trick image is the personal group, baby in the back.
Appeal , Coca-Cola , Comedy 1010 Words | 3 Pages. ?Kalena Farrington Ms. Chavis 1113/Comp. 1 February 12, 2015 I H8 Txt Msgs: How Texting Is Wrecking Our Language Analysis “They are . Essay? destroying it: pillaging our punctuation; savaging our sentences; raping our vocabulary. And they must be stopped.” This quote from John Humphrys' essay “I H8 Txt Msgs: How Texting Is Wrecking Our Language” clearly shows where he stands on the subject of how “texters” are ruining our English language by abbreviating a lot of our words. How people, more specifically. Dictionary , English language , Essay 1270 Words | 4 Pages. Essay Analysis on “Shoot an Elephant” Essar Essay Analysis 1 Running Head: ESSAY ANALYSIS PAPER Essay . Analysis on “Shoot an Elephant” Michael J. Essay Group Work? Charley University of Phoenix Instructor: Dr.
Vanessa Holmes Course: Business Literature Essay Analysis 2 George Orwell's essay 'Shooting an Elephant' gives a great insight into the human mind. Persausive Essay? The essay gives a good theme of essay, inner conflict. Orwell feels strong inner conflict between what he believes as a human being, and persausive essay, what he believes and research paper, should do as an essay imperial. British Empire , British Raj , Burma 1289 Words | 4 Pages. and discuss two images of Jesus from the New Testament. What is their relevance today? Word Count: 1528 Throughout the . New Testament we are presented with various images of Jesus Christ, this is in new job application, no small part due to the wealth of his personality and the many aspects of this we are introduced to through the essay, Gospels and in Paul’s letters. Graduate Proposal? This essay will discuss and analyse two of persausive, these images : “The Teacher and graduate paper, “The Healer.” Whilst discussing what these images tell us about. Gospel , Gospel of John , Gospel of Mark 1766 Words | 5 Pages. Body Image , Self Concept and Self Esteem Summary: Sports and media advertising effect people's perception of persausive essay, body image and essay work, . Essay? present an the crucible persuasive unrealistic view of how one's body should look. This can cause body image and self-esteem issues for some people, causing them to attempt unhealthy diets.
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Cecilia III-Justice Valdez A nice cup of tea If you look up ‘tea’ in the first cookery book that comes to hand you will probably find that it is unmentioned; or at most you will find a few lines of sketchy instructions which give no ruling on several ofthe most important points. This is persausive essay, curious, not only because tea is one of the main. Caffeine , Coffee , Sri Lanka 1428 Words | 4 Pages. TEXTUAL ANALYSIS ESSAY By Bianca A Like advertisements, magazine covers are skilfully and purposely crafted to tempt and lure . consumers into a list components buying the product. It is in the best interest of the producers (sender) to aim their text (message/sign system) towards their desired target audience (receiver). Persausive? Using the techniques of semiology, I will analyse the types and components of signs and codes, with which the speech, media communicates through magazine covers. Persausive Essay? This method of textual analysis is the breaking.
Advertising , Connotation , Denotation 1788 Words | 5 Pages. Analysis Essay CJ/407 Monday May 26, 2014 The Attica Prison Riot This paper reflects on . two crisis situations, The 1972 Olympic Terrorist attack in Munich, Germany, and The Attica Prison Riot of 1971. This paper will discuss what went wrong on behalf of the negotiators and how things could’ve of essay group, different with a properly trained crisis negotiation team. Persausive Essay? The ongoing crisis staging in prisons and at local police departments makes it possible for a crisis team. Hostage , Negotiation , Nelson Rockefeller 865 Words | 3 Pages. Analysis Essay : “Shooting an Elephant” by George Orwell How we choose to govern ourselves has taken many forms throughout world . history. The Crucible Persuasive? From dictatorships to essay democracies, the wedding services, rulers and the ruled struggle for power. Persausive Essay? This struggle was a topic Orwell wrote about often, including his essay “Shooting an Elephant.” Leaders are always seeking ways to maintain control over the people and in some societies this has resulted in very authoritarian rulers.
The notion that individual thought is dangerous. British Empire , British Raj , Burma 915 Words | 3 Pages. Analysis of Meta Image Not to owl purdue apa Be Reproduced Not to be Reproduced (La reproduction interdite, 1937) Rene Magritte Paige Williams Media Aesthetics (Huma 1600) Dustin Brown October 22, 2012 . Essay One Often in art galleries one can find masses of people carefully inspecting precious paintings and other works. Currently, the common practice for both novices and experts alike is to closely examine each piece of persausive essay, work for a deeper, disguised meaning that every artist has somehow instilled in his or her creations. Despite the popularity of. Face , Human , Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen 770 Words | 3 Pages. ?A Photo Analysis Image from: Hudson, Joshua. (2008, June 28). Fun With f/stops-The Secret of f/2.8. The Camera Chronicle. . Retrieved September 29, 2010, from http://camerachronicle.com/2008/06/28/fun-with-fstops-the-secret-of-f28/ There exist many factors one might both examine and manipulate in generate a list essay, order to create a photograph that creates more appeal and emotional impact than an image that has simply been “snapped”. I will consider several of these variables in an examination of persausive, a photograph of.
Angle of graduate proposal, view , Depth of field , Focal length 807 Words | 4 Pages. Name: Instructor: Course: Date: Analysis of Thus Spoke Zarathustra Nietzsche’s Thus Spoke Zarathustra is a philosophical piece of persausive essay, . work, which speaks about crises, which exist in humanity based on the soul of the “last man” in different ways. The last man’s soul is unable to reach fully its full meaning and the values beyond it. Graduate Research Proposal? This essay analyses six sections in light of this. The sections are: “Zarathustra’s Prologue” The prologue in Nietzsche's writings has two instances in. Beyond Good and Evil , Friedrich Nietzsche , God is persausive essay, dead 2579 Words | 7 Pages. Image Analysis William Klein (1955) ,”Broadway and 103rd Street, New York” . Available at: http://www.amicortina.com/fotpuntvistaingles/kleine.htm [Accessed 5 November 2012] DescriptionWilliam Klein’s collection NEW YORK marks an important time in the history of photography during the new job application, latter half of the 20th century. The photograph Broadway and persausive essay, 103rd Street, New York (1955)” captures New York street life. American Jews , Fashion photographers , Image 1206 Words | 6 Pages. and Literature Essays Editing Services College Application Essays Writing Help Q A Lesson Plans . GradeSaver (TM) ClassicNotes: Divergent Home : Divergent : Study Guide : Suggested Essay Questions Divergent Suggested Essays by Veronica Roth Previous section Divergent Summary About Divergent Character List Glossary of Terms Major Themes Quotes and personal essay work, Analysis Summary and essay, Analysis of Chapters 1-3 Summary and Analysis of essay, Chapters 4-6. Faction , Grammatical person , Novel 1769 Words | 7 Pages.
Body image essay Are you comfortable in persausive essay, your own skin? Do you love everything about owl purdue thesis, yourself? Chances are, you do not. This . essay will show you how society endorses an unrealistic body image to strive for, that you should not feel pressured to be like everyone else and essay, you should feel comfortable in your own skin. Together we will explore what people in society perceive as the a list of narrative essay, ideal figure, the media and business influence on essay, how we see ourselves, how the the crucible, media uses our self consciousness as a.
American films , Body shape , Female body shape 1344 Words | 3 Pages. 11/4/11 Analysis Maxine Hong Kingston’s “No Name Woman” blends several genres or styles of writing: short story, memoir, . and essay . Since so little is essay, actually known about Maxine Hong Kingston’s aunt and Kingston herself wonders if she was simply invented by her mother as a cautionary tale, “No Name Woman” must be considered a short story – a fictional tale about what might have been. Application Essay? “No Name Woman” is a tale about Kingston’s aunt who as told by her mother was found dead in the. Childbirth , Family , Infant 1177 Words | 3 Pages. ?Amber Velasquez English 100 October 4, 2012 Process Analysis How to persausive Make a Great PowerPoint Presentation Do you ever feel nervous or . get sweaty palms when thinking of creating a PPT? Well you can change that. I will be telling you a few simple steps to making and presenting a PPT. I guarantee you will feel more comfortable and confident in your skills. What exactly is a PPT? It is an abbreviation that stands for the PowerPoint Presentation.
This is the crucible, a high- powered software tool marketed. Microsoft PowerPoint , Presentation , Slideshow 896 Words | 3 Pages. J. Persausive? E. College English Advertisement Analysis Essay Analysing and Interpreting Ads Analyzing an ad is a process of the crucible, . figuring out what the writer of the ad wants you to think of the product they are trying to sell you. Persausive? Whether it’s the perfect picture of graduate paper proposal, what you may look like when after using the item or a warm feeling created by the images , colors and persausive, textures within the ad persuades the reader to speech services buy. Persausive Essay? How you interpret the advertisement can all depend on what is going on thesis apa, in your life at. Advertising , Attitude change , Brand 978 Words | 3 Pages. Image Analysis. Compare and Contrast.
Fonts, Vanessa Image Analysis Final Draft A picture is persausive essay, worth a thousand word Advertising is application essay, a form of communication . used to encourage or persuade an audience to continue or take some new action. But when advertisers produce an ad, they have many different variables that come into play if they want to essay successfully persuade consumers. Graduate Paper? The first most important step they have to figure out is, what type of audience they are trying to target. They then create images and intend to appeal specifically. Advertising , Appeal , Audience 1722 Words | 4 Pages. BODY IMAGE IN THE MEDIA How does the media influence our body image ? In what forms, does the media influence our perceptions . about our body?
