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How to essay ut, write your resume for a job in entry level administrative letter International Development. For want of a proper chair, Jessica sits on the old radiator in statement of purpose essay my office, looking out at the still bare trees and the green grass we’re all hoping is heralding spring. Enquiry? We are talking about a new job opportunity for her, and she’s hesitating. “I’m just not sure if I’m qualified for it,” she tells me. We met for the first time in essay September; she was looking for a way – any way – to get her foot in the door of the NGO world, and I was looking for an intern for my project. She ended up joining another team at the organisation, in a part-time administrative role, and funding venture soon became a familiar face at the office. “I took this job because I just wanted to get my foot in the door. But I can do more than this. Statement Of Purpose Ut? I’m not meant to just be doing admin work.”
My heart goes out to her; Jessica should not be in this situation. She’s smart, empathetic, speaks four languages, and has worked in three countries. I shake my head, trying to reassure her that she is, indeed, qualified for the job, and churchill colorado essay she should apply for it anyway. Essay Ut? “My friend works there, I can ask him to keep an eye out for on hume's enquiry your application. And anyway, you’re already qualified for the job.” She doesn’t believe me. “I think I have quite a bit of experience, but it seems like it’s not enough, and I’m a bit surprised and a bit disappointed. I’ve done everything I could, I’ve gone abroad, I’ve done internships.” Sheryl Sandberg, COO of statement ut, Facebook, writes about this in her book Lean In: “Men apply for a job when they meet only 60% of the qualifications, but women apply only if they meet 100% of them.” I remember doing this too. A few years ago, fresh from a breakup with a guy I loved, I was unemployed, broken-hearted, and back to essay on description of a room, living with my parents. My Instagram stayed pretty: snapshots of the of purpose orchid show in downtown Miami, blue skies, lots of palm trees, but my life felt like one big uncoordinated mess of define, job applications, late night Netflix binges, and dinner every night with my parents, when we’d all skirt around that untouchable question, “So what are you going to do?”
I’d drag myself out of bed every morning for months on end only to start and end the day in statement ut front of the computer, browsing job postings in essay on description of a room Nicaragua, Rwanda, Paris, Mumbai, all of which seemed to require ten years of experience and five thousand other qualifications. Most of the time, I was so intimidated, I didn’t even apply. And when I did apply, every time I found something that seemed perfect for me, I didn’t even get called for an interview. Then I’d feel really disappointed, grumpily wondering why they couldn’t just send a brief message to say, “Sorry, it’s not you this time. Statement Of Purpose Ut? » After seventeen consecutive rejections, I realized that I had to venture essay, a) widen my search and b) make my resume show what I was capable of doing. Essay Ut? Up until then, I had only closing paragraph applied to of purpose essay, jobs I was certain I could do; I began to explore opportunities that offered new levels of responsibility and learning, and adjusted my resume to show my track record of success and passion for development, rather than a grocery list of jobs I’d once had. Rejections gave way to requests for interviews, and entry level legal administrative soon, I was picking between job offers. But because I’d put in so many applications, requests for interviews continued to flood my inbox, even after I’d already accepted a plum offer in Haiti and was no longer in the market for jobs. I’d roll over in bed at six in essay ut the morning, getting ready to wake up, pick up the Blackberry provided to me, and scroll through my email; beneath a couple of updates from essay of a room friends and my mom, there were five messages asking when I was available for a Skype interview, and of purpose what about Wednesday at 10 a.m. Pacific?
And I thought to myself, why not have fun with this? So once I got fed up with my job in define lens Port-au-Prince, I politely accepted one of the many interview requests in statement of purpose essay my email. Two months later, I walked into colorado, a new position in Germany, smiling. “We’re so happy to have you here,” they told me. “Me too,” I nodded, with a grin. Since that horrible Florida winter, I haven’t been unemployed, not even for statement a weekend. I’ve jumped from one wonderful NGO to another, learnt new skills, become a lot better with Excel, and taken on more responsibility, to my current role managing a seven-million-dollar project in four countries. Listening to Jessica, I think about that time I was in a job-hunting frenzy; it seems so long ago.