These were the two questions that I asked myself in order to do the research paper and the panel discussion. Persausive Essay? In my opinion, I would agree that the media does influence and promote women and men to believe that the graduate research paper proposal, culture's standards for body image are ideal. Hence, the phrases, thin is in and the perfect body are two examples of eye-catching headlines. Adolescence , Body shape , Britney Spears 1263 Words | 3 Pages. Essay Analysis Paper University of Phoenix The essence of an essay is not so much about the weight of its . contents but how it captures the reader at the same time. As stated in lectures and persausive, course works, how essayists shape their work through artistic ability and intent using many of the licenses bestowed on graduate research, him or her from persausive essay endless imaginative possibilities, and limitations to existing choices (used or not, popular or otherwise), through comparisons or contrasts, details, description, and always. Essay , Fiction , Narrative 675 Words | 3 Pages. ?Stradford Hydrick Dr.
Light English 101 27 October 2014 Analysis of generate of narrative essay, “Hazel Tells LaVerne” In Katharyn howd Machan’s poem “Hazel Tells . LaVerne”, a maid at the Howard Johnsons Hotel finds a frog in the toilet. The frog tells the maid he could turn her into a princess. She does not believe him and proceeds to flush him down the toilet. This poem can be evaluated on its content, its literary techniques, and its relation to a fairytale. The content of the poem is very important.
The poem talks about. Fairy tale , Flush toilet , Frog 1088 Words | 3 Pages. Brand Image and Reputation - Essay. Strengths Brand Image and persausive, Reputation There are many different factors that have influenced Apple’s brand image and . reputation allowing it to be where it is today. Apple is unique in that it not only manufactures computers and electronic devices, but it also creates and engineers the operating system and generate of narrative, software the persausive, runs on it. Essay? Consumers tend to associate Apple with trendy high quality products that are dedicated to persausive essay innovation, attention to detail, ease of use, and creative thinking. Apple. Apple Inc. , IPhone , IPhone OS 744 Words | 3 Pages.
employees involve in the effort and make them aware of the proposed plan, although the essay group, employees input is persausive essay, very important to the success of Voici Brands. . The image concept that I would suggest for this company to follow is, The Change Manager as Interpreter. I chose this image because in the text, it states that, “the interpreter image to managing change places the change manager in owl purdue thesis apa, the position of essay, creating meaning for other organizational members, helping them to make sense of various organizational. Board of directors , Change , Change management 1244 Words | 3 Pages. ? Critical Argument Analysis Essay Sara London ENG/215 May 4, 2015 Virginia Stewart Critical Argument Analysis . Essay As a youth, I often wrote essays for school. Although writing isn’t my strong point, I recently have learned new skills and tactics to formulate decent articles. Graduate Research Paper Proposal? I also have learned what to notice while reading articles. Essay? Following the reading of three articles, I can analyze and evaluate them and new job application, identify several essential elements. I plan to determine the persausive, strengths and weaknesses. Academia , Diabetes mellitus , Eminem 814 Words | 5 Pages. WR115, Rigamonti Thesis-Driven Analysis Essay 26 Oct, 2013 Analysis of Matthew Boyd’s Essay . Are bees’ the dreadful satanic creatures that Matthew Boyd describes in his essay Striped, Winged, Devils or are they the domesticated canines that lick you to persuasive essay death with their unbridled love?
Well I hope to break this down the best way I can from what I picked up on. Persausive? Now the personal essay group work, three main things that stood out in this essay were Boyd’s use of metaphors like “toxic knives” and “domesticated. Bee , Bee sting , Essay 540 Words | 3 Pages. ?Name:Wendy Moderow Date:12/30/14 EN46b Unit 6 Critical Analysis Essay Grade: _____/100 Directions: Compose a critical . Persausive Essay? analysis essay that focuses on an essay's theme and how the literary elements contribute to the development of the theme. Your critical analysis essay must focus on one of the thesis apa, following essays : How to Write with Style by Kurt Vonnegut Jr. (from Unit 1) The Organization Kid by David Brooks (from Unit 2) Why We Crave Horror Movies by essay Stephen King (from Unit 3) I Have a. China , Kurt Vonnegut 795 Words | 2 Pages. model. This report will discuss its development and of how the store image has contributed to the success of the graduate research paper, corporation. It will analyze . the components of the store image from the perspective of persausive essay, atmosphere; total shopping experience and promotions.
It will also evaluate how closely the store presents the generate of narrative essay components, image it purports to project. Finally, the report will make recommendations for the retailers to further improve its image . People-Customer Service Starbucks focused primarily on providing. Coffee , Coffee culture , Coffeehouse 1526 Words | 5 Pages. ANALYSIS 7 Essay : The Company Man The typical business man involved in corporate America works anywhere from persausive essay six to ten hours . per day. Phil, “the Company Man” worked six days a week sometimes until eight or nine at night, making himself a true workaholic. New Job Essay? Using his life story before he died Goodman is able to convey her liking toward Phil but her dislike of persausive, what the business world has turned him into. Not only does Goodman use a number of rhetorical devices but she also uses Phil’s past as well.
Family , Irony , Personal life 883 Words | 3 Pages. Introduction Like any rhetorical analysis essay , an essay analyzing a visual document should quickly set the . stage for what you’re doing. Try to graduate proposal cover the following concerns in the initial paragraphs: Make sure to let the reader know you’re performing a rhetorical analysis . Essay? Otherwise, they may expect you to take positions or make an evaluative argument that may not be coming. Clearly state what the document under consideration is and possibly give some pertinent background information. Conclusion , Essay , Greek loanwords 1013 Words | 4 Pages. ?Luis Espinoza Professor Wees Composition One 29 October 2014 Writing Process There are many important steps in owl purdue apa, writing an essay . . Essays are a significant part of any student’s grade in most English classes, whether in high school, college, or even those studying for Masters and a PhD. Whether it is a narrative, descriptive, expository or a persuasive essay , each one has the same process as the others. Although depending on the class level one is at, the essay, writing process might be more or less complex. Citation , Creative writing , Essay 1030 Words | 4 Pages. Essay Analysis of Hair Daniel West English 103 9/19/11 Dr.
Turner | The essay Hair written by personal Maria . Alderich, is an analysis of women during the persausive essay, 1950’s need to conform, rebel, or fit in to societies social standards and the inner conflict it caused in women’s identity. The essay is Alderich’s firsthand account of the females in her immediate family and how they use their hair styles to define themselves and represent their self-identity. In the preface, the reader is given a brief. 1950s , Cosmetics , Family 1166 Words | 4 Pages. Analysis of apa, two essays Do you know the persausive, differences between honesty and integrity? “The Insufficiency of Honesty” which is from . textbook, “Refining Reading Writing” (Dasgupta amp; Mei, 2008, p. 132), was written by Stephen L. Speech Writing? Carter. Persausive? Carter discussed the differences between honesty and integrity in this essay . Stephen L. Carter (born October 26, 1954) is an graduate proposal American law professor, legal- and social-policy writer, columnist, and essay, best-selling novelist (Stephen L. Carter, 2013). This essay first appeared. Essay , Essays , Husband 1406 Words | 5 Pages.
? An Analysis of Metaphysical Religious Poetry In this essay the essay group work, metaphysical religious poetry of the seventeenth century is . explored. This essay argues that the imagery in persausive, the poems of John Donne, George Herbert and generate a list, Andrew Marvell contributes to essay themes of struggle and acceptance. Initially, this essay discusses the religious context their poems were written in, and then it presents an analyses of their poetry as metaphysical works. Speech Services? In this analysis the imagery each poet used, as well as the influence. Andrew Marvell , Helen Gardner , Holy Sonnets 1889 Words | 6 Pages. Source Analysis Essay II Draft Due: April 6 Final Due: April 13 Construct a good, solid essay of at . least 3 full pages which answers one of the prompts below. In addition to consulting your lecture notes and textbook, you may find it helpful to consult the New Cambridge Medieval History, Vol. I, which may be found in the Walsh Library Reference Room, call number D117. N48. Essays will be graded on content (clarity and coherence) as well as mechanics (grammar and spelling).
Late papers. Council of Clermont , Crusades , First Crusade 710 Words | 3 Pages. Analysis Essay of Aria by Richard Rodriguez. NOUR BAHRI EN1111 Academic Writing M. Antoniadou 29th October2012 Analysis essay of essay, “Aria” by Richard Rodriguez (2nd . Generate A List Of Narrative Components? draft) This essay , titled “Aria”, originally published in 2008, is an autobiographic essay of the author’s childhood, Richard Rodriguez’. Persausive Essay? In his essay , Richard is against bilingual educators, who think that children in their first years of school should be educated in owl purdue thesis, their native language. According to essay him this education system is wrong, won’t be beneficial, therefore. Emotion , First language , French language 1311 Words | 4 Pages. ? The Crucible: Literary Analysis Essay Directions: Choose ONE of the personal, essay prompts/topics below. Answer your . Essay? chosen prompt in generate of narrative components, a five-paragraph essay based around a one-part thesis. Persausive? Each of your three body paragraphs must include a quote from The Crucible.
Since this essay has a more straightforward format than the research paper proposal, Close Reading essay for Great Expectations, we will be focusing on the writing process as you move towards producing a final draft. Consequently, you will be required to complete. Essay , Five paragraph essay , Question 1075 Words | 6 Pages. Adriane Whelchel 26 June 2012 Critical Analysis of Frederick Douglass’ “How I Learned to Read and Write” How I Learned to Read and Write by . Frederick Douglass is a literary nonfiction essay that focuses on a small period of Douglass’ life. Persausive Essay? The essay begins with Douglass living with Master Hugh’s family and it’s here that Hugh’s wife began teaching Douglass the alphabet. Graduate Research? Master Hugh put an end to the teaching sessions but that didn’t stop Douglass from persausive finding a way to learn how to read and write.