After our conversation ends, I get back to work, and open up Outlook to check my work email. Jessica has sent me her resume, asking if I could take a look. Here’s what I told her: I double-clicked on the file in Jessica’s email, and out tumbled nine pages of churchill colorado essay, information, with several different colours and fonts. One is sufficient, and all that most hiring managers have time for. 2. Use a traditional format. Because she had worked in advertising before, Jessica had used a lot of the graphic design skills she had to illustrate her skills and experience, but that confused me rather than making it clear what she was good at. Hiring managers see so many resumes; nontraditional formats can be difficult to decode. Keep it simple with your name and contact information at essay, the top; then list only the work experience that is pertinent to that particular position for which you are applying. Earlier that day, we were speaking in French with a French colleague, and while I was chatting with a Mexican friend, Jessica walked in and joined in the conversation in Spanish.
I knew she could speak several languages, including German and essay paragraph English, but they were buried under lots of of purpose ut, other information on her CV. On Description Of A? In international organisations, because you’re constantly interacting with people from all over the world, the ability to speak to stakeholders in statement essay their own language, or a common lingua franca, is invaluable. Put the churchill languages you speak at the very top of your CV. The first three pages of Jessica’s CV talked about her values and skills, but I still kept wondering, where does she want to go with this? A resume is not a log of every job you’ve ever had, it’s a marketing document. Using your previous experience, tell the story of a young professional with a goal to create impact through a particular career trajectory. Under “Work experience”, Jessica had listed the organisations for which she had worked, and the tasks she had completed for them in blocks of text. Statement Of Purpose? I got a little lost, not sure what to focus on. Use bullets to talk only about what’s relevant to the kind of work you want to do, and highlight your accomplishments rather than explaining the day-to-day tasks you were expected to do. Administrative Assistant Cover? It will show your value and the fact that you are impactful to the team and statement of purpose essay the organisation.
“Flexible and dedicated work ethic with great ability to self-initiate and bring multiple projects to completion under pressure,” read one line on page three, and maybe it’s true for Jessica, but how many hundreds of thousands of people out there say they are flexible self-starters and can work under pressure? Instead, under “Experience”, talk about how you wrote a 5000 word report in one month, or drafted a one-year marketing plan with a $1000 budget. 7. The only personal information you need is your name, email address, and telephone number. On page one, Jessica had listed her date of essay, birth, age, height, weight, place of birth…this is a job application, not an online dating profile. Stick to what’s absolutely necessary in order for the organization to ut, contact you for essay paragraph an interview, and cut out the statement of purpose rest. 8. Education at the bottom, unless you have a PhD. This is how LinkedIn does it, and you should, too, because in colorado essay the professional world, your work experience matters more than the title of your degree. 9. Achievements matter more than timelines. Fully thirty per cent of the page space of Jessica’s resume is statement of purpose essay dedicated to dates and timelines.
But I’m not looking at those; I’m trying to find out what she has accomplished in the last couple of years, and if any of it is interesting. Entry Legal Administrative Letter? It doesn’t matter that you spent two years working on a project if all you did was send emails all day long. Focus on what you did to drive impact, not how long you spent doing it. Before leaving the office, I run into of purpose essay ut, Jessica near the printing machine, a cappuccino in her hand. “I sent you my CV, did you see it?” she asks. “Yes!
But I’m still not sure what you really want to do,” I tell her, fumbling with the keys to my bicycle parked outside. “You’re right,” she says, “I know that I want to closing, do work I’m passionate about. And work for of purpose essay ut an organization whose work really helps people.” 10. Entry Level Legal? Start with the end in mind. Working in development is of purpose no longer confined to the Peace Corps, or working as an economist on growth policy. NGOs and international organisations now look for funding a business many of same skills as in other industries, including Jessica’s background in design work and event management. Pick the kind of position and job title you want to have, and tailor your resume show how you already know (at least 65%) how to ut, do that role’s expected skills and tasks.
You might not end up with that exact job, but you’ll come close enough to on hume's, get your foot in the door and start your career in statement of purpose essay ut international development. Top photo via Austin Kleon, photo in colorado Haiti by my friend Lisa Palmer. I have always just put how flexible I am and never really shown it. I will certainly start giving a lil more detail on that. And I don’t have much professional experience yet so most of what’s on statement, my resume is my academic background. But I guess that’s ok for now. @Hepsibah, think of your “experience” as every single project you’ve worked on, every group you’ve been in, and every activity you’ve participated in. And then you’ll have more than you think #128578; This is such an interesting and helpful read! I usually would list all the tasks of every job and my resume would be pages and pages so it’s great to know that employers are only looking for the highlights.
Thank you very much for this useful article. Colorado? It is very true, I tend to apply only when I meet at least 70% of the requirements but that’s possibly not the right approach. I shortened my CV to one page and my 4 foreign languages are now much more visible! This is golden advice! Job hunting can be so daunting when done wrong!
I’ve always been an advocate of the one-page CV, but now I realize that I might have told more than showed many times, and insisted on useless timelines… Thanks for the tips and of purpose ut all the best to closing paragraph, job hunters around here! Beautifully written. Well done. I definitely saved this page for when I next apply for a job application. Ut? You are absolutely right about thinking about the end result when applying for a job, and demonstrating that we are the role we are applying for. I loved how you put your personal experience into this article, which I am sure a lot of define critical lens essay, us can connect with. Can I ask how is of purpose it that you all of a sudden received multiple interview offers out essay on description, of the statement essay blue, where you were actually able to choose and pick from. Essays Enquiry? Was it just luck?
Brilliant, continue writing. Thanks Clarisse! So glad you liked it. “Out of the blue” haha. Thing is, I had applied for over 20 different jobs around the world. Once you get the ingredients and process right, you are always baking a delicious cake. Therefore, though I was surprised at the time, after several years of using these strategies, I’ve realised it’s nothing more than a) being consistent and essay ut b) applying the right strategies. Great article. Essays On Hume's? I think it summarizes everything that is ut important in a CV in order to be successful. Also, it was a good idea to bring an essay example, it brings the story closer to people who are also looking for a job.
Thank you for your wisdom. This just inspired me to of purpose essay, overhaul my CV and have the courage to apply for jobs that will not only be challenging but will also broaden my skill set! Thanks so much for venture writing this post. Statement Of Purpose Essay Ut? I’m currently in somewhat of a professional slump and this post has made me feel a bit better about the situation, as well as motivate me to work on my CV a bit more, as I realise that it may be part of the problem. My main problem is essays enquiry keeping it short – it just seems impossible to keep to one page.
I’ve done a few short-term consultancies recently and of purpose essay ut those take up a lot of space – any idea of how to manage that? Hi Juliette, so glad this article was a little bright spot for you. One easy tip: read your CV out loud, and whatever sounds superfluous, take out. Or, delete everything and start from define scratch, stopping when it goes over one page. For Consultancies, focus ONLY on what your deliverables were (refer to your TOR, which itself should not be much more than one page). Malaika, your article spoke about my own experience of identifying opportunities, applying for statement of purpose essay ut them and then be fed the politely worded rejection letters. After 5 months I am desperate to break this cycle.
My Covering letter has bullet points to match the requirements of the define critical position with my experience. CV is in two pages with core competences mentioned clearly along with a professional summary. I try my best to align the statement of purpose ut job specification with the CV/Covering Letter by customising both. However, not even an interview call thus far. Anyone who knows me, or has worked with me, vouches for my ability to see things through successfully. However, what am I doing wrong that it is not getting through my paperwork? What kind of a person do I come across through my application? Hey and churchill colorado thank you sooo much for statement a good article! I’d like to have your input on one of your statesments. Define Lens Essay? “8. Education at statement, the bottom, unless you have a PhD.”. I graduated a year ago and my only work experience consists of level legal administrative assistant, part time jobs during my studies, like hotels and sales.
In my eyes this experience is not relevant, so I always list my educational background first. I argue that the essay ut fact that I’ve studied in three countries should somehow reflect my intrest in the world and ability to adapt to new enviroments. What is closing your input on this? Also, during my studies, I was on statement essay ut, the board for a mid-size studentorganization and been voluenteering for a major NGO for legal assistant cover letter three years. Statement Of Purpose Ut? In my current resume I’ve listed this experience under “Volunteering and other” – is churchill colorado that a smart thing or should I move in to the “work experience” bracket? Thanks again! I really enjoyed reading your post and statement of purpose essay it gave me some new ideas and motivation #128578; @IMP, you want to think, how can I make it MOST SIMPLE for the reader to understand what I’ve done? Do not split your experience. You can learn skills even if you are not being paid. Essentially, you’ve had three years of exposure to the inside of an NGO, that’s good stuff #128578; your education in 3 countries is nice, but that is common in the development sector so it does not make you stand out.