Abolitionism , Abraham Lincoln , First-person narrative 1132 Words | 3 Pages. Literary Analysis : Outline This worksheet must be TYPED. Bring your completed worksheet (along with the O’Connor short stories) to class . Owl Purdue Thesis? with you on essay, Tuesday 11/27. Essay? Note: Page 1 of persausive, this outline provides a sample outline of the thesis statement and ONE paragraph from the online sample Literary Analysis Essay . Complete pages 2-3 of this worksheet for class on Tues 11/27. Thesis Statement (one sentence that sums up your specific interpretation of the research paper, story): In Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s “The. Charlotte Perkins Gilman , Feminism , Historiography 634 Words | 3 Pages. big-busted blond is hard to miss and persausive, is definitely successful with the intended goal. It is new job application, easy to assume this ad specifically targets men with the . over-indulged woman as the persausive essay, main focus, but subliminally also targets women with appearance and body image pressure. This advertisement uses the provocative imagery of an unnaturally large-chested woman to represent the societal norms where finding something genuine is uncommon, the way the fries are portrayed, giving an insight to a list components social reality, its. Heteronormativity , Mores , Reality 842 Words | 3 Pages. Francis Bacon died at Highgate, in the Earl of Arundel's house. “Of Studies” is the first essay of the first collection of essay, ten . essays of Francis Bacon which was published in 1597.
But it was revised for the edition of the crucible essay, 1612. More than dozen new sentences were added and some words were also altered. “Of Studies” is typically Baconian essay with an astonishing terseness, freshness of illustrations, logical analysis , highly Latinized vocabulary, worldly wisdom and Renaissance enlightenment. B. STYLE . Cultural studies , Elizabeth I of essay, England , Essay 1579 Words | 6 Pages. ?Rebekah Frost LAL 153: Online Summer 2015 Unit 7: Literary Analysis Essay Literary Analysis Essay . Final Draft Due: 6-20-15 “Brownies by ZZ Packer, Literary Analysis Essay Racism Among Our Youth Brownies is a short story about 4th graders who go on work, a summer camping trip near the southern suburbs of essay, Atlanta in Georgia. Laura, an African American girl, also known by her nickname ‘Snot’ to the other girls, narrates the story. The Narrator explains how her Brownie troop took a dislike on generate of narrative, each.
African American , Black people , Race 866 Words | 3 Pages. 1458 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING, VOL. 20, NO. 5, MAY 2011 IMAGE Resolution Enhancement by Using Discrete and . Stationary Wavelet Decomposition Hasan Demirel and persausive, Gholamreza Anbarjafari Abstract—In this correspondence, the authors propose an image resolution enhancement technique based on interpolation of the high frequency subband images obtained by discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and speech writing, the input image . The edges are enhanced by introducing an intermediate stage by persausive using stationary. 2027 Words | 7 Pages. Object-Based Image Analysis Using Multiscale Connectivity.’ Summary on speech, ‘Object-Based Image Analysis Using Multiscale Connectivity.’ This paper precedes a way for image . analysis based on the concept of multiscale connectivity.
The authors have suggested an essay approach to design several tools for object-based image representation and graduate research, analysis , which attain the connectivity structure of images in essay, a multiscale fashion. More specifically, they have suggested a nonlinear pyramidal image representation scheme, which decomposes an image at various scales by a list of narrative essay components means. Cluster analysis , Disk partitioning , Hierarchical clustering 743 Words | 3 Pages. Elaine Kenny English 1121 Professor Shal March 26, 2010 An Analysis of Vaillant’s “We Should Retain the persausive essay, Disease Concept of Alcoholism” George . Vaillant, M.D., psychiatrist and Director of Adult Development at wedding, Harvard University, is an expert in the field of alcoholism and essay, has published extensively on the subject. In August 1990, the Harvard Medical School Mental Health Letter published his essay “We Should Retain the a list of narrative essay, Disease Concept of persausive essay, Alcoholism,” in application essay, which he stated that alcoholism can rightly be. Alcohol , Alcoholism , Behavior 1390 Words | 4 Pages. Character Analysis Essay English II As part of persausive essay, our study of the novel Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck, you will be writing . a character analysis essay . Below are the criteria of owl purdue thesis apa, this assignment. Persausive Essay? Criteria ? Choose a character to analyze. Generate A List Essay Components? ¦ George, Lennie, Slim, Curly, Curly’s Wife ? Identify one dominant characteristic of persausive, that character. ¦ DO NOT choose a physical characteristic. ¦ Choose a PERSONALITY trait. ? Develop your analysis of the character by finding and analyzing.
Character , Fiction , John Steinbeck 474 Words | 3 Pages. ? Images offer a powerful way to communicate. A single image can relate more to a person than text can. An artist can create a . Wedding Services? piece of artwork to express how he or she feels or how they see something. Essay? Over time the art that was created long ago can change meaning from what the owl purdue apa, artist originally intended and persausive, the perception can change as well, either through mystification or personal experiences. Author John Berger in his book Ways of Seeing writes about the various ways in which this can happen. Aesthetics , Art , John Berger 1244 Words | 5 Pages. Essay Analysis Paper “Each year I watched the field across from the Store turn caterpillar green, then gradually frosty white. . Application? I knew exactly how long it would be before the big wagons would pull into the front yard and load on the cotton pickers at daybreak to carry them to the remains of slavery’s plantations” (Angelou, p. 115). Maya Angelou describes the life of cotton-pickers in essay, the nonfiction story, “Cotton-Picking Time.” This paper will give an thesis analysis of “Cotton-Picking Time” and discuss.
Cotton , Cotton picker , Essay 907 Words | 3 Pages.
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Persuasive Essay Structure - ASU
Technopoly: the essay, Surrender of Culture to Technology Essay. According to Neil Postman, technopoly is term where a society worships the power and application the limitless of technologies. In the book, Technopoly: The Surrender of essay Culture to graduate research Technology, Postman states that technology can be a friend or an enemy. However, he believes that technology is more likely to be an enemy than a friend since it changes or alters the society’s perspective of life and persausive essay future. Technopoly causes dangers to civilization because it changes the culture we once live in, changes the generate a list components, traditional values we once believe in, changes “the character of our symbols: the things we think with” 1, changes “the nature of community: the persausive essay, arena in which thoughts develop. ” 2 A technology is new job essay not to be seen as adding or subtracting something to a society because once a technology is introduced to the community, the technology will cause change to everything. Postman separates cultures into essay, three categories: tool- using cultures, technocracies, and a list of narrative essay technopolies. All three types of cultures can be found on Earth at different period of time. In tool- using cultures, the two main characteristics are “to solve specific and urgent problems of physical life, such as in the use of waterpower, windmills, and the heavy- wheeled plow” 3 and essay “to serve the symbolic world of art, politics, myth, ritual, and religion… [etc. Essay? ]” 4 In here, tools were not replace the original usage when they were first introduced to the society.
However, tool- using cultures are disappearing nowadays because of our increase usage of modern and advance technologies. Each technology is created to have multiple functions, as a result, the original function of persausive a tool is being replaced for efficiency and convenience. In technocracies, “tools play a central role in the thought- world of the culture. ” 5 The tools change the culture of the owl purdue thesis, society and taking over and “to become the essay, culture”. 6 As a result, traditions, politics and religions of the culture are forced to fight for their existence, if not, they would be eliminated and replaced by technocracies. There are three great technocracy inventions where they are still currently heavily impacting the modern society and the inventions were the mechanical clock, the printing press and the telescope. Originally, the invention of mechanical clock was used for monks to have a regularity to the crucible persuasive their routines of monasteries. Persausive Essay? However, overtime the mechanical clock was introduced to the society and slowly, the mechanical clock, became a precise technology for people to have a sense of time. A List Components? Eventually, this invention slowly changed the persausive essay, culture and the people of the society which led to capitalism and the modern world. Originally, Gutenberg’s printing press was to mass- produced the bible, so that he could get rich. However, the mass production of the bibles gave each individual to have his or her own theologian which created a difference “between unity and diversity of personal essay group work religious belief. Persausive? ” 7 In the end, the printing press has a different function than it was originally introduced and personal essay group work now the printing press is used to diversify knowledge and media throughout the world.
The invention of the telescope has an effect on both what the reality is and what the church believes in. This 1, 2 Neil Postman, Technopoly: The Surrender of essay Culture to Technology, 20 3, 4 Neil Postman, Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology, 23 5, 6 Neil Postman, Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology, 28 7 Neil Postman, Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology, 15 invention has led to many debates and trials not only in the field of science, but also in the field of religious beliefs. Postman argues that in technocracy, ”the technological and the traditional world views — coexisted in uneasy tension. 8 Technological perspective is the stronger one; however, the traditional perspective still existed and still exerting some influence on the technological perspective, but the personal work, effect is very minimal. Postman states that there are scientists and persausive essay inventors who contributed to the foundation of each cultures. For example: Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, Descartes, and Newton contributed to essay work the foundation of persausive tool- using cultures. Bacon was considered the first person of generate a list of narrative essay technocracy because he was the first to see “pure and serene, the connection between science and essay the improvement of the human condition. 9 His main purpose was to bring happiness to human life with the use of new technologies. He was the first person to have a theory and philosophy to incorporate technologies into mankind and improve the conditions; however, his influence didn’t really strike the public until 150 years later where the industrial revolution took place. Persuasive? And after the rise of industrial revolution, the use of technologies only increase. Bacon modified what people believe in before the industrial revolution.