Thank you for writing this article. It will definitely help me with tailoring my resume as well as my cover letter. Like you mentioned, my resume should be a marketing tool to a business, advertise myself not my autobiography. Once again, thank you for statement of purpose essay taking time to write this article. I look forward to reading more on how to tailor my resume and cover letter (s) when deciding to lens essay, apply for a position with a specific company. Persuasion and creativity to present your self and communicate your skills effectively are key in of purpose the race for getting into development work. Very useful post and tips, thanks! I love the Ask a Manager blog for resume advice!
She is a committed advocate of the 1-2 page format. This is one of the most useful posts I have read in a while. I felt like I was reading my own story, because I am in essay room that period of time when I only statement of purpose essay ut have rejections and sometimes I don’t know if my experience will be enough… After ten years working as a lawyer, I have decided to start over and despite all those rejections and closing paragraph all those who don’t really understand why I want to leave behind my “successful” career in essay ut a law firm, I am still positive about future. So, I really hope my story turns like yours pretty soon. Thank you so much! Trust yourself and your desire for something new and different. Level Administrative Cover Letter? You can access my free guide to writing your application for NGO jobs in the column on statement ut, the right.
Sir I love the ambition of Jessica to a business venture essay, realise her dreams. Statement Of Purpose? I am here in colorado a country under human trafficking and still having a hope to ever come out .Reading this story I had to shade tears and say so this is of purpose how life treats people also before they come to on hume's, a realisation. As I talk now presently I need someone to just help me out how I could even get my documents but every morning and eveBing I cry to no aveille but still have the faith.I plead on every one who reads my message and knows what I can do to help myself out of statement of purpose essay, this to tell me pls.Thank u. Hi Malaika, thank you so much for your article, it is essay paragraph very helpful and I already took note of your recommendations to update my resume. I’m a social worker and currently work in an emergency shelter for women victims of statement ut, conjugal violence. I was wondering if you have any suggestions on how to lens essay, highlight accomplishments when job responsibilities are to provide support (follow-up) and care to statement ut, people in crisis… I find it difficult to measure achievements when my work is to of a room, provide services to statement of purpose essay ut, people in critical essay crisis. Thanks again, your articles is statement motivating! @Nathalia, we’re all so used to “helping” that we forget the churchill colorado essay ocean is statement of purpose essay made up for funding venture individual drops. What does the shelter measure its work on? E.g. number of women who don’t return to the same abusive partner? Match your individual actions to the goals of the shelter, and look for ways in which you’ve contributed to statement of purpose ut, the bigger picture goals.
Providing services can be measured, too ! […] Once you’ve identified the jobs you want to apply for, it’s time to start tailoring your CV to the position. Here’s how to essays on hume's, get started. […] Hi I have just finished my masters in economics and Im looking to enrich my CV to statement of purpose essay, get into international development as well. So far whatever volunteering experience I have is in India where I belong. Closing Paragraph? I was wondering how do you manage to do so many internships in different countries in terms of financials. International internships don’t pay usually and even if they do it doesn’t fund flight and visa costs! So how do I get this ‘international’ experience to make a stronger case for a good job in essay ut this area? Muchos Gracias for your post.Really thank you! Staschke. Great article – makes me feel a little better during a time when it seems to be impossible to find a job in the field of essay on description room, international development / global health / disaster management.
I think that you make an excellent point about the ut length of the CV. I have been battling with this for a long time now – any time I try to fit all my jobs into 2 pages (I haven?t even tried to fit them into essays on hume's, one) the end result is statement ut too small fonts and the layout is very cramped. This is probably because I have never held a internship or a job for long, but my experience comes from several shorter periods in define critical different places. Essay Ut? Do you have any tips on this? I have tried to leave the “non-relevant” ones out, but there are two problems with this: a) it leaves gaps that don?t look good b) all of the level legal positions have given me different experience, most of which seem relevant to most entry-level jobs.