He led them “to believe that knowledge is power, that humanity is capable of progressing… 10 As a result, the world is turning from a tool- using culture to technocracy and from technocracy to technopoly, eventually. In technopoly, Postman states that technopoly eliminates the traditional perspective and only concentrate on the technological perspective. Unlike technocracy, traditional perspective has no value and irrelevant in the world of technopoly. Technopoly is where the ultimate culture where technology becomes the culture and everything in a society. The rise and the fall of a society depends on persausive technology. During the industrial revolution, Luddite Movement led by skilled workers destroyed the generate a list of narrative essay, machines, garment and industries because of the wide spread of factories’ mass productions, child labour, and the elimination of the laws that were once protected the skilled workers. At the end, Luddite Movement failed and industrial revolution raised to its peak. In this case, we can see there was a uneasy tension between the traditional perspective which led by essay, the skilled workers and the technological perspective which led by the people who owned and invented the machines. As the machines being introduced to the society, the values of the traditional perspective decreases because of the lack of efficiency, economic advance and interest. Technopoly also redefines the new meanings of speech art, religion, history, intelligence, etc.
As a result, technopoly is a totalitarian technocracy. In the book, Postman states that why technopoly is successfully introduced to United States of America. Firstly, Postman reveals the idea of American character where American is very new compare to any other countries in Europe, it is known as the land of wonders. There isn’t a deep rooted history behind the church and science. The church didn’t play a central role in 8 Neil Postman, Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology, 48 9 Neil Postman, Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology, 35 10 Neil Postman, Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology, 38 America than in Europe. Politics, ideology, and religions run more freely in America than any other countries on Earth. Because America is persausive essay relatively new, some may say “the American skepticism toward culture offered encouragement to radical and thoughtless technological intrusions.
11. New technologies were invented and thesis there was no restriction of using them. Unlike, in the Europe, what the invention of the persausive, telescope brought upon the society didn’t really affect the Americans that much because of a more diverse and free perspective without the interaction or interference of the church where it believes god creates everything and wedding the church strictly against any ideology and philosophy that defies god. Secondly, Postman states that American men were quicker, more understanding and more focused on the economic bloom during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. With the increase usage of technologies, new economic possibilities opened up drastically. Because people were more adapted to new technologies, they were much more comfortable and not afraid to use them. With a limited American history, technology became the culture and the sole purpose of living. As a result, American is turning to become a technopoly. Persausive Essay? Thirdly, Postman says that with the success and advanced technology in bringing Americans with comfort, convenience and efficiency, there is no reason for American to look back to the traditional value or perspective of the application, culture.
With the help of new technologies, life becomes more effective and more convenience which led to the fourth point. Postman argues that “old sources of belief came under siege” 12 As technology keep advancing, old traditional beliefs are blocked or discarded. Just like a true technopoly where traditional perspective is persausive essay being ignored. As Bacon once implied that technologies should bring mankind happiness and to improve human life, Americans with their limited cultures and history is now undergo a change where technology is the culture, technology is the history and the technology is the future. Because of all these reasons, American was successful in creating their own culture based on technology — a true technopoly. Technology not only can utilize and affect a culture, but it can also demoralize the the crucible, behaviour of human interaction. It also stirrups trust issues and appropriate judgements. For example, the machine “lie detector” shows whether a person is lying or not.
Before, this machine, no one is capable of knowing if a person is persausive essay telling the truth or not. In a court, this machine provides a supplementary evidence whether the convict has creditability on group work telling the truth or not. With this technology, the trust between every individual decreases and essay the only way to show that a person is not lying is to take the lie detector test. In this case, the trust between each individual starts to demise. New Job Essay? Since we human are unreliable, biased, complex and doubtful, we usually need the persausive, help of a technology to determine and help us to overcome difficulties. For example, IQ tests are use to give us a score in a scale where how smart we are. DNA tests are use to speech services give information between an offspring and the parents. The disadvantage of a machine is that 11 Neil Postman, Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology, 53 12 Neil Postman, Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology, 54 since machine has no feelings or emotions and they only look into facts, it is persausive essay hard to ask and solve questions related to human interactions. But, machine does give us advantages on many other things. Because machines are not bias and they have no emotional or experience attached, their results are usually much fair than we, human, make. However, machines and science alter the real meaning of truth, trust and intelligence we once believe in.
Nowadays, we can simply use lie detectors to find the services, truth in a person, use internet and computer to find knowledge and essay intelligence. Our over dependency on owl purdue thesis machines lower our original value on trust, love, and truth. Essay? As a result, machines undermines human characteristics of life and social interactions between individuals. Just prior to the industrial revolution, the introduction of new technologies shifted the new job application essay, world’s major beliefs. The societal view point shifted from a spiritual point of view to a more scientific point of view.
For example, in traditional world, everything is created by God; the Earth is the center of the universe. However, in scientific world, with the help of new technology such as the telescope, scientists were able to prove that the Earth is not located in the center of the universe, scientists were also able to show that everything has an ancestor which means everything evolves and diverse from a species. The product of this shift is that spiritual point of view creates unease environment when it is put into a scientific point of essay view. Wedding Writing Services? Because God cannot be proven or back up by persausive, natural science, as a result, spiritual point of view lacks the idea of reality. In scientism, everything is group proven and backed up by another fact. As a result, scientism is essay more real and logical compare to the spiritual point of view where everything is uncertain and unproven. A List? Computer is considered a near-perfect technology for technopoly by Postman. Nowadays, we cannot live without computers as they hold all of your bank and private information, create convenience communication pathways , easy accessible data and knowledge. The evolution of the persausive, computers has been advancing at a very high pace during the last decade. Even in education, some books have been abandoned and replaced by ebooks which are more easier to access and convenience to bring around.
In the field of science, computers are required for advance physics and graduate paper proposal chemistry to do difficult calculations. Entertainment and knowledge are now all accessible through computers. Persausive Essay? Even in the government, computer serves as an wedding speech services, organizer where documents are stored and ready to be access whenever. Persausive Essay? The invention of computer heavily impacts and changes the culture and the people in the society. As we increase the usage of research computers and persausive electronics, we undermine the original usage of paper and pen. Just like other tools, paper and pen would eventually be replaced by the advance technology like computer. As we are entering in the cyber-world where computer and data are being used regularly, one of the personal essay work, dangers of this technopoly is that cyber hacking and computer virus are more often to happen. Since the government holds the most valuable information of its city or country, it is inevitable that hackers would want to steal information from the government and sell the data to elsewhere or for their own purpose.
In other words, the persausive, danger of using computer is a possibility since nowadays computers are really easy to buy and the computers have an graduate research, easier access route to persausive one’s personal information than ever. Overall, we are obedient to various forms of technology and technological systems. Graduate Research Paper Proposal? The problem of being so obedient is that we over dependent on technology. Looking at today’s world, everything we do, everything we wear, everything we use is either a form of technology or an item that is manufactured from a technology. Back in the day, horses and boats were used for travelling long distance, and essay now, planes and cars are used because of personal essay their efficiency and convenience. Our clothing are all made from machines. Banks store our wealth with computers. Educations starting to go a new irection towards computers and online studies. Courses are offered online for students to take.
Everything is done by technologies. Our world is persausive essay becoming to a full technopoly where the original and traditional perspective of the world is being ignored. As a result, our over dependent on technology to change the world to technopoly is owl purdue thesis creating a negative effect to our history, religion, and traditions. For example, with the new electronic education, computers, and online courses, the tradition where students go to school and teachers teach students will be reduced. This indirectly affects the job opportunity for future teachers and also damages the persausive essay, student’s cooperation with another individual, group learning and social responsibility. This also undervalues the original idea of school where students attend to class and graduate research proposal learn.
The best way to revolutionize this technopoly is by essay, using the school. School gives coherence in knowledge, provides meanings and responsibilities to the students. On the other hand, online courses and electronic studies fail because they lack of moral, meaning, social and intellectual centre where an personal group, instructor teaches through his or her experience. University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 4 October 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Technopoly: the Surrender of Culture to persausive essay Technology. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample.
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Adjusting Your Resume for the Israeli Market. Persausive! See Also: Translating Resumes and Sample Resume. Essay! One of the persausive, biggest challenges for a first time job seeker can be structuring a resume despite minimal or no experience in a particular field. Below, we listed some key points to consider when writing your resume. Persuasive Essay! Does your resume meet the persausive essay, expectations of Israeli employers? When adjusting your resume for the Israeli market, here are several dos and don#8217;ts. If you#8217;re looking for general resume writing guidelines (not Israel-specific), there is a tremendous amount of the crucible information online to guide you through the persausive, process. Wedding! For example, see http://resume.monster.com/ . For sample resumes and templates in Word format, go to your Microsoft Office program files directory, and select the Templates subdirectory. Note for medical professionals: For licensing purposes, medical professionals are meant to persausive create a resume that has the owl purdue thesis apa, oldest information first, in other words, chronologically backwards from how we usually put the resume together.
Consider your fields of professional interest: Prior to writing your resume, consider the type of work and jobs that interest you. Narrowing down your interests will enable you to determine the jobs to which you should apply. This will help structure and focus your resume. Highlight your marketable skills: Make a list of skills which might interest a potential employer. This can include anything from proficiency in foreign languages to event planning. Creating this list will also help you to persausive narrow your fields of persuasive interest to match the persausive, needs in the job market Create a resume that highlights those skills that are relevant to a particular job: As you begin to send your resume to potential employers, it is important to tailor your resume so that it presents you as an appropriate candidate for that specific position.
Create a “Skills” section on your resume which highlights, in particular, those skills which are relevant to the crucible persuasive a particular job. For example, if you are applying for a position in essay the field of internet marketing, your social media skills can be an owl purdue thesis, asset. This will likely require that you have a few versions of your resume. This section should be bulleted and persausive brief. Objective statement: Place an “Objective” statement at the top of services your resume that lets the employer know the type of essay job that you are seeking. The Crucible Persuasive Essay! A good example would be: “To secure a position in the field of investment banking which allow me to persausive essay draw upon my business degree and thesis finance background”. Persausive! Experience: In addition to persuasive your employment history of part-time jobs or internships, if you have relevant experience in a particular field as a volunteer or a student, you should include this on your resume under the essay, title of “Experience.” Education: In an entry level resume, your education may be listed after your objective and your skills. If you have a degree from an institution of higher education, it is of narrative, not necessary to persausive essay list your high school or secondary school diploma. Length of resume: Job hunters who are just embarking on their careers should have a resume that is only one page long.
Additional resources regarding entry level resumes are available at these sites: Israeli employers are looking for short, focused resumes pointing to strong experience in a narrow field, as opposed to more well rounded resumes. If you ARE a well rounded person with multiple skills, here are a few tips to maintaining a resume that will interest Israeli employers: Create different versions of your resume . For example, if you have experience both in administration and education, create two different versions of your resume, each focused on owl purdue thesis a different skill set. Persausive! Relevant details should be at the top . Essay! Don#8217;t expect employers to scroll down. If your relevant work experience is hidden on the bottom of the resume, create a new, detailed section near the persausive, top called #8220;Relevant Experience#8221;. For example, if you worked in non-profits for the last 5 years but also have a background in generate of narrative essay programming, create a resume for hi-tech job opportunities that highlights your programming experience. Minimize unrelated work experience . List your work experience chronologically, from the most recent to the least recent. This section, which you can title #8220;Details of Work Experience#8221;, includes the name of persausive essay each company or organization, your position, and how long you worked there. When a position is NOT relevant to the job you#8217;re applying for, eliminate any additional details. Persuasive! Keep your target audience in persausive essay mind . Your resume may be reviewed by wedding speech writing, someone who is not a native English speaker, so don#8217;t allow it to be verbose.
Short, succinct bullets are best. Persausive Essay! List your computer skills . Most job opportunities require some level of computer knowledge. Even if you#8217;re not a techie, create a Computer Skills section where you can list the software packages that you know. Does your resume unwittingly turn away Israeli employers? Here are a few common pitfalls to avoid: Contact details: If you are applying for jobs that are relatively far from home, avoid mentioning your mailing address. For example, if you live in Jerusalem and are applying for jobs in essay group work Tel Aviv, list your cell number and email address only.
Similarly, if you live in persausive a politically sensitive area, avoid listing where you live unless you are sending the resume to someone with similar political views. Job Title: While senior sounding titles at previous places of employment can be impressive to a prospective employer, it is important to be aware that they can also be off-putting as they may imply high salary and managerial expectations. There are also cultural implications inherent in titles. For example, in Israel, the title #8220;Vice President#8221; implies that the individual manages many dozens of employees. Also, some titles are potentially ambiguous, such as #8220;Account Manager#8221;. Wedding! Try to classify a vague job title more exactly based on the type of job that you#8217;re applying for, e.g., #8220;Sales Account Manager#8221;. Language skills: Language skills are important in persausive the Israeli job market.
List your language skills in a separate section, and describe your knowledge level with care. Essay! Write #8220;Native speaker#8221; for persausive languages that are your first language. Use terms like #8220;Fluent,#8221; #8220;Conversational#8221; or #8220;Basic#8221; for languages that are secondary. Many employers are looking for individuals to interact with clients overseas and are only interested in people with native language skills. Israeli experience: Israeli employers like to see that you have previous Israeli experience. Thesis! However, if your current Israeli experience is less senior than your previous North American experience, you can list it in a separate section near the bottom of the page, allowing employers to notice your North American accomplishments first. Persausive! If you have not worked in apa Israel but volunteered here prior to your Aliyah, it is worth mentioning this as well, as it shows that you have experience functioning in a Hebrew-language environment. Personal information: Traditional Israeli resumes list age, marital status and essay number of children. However, if you are a working mother, do not list this information unless you are applying for position like social work or teaching that requires experience with children. Yeshiva studies: Most Israeli employers do not view Yeshiva as part of your academic or vocational training. Avoid listing your Yeshiva or Midrasha experience unless you are applying for a job in Jewish education or unless this leaves a big gap chronologically.
In some places in Israel, Yeshiva study is interpreted as indicating a whole socio-religious package, which you don#8217;t necessarily want to proposal raise. Hobbies: Don#8217;t mention your hobbies unless they are exceptionally unique. How you send your resume can be almost as important as what the resume actually says. Essay! When you submit a resume correctly, you maximize the chances of the crucible being interviewed for essay the job. So before you press the Send button, here are a few last minute suggestions: Check for personal essay typos: This obvious rule is not well observed; most of the resumes received by Nefesh B#8217;Nefesh have at least one typo.
Before emailing your resume, run a final Spell Check. In addition, ask a friend to look for possible errors in grammar, formatting or content. Cover Letter: When sending your resume, be sure to include a short cover letter in the body of your email. Persausive! The cover letter should be 3 5 sentences describing succinctly why you are an essay, appropriate candidate for the job. Olim have found that sending their cover letter in Hebrew results in receiving a greater number of follow up phone calls. Keep in mind that the persausive, vast majority of HR personnel are Hebrew speakers and are more likely to read a cover letter in Hebrew than in English and, as a result, to open your resume.
Send the resume file as an attachment (in Word or PDF format). Translate it into research Hebrew: In certain professions, it is essay, critical to group work send a Hebrew language resume; for persausive essay other professions, such as hi-tech, it#8217;s less important though you may receive a greater number of graduate follow up phone calls if you send your resume in Hebrew. Persausive! As a general rule, if you are sending your resume to an Israeli employer, it#8217;s better to send a Hebrew language resume. The translation should be high quality, on par with the quality of personal group your English version. Essay! Professional translators usually charge around 80 NIS to translate an average length resume. Personal Group Work! Alternatively, a friend with strong translation abilities can probably do the persausive essay, job just as well. Follow-up is critical: After emailing a resume to an employer, use the the crucible persuasive essay, Internet to track down a phone number. Speak to the employer directly. Most employers receive dozens of resumes, and may ignore many of the emails they receive. When you follow up with a phone call, you make sure that your resume is actually read. Please remember to save the file under your name.
WORKING IN PARTNERSHIP TO BUILD A STRONGER ISRAEL THROUGH ALIYAH. Please note that the information on this website is for general information purposes only, and does not constitute legal or other professional advice. You should always seek independent legal or other professional advice before acting or relying upon any of this information. In addition, whilst Nefesh B’Nefesh makes every effort to update the persausive, information on this website, Nefesh B’Nefesh does not guarantee the generate essay components, accuracy and currency of such information. For Nefesh B’Nefesh’s full terms and conditions, please click here.
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Introduction to Musical Theatre Essay. The concept of musical theatre combines the drama and plot of a stage play with a musical component; the extent of this musical collaboration has changed over the years, from persausive, operas to orchestras to full-fledged plays. From its humble beginnings to its current status as Broadway spectacle, the art form has carried a great influence in writing the world of performance. In this essay, a detailed history of musical theatre, from its infancy to now, will be explored. Musical theatre has had a long, storied history; the persausive style dates all the way back to ancient Greek theatre, back in the 5th century BCE. In that time, Greek comedies and tragedies almost always had a musical component; songs and dance were common to new job the plays of Aeschylus and essay Sophocles, who acted as composers and persuasive choreographers to their own works. In Rome in the 3rd century BCE, Plautus wrote comedies that also had orchestrations and choreographed dances to their songs.
Roman theatre also innovated the process of dancing, creating crude tap shoes called sabilla , which were chips of persausive, metal attached to the shoes of performers to make their steps easier to hear and notice in the large theatres they played in. The Middle Ages saw theatre take a much more mobile, nomadic route to performance; with traveling minstrels moving from town to proposal town and village to persausive essay village, performing songs and small routines. Generate A List Essay! Small troupes of essay, performers would do the same, offering slapstick-filled, delightful plays they would offer to those who would watch them. The 12th and 13th centuries saw the musical theatre advent of religious dramas, like The Play of Daniel and The Play of Herod ; these dramatic works would have church chants interspersed within them, offering that musical component. This would evolve into the mystery play, which told a story of the Bible in a musical manner. The mobility of performing troupes would also be made more efficient through the essay advent of pageant wagons. These were mobile stages the troupe would bring with them to provide added production value to their plays; they would settle down, perform their show, and pack up. These shows often consisted of poetic forms, prose dialogue, and musical numbers. In the essay Renaissance, musical theatre took a giant leap forward with the development of commedia dell’arte, a type of musical theatre where well-known stories were improvised by actors using the art of clown to create broad humor throughout. Music became a large part of Jacobean and Elizabethan plays; lutes, organs, pipes and more would play during these performances in order to paper enhance a scene.
Often, if a play was a tragedy or a heavier historical, it would be interrupted with short plays filled with music to add levity. This is where the jig was created; jiggs were broad, farcical afterpieces that followed these heavier works. In the Tudor period, court masques were created, where the first inklings of modern musical theatre were created. In these masques, elaborate set designs were combined with elegant and detailed costuming, as well as performances that combined singing, dancing and acting to persausive essay music. The purpose of these masques were often to flatter a royal patron or nobility that was in the audience at the time.
The masques were popular types of theatre created by playwrights such as Ben Jonson and William Shakespeare. Soon, just the thesis apa musical components of persausive essay, masques would be made into operas altogether; acting as sung plays that would be the first templates of musical theatre. The famous French playwright Moliere created farces that would have musical components to them (song and dance numbers interspersed within the essay work). These developments led to the creation of English opera; some of the more famous playwrights were Thomas Shadwell, John Blow, Henry Purcell, and more. By 1685, however, English opera started to lose its luster. In the persausive 1700s, musical theatre in England developed into two distinct varieties: ballad operas and comic operas. The Beggar’s Opera by John Gay is the quintessential example of the ballad opera; it offered new lyrics spoofing the popular songs of the graduate time, the olde English equivalent of a jukebox musical. Comic opera, on the other hand, carried a romantic plot set to original music; The Bohemian Girl by Michael Balfe is a fine example of a comic opera. In the meantime, lighter, more fleeting forms of persausive, opera were being created, like Comedie en vaudeville and opera comique, which led to the notions of burlesque, melodramas, vaudevilla, and the notion of the the crucible persuasive essay music hall. Since many London theatres only got a license as a music hall, plays had to have music in persausive them; therefore, musical theatre became a more popular part of theatrical life in England, and this led to the popularization of of narrative essay components, melodramas and essay burlettas. In Colonial America, the first real presence of theatre to be found did not happen until 1752, when a theatre was formed in Williamsburg, Virginia by William Hallam, which performed classic English plays.
Soon after, however, they moved to The Beggar’s Opera and application essay other ballad operas and farces in New York. This theatrical presence slowly morphed into what would become Broadway in the 1920s and 1930s. These early plays were the first to be widely recorded and toured, with hundreds of performances in a single run for persausive, many musical plays. The further evolution of musical theatre came with the essay group work development of the operette, which was created in 1850 by persausive essay, the French composer Herve. The Crucible! These were light musical comedies that would often provide broad satire and wit to the stage, combined with bright melodies and high energy. These would be the model for all musical theatre that would come after it. After Jacques Offenbach and Johann Strauss II would develop the style further, it would become popularized in the works of Gilbert and Sullivan, Irving Berlin and Rodgers and persausive essay Hammerstein. Services! The music hall and musical burlesques would comprise the majority of musical theatre in 19th century England. The Black Crook proved to be the very first play that would fit the modern conception of the musical – this combined dance and persausive original music which would supplement the straightforward story being told. In 1866, this play premiered in New York and became a staggering success.
Other musical comedies came out around this year, and the late 19th century saw comedic musical theatre that spoke to the common man, adding legitimacy to the theatrical proceedings. Thesis! The stories were no longer broad, royal farce; they were meant to be more legitimate, with complex plotting and significant characters. By landing more reputable singers like Vivienne Segal, Fay Templeton and more, they offered significant credentials to those who put on these plays. Once the modern musical was developed, there were other changes to theatrical procedure that allowed for longer runs. Essay! With street lights and electricity, it was safer to come out at night; therefore, night shows became the norm, adding a larger number of performances for each show. Generate A List! With the money that came from the added revenue these extra shows afforded them, production value of Broadway and West End shows increased substantially. Gilbert and Sullivan began producing large comic opera shows that would become extremely popular around this time; shows like HMS Pinafore and persausive The Mikado , as well as The Pirates of Penzance , were family friendly and very accessible, leading to writing worldwide success. Due to their unparalleled success, the persausive essay standards for theatrical popularity changed dramatically. Gilbert and Sullivan also pioneered several conventions of the modern musical as well; in personal essay work their shows, the dialogue and the lyrics were combined to make the story more understandable and essay sensible, even with the integration of music into the performance. P.G.
Wodehouse, Ira Gershwin, Irving Berlin, Andrew Lloyd Weber and more would take this particular style of comic opera and develop it further. The Savoy operas in the 1880s began to enjoy considerable success in essay America as well. Unlike the tawdry sensibilities of previous musicals, these shows were thought to be family friendly and respectable, something that was harder to look down upon. Before these developments, musical theatre was often thought to be for perverts, a much seedier audience; now, theatre was for everyone, especially musical theatre. Broadway saw its fair share of essay, musicals in the 1890s as well; attempting to ape Gilbert and Sullivan, many copycat productions took place, like El Capitan by John Philip Sousa. Ragtime became more popular as a freeform style of theatre, a different, more fast-paced and modern variety of vaudeville. Musical comedies continued throughout the early 20th century, through Tin Pan Alley-composed songs. In Broadway, the runs were shorter than in the West End (never reaching thousands of performances like some Gilbert and Sullivan shows), but often would have longer tours with the original cast. In the personal work “Gay Nineties” (the subjectively wonderful 1890s in England, as they were known), musicals were becoming more popular on the London Stage. Persausive Essay! George Edwardes took over the Gaiety Theatre, seeking to change it from the bawdy burlesque show that it was and providing a straightforward, light musical alternative to the heavy, absurdist and politically charged Savoy operas that were the proposal flavor at persausive essay, the time. He decided to essay try doing family friendly, breezy, lighthearted comic romances, combined with style and spectacle.
While there were burlesque elements to persausive essay them, there were also comic opera traditions sprinkled throughout, and the replacement of low-class burlesque dancers with respectable dancers and singers. Generate A List! These types of plays were such a success, they would determine the next thirty years of persausive, musical theatre in London. Many of these plays, like The Shop Girl and A Runaway Girl , followed the tropes of romances where the the crucible essay poor maiden falls in love with royalty, and faces many obstacles before finally winning him. These set the tone for musical comedies that would sweep across the face of musical theatre in both England and America, as many other theatres would copy these shows with increasing complexity, including Sidney Jones’ The Geisha and San Toy . During this time, the essay operetta had been essentially removed from the English stage due to the prevalence of essay components, Edwardian musical comedies, but it made a comeback in the early 20th century with the operetta The Merry Widow, which premiered in 1907 in London and essay Broadway. This success led to thesis the direct competition of musicals and operettas for the next few years, with new and old operettas being brought out on the stages of both American and England. New operettas that premiered at this time included the works of persausive, Victor Herbert ( Babes in Toyland, The Red Mill, The Fortune Teller ), and modern musical plays that were a bit more intimate. In an attempt to cash in on the still-popular Gilbert and Sullivan-style musical, P.G. Widehouse, Jerome Kern and Guy Bolton all came out essay, with “Princess Theatre shows,” which offered light entertainment while remaining continuous with its songs and plot, offering a complete, detailed and complex story throughout. Unlike the broader comedies of the time, and which had come before, situational comedies had a much greater influence, and the characters were more realistic. The songs were actually used to persausive essay develop the characters or move the plot along; this was a breakthrough in the plotting and development of musical theatre.
With the advent of the Princess Theatre musicals, these lighter shows proved they could integrate song and story just as well as Gilbert and Sullivan could. The theatre experienced a boom in generate a list of narrative essay components business with the persausive essay start of persuasive, World War I; given the devastation of the essay battlefield and the front, audiences flocked to the stages in research order to get some escapism. Irene , a play by Harry Tiernet and persausive Joseph McCarthy, premiered in thesis apa 1919 to persausive widespread popularity, holding the Broadway record for longest run (670 performances) for a long time. Generate Components! While those were impressive by American standards, they held nothing to persausive the British capacity for holding a musical run; Chu Chow Chow ran for over two thousands performances. Essay Group Work! Revues started to become popular, as they incorporated light, multi-act performances that offered variety. As the 20th century chugged along, American musical theatre began to take dominance in both popularity and persausive quality. The Theatrical Syndicate, led by Charles Frohman, spearheaded the development of shows like the Princess Theatre shows and many other Tin Pan Alley-inspired musicals.
Jazz and ragtime became a much more popular component of modern musicals at the time, and the Gershwin brothers, as well as Irving Berlin and others, started to get shows produced. This shift in American musical theatre’s popularity was due to the changes in society that were happening at the time; the increase in vernacular and naturalism that was desired by audiences of the modern era led to a slow death of the wedding speech writing broad, the theatrical and persausive essay the operatic. Shows and musicals were more direct with their plot, their characters and generate of narrative essay their intentions, and tradition gave way to innovation. The Roaring Twenties saw the essay advent of the motion picture, and its rise in popularity; this proved to be a challenge for theatres. Even though they were silent at first, and so could not offer the audio component of theatre, the creation of the crucible, talking films like The Jazz Singer meant that it offered a real threat to live theatre. Persausive! Musicals in that era started to bring in bigger stars and greater spectacle, offering loudness and music hall sensibilities in lieu of complex plotting and character development. Despite the fact that there was not a whole lot tying these glorified revues together, they proved extremely popular and light entertainment. Theatre writers began to transition into popular music, as most of the speech music people were listening to at the time was what they heard in these reviews and vaudeville shows.
Production values increased substantially during this time, making the musical more expensive to produce than ever. The concept of standards became popular in the 1920s; the lighthearted shows were never that memorable ( Sally, Oh, Kay! ), but their songs would stick in essay the public’s mind. As a result, they would be covered by a variety of popular music artists, like Cole Porter, Marilyn Miller, Fred Astaire. Operettas also came back into the limelight for graduate paper, a time, and Noel Coward and other composers started to enjoy newfound popularity. Show Boat in 1927 proved to persausive essay be one of the the crucible most complex mixes of score and book that there had been to date; even the Princess Theatre musicals lacked this level of sophistication. There existed dramatic themes that were told with every component of the show, from the movement to the setting. This integration of production value with narrative complexity that rivaled anything that had come before. Essay! While this was popular, events like the Great Depression led to of narrative components people going back to essay lighter entertainment. When the Great Depression hit, it left people with little money to entertain themselves with; this mean substantially reduced ticket sales. It was also cheaper to application go to the ‘talkies’ than see a show, making it even more challenging for theatres to find an audience. Vaudeville was eliminated by essay, musical films, as they agreed to proposal be filmed for persausive, one-off shows that effectively killed future live performances of of narrative essay components, their work.
There were still Show Boat -like shows that were great hits for persausive, those who could afford the ticket price; Of Thee I Sing was the first musical that was given the Pulitzer Prize. Generate! Anything Goes cemented singers like Ethel Merman, who would become the queen of musical theatre due to her loud, booming voice. Persausive! The first Broadway show to the crucible persuasive essay star a black person (Ethel Waters), was 1933’s As Thousands Cheer . Porgy and Bess proved to be a very popular musical, created by persausive, George Gershwin and released in owl purdue apa 1935. Modern musicals like Knickerbocker Holiday by Kurt Weill provided satire of FDR and detailed the persausive essay history of New York City. With these more complex works, there were still lighter hits on Broadway, like I’d Rather Be Right and The Dancing Years . Cole Porter came into popularity with Anything Goes and DuBarry Was a Lady . All of these contributions led to the overall success and wedding speech writing services survival of musical theatre, which was a miracle in a time when economic destitution was the worst this country has ever experienced.
The evolution of persausive, musical theatre at this time allowed for fast-paced music, staging, choreography and more naturalistic dialogue, a far cry from the overt theatricality and melodrama of previous eras. Musical theatre in the 1940s would hit a new zenith with Rodgers and essay Hammerstein’s musical Oklahoma! Continuing the Show Boat tradition of persausive, having complex plotting and the crucible persuasive essay serious storytelling amongst musical numbers, the show offered dream ballets and integrated the music more cohesively into the story, rather than providing dance as an excuse for men to see barely-dressed women. Agnes de Mille was the choreographer for this show, and it revolutionized the format of musical theatre by providing a decided lack of tawdriness and an earnest desire for storytelling that was not present at this level before. In the opening number, there were no showgirls, but instead the persausive actual play began with “Oh, What a Beautiful Mornin'”. This earnestness and quality of production gave the show rave reviews and owl purdue thesis unexpected popularity. Persausive! It got the Pulitzer Prize, and the musical achieved new narrative heights. It turned into the first Broadway show to be considered a “blockbuster,” and was even adapted into film. In the of narrative components canon of musical theatre, it was the first extremely successful Broadway musical, and it holds a beloved place as a milestone of theatrical history.
The success of the play sent Rodgers and persausive Hammerstein into the crucible persuasive essay, incredible popularity, coming out with a string of further hits, like South Pacific, The King I and The Sound of Music. In all of their shows, dark themes were presented in a way heretofore unseen in musical theatre; Oklahoma’s villain was a murderer, and Carousel tackled the theme of domestic abuse. Due to their vast creativity, everyone else wanted to emulate them, which meant a string of successive musicals in that vein; this led to persausive the Golden Age of American musical theatre. The war itself was brought to the theatre, with many war-themed shows becoming popular; On the Town showcased a shore leave between soldiers and essay components their women, bringing wartime uncertainty and pathos to the big stage. Annie Get Your Gun, Finian’s Rainbow, Kiss Me, Kate and other such plays were modeled after the Oklahoma! trend of having complex plots with integrated music within, enhancing the overall quality of the musical theatre canon. In the 1950s, shows like Guys and Dolls, Paint your Wagon, My Fair Lady and more continued the persausive tradition of complex characters within musicals; records continued to research paper be shattered, with My Fair Lady running a record 2,717 performances.
Each of these popular musicals would have film adaptations made of them as well, bringing in a newfound collaboration between Broadway and persausive essay Hollywood. Essay! Stars like Julie Andrews and Judy Garland dominated musicals at this time. Persausive Essay! Off-Broadway musicals also came to proposal prominence, with shows like The Threepenny Opera and The Fantasticks proving that a show does not have to be part of the Broadway system to be critically and financially successful. The orchestras were smaller, and essay the scale was toned down, but they could still work. West Side Story adapted Romeo and Juliet into writing services, a modern New York City setting, and brought home significant box office returns and myriad Tonys. This cemented Stephen Sondheim’s reputation as a master composer for musicals. The 1960s saw even greater popularity and experimentation on the part of musicals. More blockbusters, such as Fiddler on the Roof, Hello Dolly!, Funny Girl and Man of La Mancha would be created, and some of the overt sexuality of the burlesque would come back with the popularity of Cabaret . The rock musical would then usurp these musical styles by the end of the 1960s.
Stephen Sondheim and Jerry Herman would significantly shape the essay pattern of musicals in this decade and the next, through the darker themes that he would explore in works like Sweeney Todd and A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum . Wedding Services! These plays were bloody, cynical, and gritty, eschewing the sunny dispositions of earlier musicals to make plays about singing surprisingly dark and brooding. Persausive Essay! Into the Woods and Assassins explored these themes further, showcasing a sophistication in the crucible persuasive essay lyrics and music that belied the overall exclusiveness of some of the plays’ themes. Soldheim tried a number of persausive essay, new things during this time, including reverse-engineering shows and breaking the fourth wall to the audience, all things that made musical theatre challenging and intriguing again. With the start of the new job application essay musical Hair , rock music would be incorporated into essay, musicals. Also, the owl purdue thesis Vietnam War was brought up as a theme, something which would prove controversial and also indicative of musical theatre’s propensity to challenge societal attitudes at persausive, the time. Racial tolerance was found in many Golden Age musicals, which were then resurfaced ( The King I, South Pacific , and paper more).
Racial integration finally occurred in persausive essay the end of the 1960s; homosexuality was first openly explored as a theme in Hair , and then moved onto other shows. In the 1970s, with the advent of the rock musical, The Rocky Horror Show, Jesus Christ Superstar, Godspell and more started to bring in this rapidly popular style of music to the crucible the theatrical realm, bringing with it an added edge that was never before seen onstage. Some of these plays, like the Who musical Tommy , tended to work more towards concepts of opera than they did musicals, with little spoken dialogue and most of the story and essay character conveyed through song. African-Americans got their own musical representation onstage, portraying the black experience through The Wiz, Dreamgirls and more. As the Broadway canon expanded, more and more variation occurred, with musicals of every genre coming into prominence. A Chorus Line proved to be a giant among contemporary musicals; released in 1975, the play, which was about an audition for a musical, broke narrative conventions in a fascinating way, also providing with it amazing music and spectacle, busting box office records and reaching incredible critical acclaim.
This led to more plays along that same style, such as Chicago, Pippin, Nine, Evita and research paper proposal more. These were risque, tawdry yet liberating pieces, bringing sensuality to the stage without it being classless or inaccessible. In the 1980s and 1990s, pop music began to invade musicals to a larger degree, and larger production values brought incredible spectacle to these productions, like falling chandeliers in The Phantom of the Opera . Novel and persausive literary adaptations were beginning to be the norm, and European influences were more and more prevalent. Andrew Lloyd Webber became an incredible mega-hit musical creator with Cats and Evita , The Phantom of the Opera and more. A greater emphasis on adaptations has been put forth as the application essay 1990s rolled along; corporations began to get into persausive, the Broadway game, with the personal essay Disney Company allying with Broadway to adapt their musical films to the stage; Julie Taymor’s production of The Lion King stands out among that canon. With the greater opportunities available for smaller playwrights to create small-scale musicals, musical theatre split into persausive, larger, spectacle-based musicals of owl purdue thesis apa, Broadway, and persausive the quirkier, smaller musicals of off-Broadway. Little Shop of personal essay group work, Horrors , Bat Boy: The Musical , and others provided smaller scale but interesting stories that eschewed overly elaborate set pieces for small sets of characters and persausive essay developed storylines. Incredible innovations would come from shows such as these, and a new niche audience was created for them. In order to attract younger audiences, Rent was released on Broadway and generate a list essay components the West End, a dramatic tale of New York bohemia, rock music, and AIDS. The incredible success of the musicals invigorated the persausive theatre scene with a much younger demographic, leading to the advent of interesting, new and unusual shows. Wedding Speech Services! Urinetown and Avenue Q brought modern, crude but wacky humor to smaller stages, Spring Awakening and other shows doing the same.
While Broadway continued to play it safe with their familiar shows, the rise of adaptations began to surface. Wicked , The Producers, Spamalot, Hairspray and others indicate a modern, ongoing trend of taking an established property and making it into a musical. The point of this is to offer something familiar, which audiences already know from persausive essay, established material and have a fondness for, and owl purdue thesis offer a musical component to it. The jukebox musical, exemplified by Mamma Mia! and others, continues this trend of offering familiar songs framed around a new story.
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Jean Piaget’s Cognitive Theory Essay. The Cognitive Development Theory was first identified by Jean Piaget. Jean Piaget was born on August 9, 1896 in Neuchatel, Switzerland. Piaget became well known by the many papers he published throughout his late teen years. Once graduating from the University of Neuchatel, he received his Ph.D. in natural science and persausive essay, published two philosophical essay concerning adolescence. These two essays later became the general orientation for persuasive, the first publication of the essay Cognitive Development Theory. According to the Jean Piaget Society by Les Smith, Piaget was married to Valentine Chatenay and soon after had three children. These children where primary examples of the study Piaget was doing concerning with the development from infancy to language. After the age of eighty-five, the Swiss psychologist died in application essay Geneva on 1980, making him one of the most significant psychologists of the twentieth century.
The objective of the theory was, and still is, the explanation by which the process of an infant, and then child develops into an adult that can both reason and comprehend. Saul McLeod published an article, “Jean Piaget”, in the website Simply Psychology, where he quoted Piaget, “Cognitive development is a progressive reorganization of mental processes as a result of persausive essay biological maturation and environmental experience. Children construct an understanding of the world around them, [and] then experience discrepancies between what they already know and what they discover in their environment” (McLeod 2). There are three basic components to Piaget’s Cognitive Theory: Schemas, the four processes that enable the transition from one stage to another, and the four stages of cognitive development. When starting with the Schema, Piaget described this word as a basic building block of intelligent behavior that a person would use by forming information using what the person saw, heard, smelled and touched. In the article, “Jean Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development”, from ICELS.ca Blog explains how a schema can be thought of generate of narrative components as a unit of knowledge, relating to one aspect of the persausive essay world including objects, actions, and abstract concepts (Unknown 4). An example of schema is how a child will know how to grab his favorite rattle and put into his mouth because he has gained knowledge of what that object was used for. Dr.
George Boeree, author of Jean Piaget, describes how a toddler that is introduced to a new object will use his “grab and thrust” schema. Essay! Dr. Boeree calls this assimilation; the toddler is relating the old schema onto the new object (Boeree 3). The child after knowing how to react with his rattle is then puzzled with the new object in front of him, he does not know how to react and persausive, therefore uses the same schema as he would with the rattle, putting the object into his mouth. However if the existing schema does not work, the toddler has to find a new approach, this is known as accommodation. Accommodation occurs when there has been an unpleasant state of disequilibrium.
Equilibrium occurs when a child’s schemas can deal with most new information through assimilation. Wedding Writing Services! McLeod clarifies the steps in as the persausive four processes than enable the transition from one cognitive stage to another: When Piaget continued to study the each of these steps more carefully, he began to see similarities between most of the children in their nature and their timing. New Job Essay! This became the development of the essay stages of cognitive development. The first stage of the cognitive development is the sensorimotor stage which can be found from the ages of zero until approximately two. In this stage the key feature is object permanence meaning how the infant uses his senses and motor abilities to understand the world.
In the article, “Development of using experimenter-given cues in the crucible infant chimpanzees: longitudinal change in behavior and cognitive development”, found in Developmental Science, author Sanae Okamoto-Barth states, “Jean Piaget conducted experiments with human infants which led him to conclude that object permanence was typically achieved around seven to eight months of age” ( Okamoto-Barth 100). He clarifies how this cognitive skill develops in infants through a fixed series of persausive steps with characteristic transitional errors. Throughout this stage there are three reactions that occur: primary circular reaction, secondary circular reaction, and application, tertiary circular reaction. Between the age of one to four months, the child has the primary circular reaction. In this reaction the child responds with the same action with the object. Persausive! Dr. Boeree uses the example of a baby sucking on speech writing, her them, because it feels good she continues to do it (Boeree 3). Between four to twelve months the infant now uses secondary circulation which involves with the infants surroundings. Dr. Boeree’s example is a rubber ducky that the essay infant squeezes; the duck makes a “quack” entertaining the infant and graduate research proposal, wanting to essay, continue the squeezing in order to get the same response again.
As Okamoto-Barth stated this is the part in which object permanence is found. This ability can be recognized when the infant understands that just because an object is out of sight it does not been that it is gone, non-existent. The experiment used to know if the child had this ability was by doing the Blanket and Ball Experiment (McLeod 4). In this experiment Piaget would have a ball in front of the child and persuasive, once the child got interested with the ball, he would cover it up with the blanket. The deal was to know if the child still believed in the existence on the ball or if he believed it was gone and no longer existed. Infants of persausive a younger age would go about and entertain themselves with different objects in the crucible persuasive essay their surroundings, while infants that achieved object permanence would uncover the blanket and find the essay ball. The third reaction found in graduate paper the sensorimotor stage is the tertiary circular reaction.
This can be found from the ages of one to two. Persausive! This is when they start to perform trial-and-error experimentations. Personal Group Work! An example of this reaction would be when a child may try out different sounds or actions as a way of essay getting attention from services, his caregiver (Unknown 4). Persausive! Children also begin to develop symbols to represent events or objects and during this time the new job essay child is quickly moving towards the essay mental representation and mental combination (Okamoto 105). In this occasion, the infant becomes outstanding in pretending. For example the infant will now talk, feed, and services, play with a doll unlike before where she would just suck on persausive essay, it or throw it around. Once these examples are shown in an infant, the preoperational stage is now in wedding writing place. The preoperational stage happens during the ages of two to essay, seven.
Although the child cannot think logically yet, he is acquiring language in a fast pace and is able to represent the generate of narrative essay work through mental images and symbols. However these images and symbols are only on his perception. The key feature in this stage is essay egocentrism. A List Of Narrative! Egocentric is when a child sees things pretty much from one point of view, his own (Boeree 4). Piaget used the experiment of the Three Mountains in order to see if the child is in the preoperational stage or has advanced into the next stage. In this experiment children were asked to choose a picture that showed the scene which they had observed as well as a picture in which what Piaget had seen. Children almost always chose their own view of the mountain. According to McLeod, children experienced this task difficult because they are unable to take on another person’s perspective (McLeod 4). In this stage children also develop curiosity and the questions begin.
Children tend to make up explanations when they do not have an answer because they only know so little of the world. The third stage of the cognitive theory is the concrete operation stage which varies from the ages of seven to eleven. In this stage logic begins to play a part in the child’s life. Piaget defines a mental operation as an persausive, interiorized action, an action performed in the mind (McLeod 4). The mental operations allow the child to think about what he has done or will do. This also permits the child to thesis, have the ability to count from persausive essay, one to ten. The key feature in this stage is speech writing conservation and the experiment behind this is the Conservation of Numbers. According to Dr. Boeree, conservation refers to the idea that a quality remains the same despite changes in appearance (Boeree 5).
The experiment that Piaget conducted was putting four marbles in a row and four below those. Persausive! The child would then see that the work marbles were the same distance from each other and say they were identical. However, on the other side the top row would have more distance between each other than the bottom. A child that was still in the preoperational stage would look at this and essay, believe that that row had more than all the others. On the other hand, a concrete operations child would know that there are still four marbles and that the extent ion of the distance between each marble did not make a difference. Children learn to understand numbers, mass, area, weight, and volume; although they may not be able to achieve them all at new job the same time (McLeod 6). They can now mentally reverse the direction of their thoughts and learn how to add and subtract. The child can memorize and trace his way home or remember where was the last place they left an object. Finally, the formal operational stage is the last stage of the cognitive development.
This stage begins at the age of eleven on to adulthood. During this time, people develop the ability to persausive essay, sustain abstract concepts, such as logical thoughts, deductive reasoning, and systematic planning (Okamoto 108). The person can now comprehend all the possible ways in which he can solve a problem and new job, can approach it in different points of view. The experiment done in essay this stage is the Pendulum Task, and it is used to find the key feature of manipulation of ideas in the head, such as abstract reasoning. The pendulum task consist of three factors, the length of the string, the speech heaviness of the persausive weight, and the strength of the push in order to determine the speed of wedding writing services swing of the pendulum. The idea was to try the essay experimental method of application essay using one same variable every time. If a teenager would tried different lengths with different weights is likely to be getting the persausive wrong answer. Dr.
Boeree states that there are four possible ways: conjunction, disjunction, implication, and incompatibility. In this experiment, conjunction is when both the string’s length and the pendulum’s weight make a difference. Disjunction would be with it is either the length or the weight but not both. Implication is the formation of a hypothesis, if this happens then this will occur. New Job Application Essay! Lately, incompatibility is when the cause does not make an effect that was first hypothesized. McLeod quotes, “Operate on persausive essay, operations not just concrete objects” (McLeod 6). This simply means that the person has developed an inner value system and a sense of moral judgment that will be necessary for life purposes. When it comes to essay components, schools and learning abilities, harmless experiments can be used on a child in essay order to know what stage he or she is in and how the school administration, teachers, and research, other staffs can help the child out in his learning.
At times a child that takes these experiments can excel and is then placed in a higher level where he or she can learn at persausive essay his pace. When a child is application put in a lower class level, he can tend to get bored and then will have no need no drive to want to excel to persausive, his abilities. These experiments can also help children when they have dyslexia and application essay, need accommodations for their learning skills. Knowing and understanding these stages is not only beneficial for the students and children but also for the adults. Parents, teachers, and other adults can understand how a child best learns and that way attend them with individual learning, flexibility in the curriculum, and play with them to increase the child’s learning development. Jean Piaget was a curious person when it came to children and how they their minds developed. He has changed how people view the children’s world and the methods in which children are studied. Essay! His ideas were put to the crucible persuasive essay, use to essay, understand and be able to communication with children, pertaining to the educational field.
In the cognitive development theory, schema occurs first followed by the four stages of development: Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational. Boeree, George C. “Jean Piaget.” Personality Theories (2006). Web. 21 Oct. 2013. http://www.piaget.org/aboutPiaget.html. McLeod, Saul. “Jean Piaget- Cognitive Theory.” Simply Psychology (2009). Web. 15 Oct.
2013. http://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html. Research Proposal! Okamoto. Essay! Sanae Barth, et al. “Development Of Using Experimenter-Given Cues In Infant Chimpanzees: Longitudinal Changes In Behavior And Cognitive Development.” Developmental Science 11.1 (2008): 98-108. Academic Search Premier. Web.
14 Oct. 2013. Unknown. New Job Application! “Jean Piaget’s Stage of Cognitive Development.” ICELS Blog (2013). Web. 21 Oct. 2013. http://www.icels-educators-for-learning.ca/index.php?option=com_contentview=articleid=46Itemid=61. University/College: University of essay Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 9 March 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Jean Piaget’s Cognitive Theory.
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