@Mike, thanks for your comment! You want to a) read your CV aloud and remove what sounds “Fluffly”, b) make sure every single item is statement ut 70% relevant to essay, the job description, and statement of purpose c) remove everything you wouldn’t tell a stranger within 5 minutes (e.g., your grades, your hobbies). Try these, and you should be able to slim down your CV. Thanks fo finally talking about How t? wite your resume for a job in International Development | Internationa? NGO Jobs Loved it!
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The Top 10 UX Designers You Need to Know. User experience (UX) is a term you'll hear tossed around often in discussions about web design. Of Purpose Ut. Much to the chagrin of UX experts though, the on description room term itself isn't always correctly used or understood. The same goes for essay ut, user interface (UI) design, which is commonly confused with UX design. To clarify, there are three main techniques that can be used when designing a website. Churchill Colorado. Ideally, all three should be utilized in of purpose essay, conjunction with one another: This is the underlying structure of a website.
The focus is on creating a solid platform for a website to run on. This is the surface-level design of essay, a website, including color palette creation, image selection, font stylization, and essay ut more. The focus is on creating an churchill essay aesthetically-pleasing outward design. This is the research and strategy portion of design that identifies who the users are and what they need. Based on ut, this, the essay closing paragraph UX designer determines how to execute this on statement of purpose essay, the website. The focus here is on creating a satisfying experience for users by anticipating their needs and goals and consequently building the website around them. While all three design techniques are important to the process, UX design plays an integral part in the success of a website and churchill is, perhaps, the most difficult to accomplish. It not only requires that the designer or developer understand modern design trends, but that they also be adept at research, analysis, planning, and QA. UX designers almost always specialize in statement essay, the following skills: Strategy Competitor analysis Persona identification Content planning Wireframe and prototyping development Readability assessments Ongoing website testing Cross-platform compatibility testing A/B testing Analytics review.
This can be a tall order to fill. You want a website that looks great, but it's even more important to funding a business venture essay have one that makes sense and works right in the mind of your visitors. This is why there's a need for statement of purpose, designers who specialize in the understanding and essays on hume's creation of statement essay ut, a website based on the user experience. Whether you're looking to assistant letter hire a designer to build your website or you simply want to emulate tried and true UX design principles, you'd be hard-pressed to find a better batch of UX designers to connect with. The following list contains some of the more well-known UX professionals working today. Aarron Walter has a lengthy resume that includes working for companies like MailChimp and InVision. He's also a published author, educator, design consultant, and an all-around specialist in UX design. One look at of purpose ut, his Twitter feed or Medium content, and you'll see that he is on a mission to teach others how to successfully design for UX (or to create the team to do it for funding, them).
While it's clear that Walter has a firm understanding of statement essay ut, UX design principles (just take a look at the CV on his website), his focus is on changing designers' approach to UX. Of A Room. Everything he talks about now revolves around the idea that it's time to rethink, to recode, to redesign. It's not enough to create a great user experience based on best practices. Statement. Designers and UX teams really need to be in tune with their users' emotions. Walter is an educator first and foremost, and he's looking to reach both UX designers as well as those in charge of managing designers. If you want insights on how to colorado essay approach UX design more effectively or how to build a collaborative team of UX designers, he's a great resource. An Australian-based web designer, Adham Dannaway is a triple threat. He specializes in UI design, UX design, as well as coding. Statement Of Purpose Essay. He has worked as a front-end developer and lens essay designer for a number of companies, most notably Campaign Monitor and Freelancer.com. If you're looking for statement of purpose, examples of his work, visit his Dribbble page. The designs are a few years old, but they give you an idea of the style he is most known for: a combination of clean UI design and effective UX applications.
If you want to know what he thinks about UX design, follow him on Twitter, where he regularly shares everything from web design memes to tips for essay paragraph, better design. His website calls out a number of well-known publications that have featured his work, and you'll find that they all commonly applaud him for his portfolio. These portfolio samples aren't just a look at the finished project. Statement Of Purpose. They provide the thorough look at his process process broken out for each of these. Here's just one example:
Here is an example of the Qantas website before Dannaway started working on the site redesign: He systematically tackled all the problems users experienced throughout the Qantas home page. He addressed problems with: A distracting carousel An overly complicated process for a business venture essay, booking flights Banner blindness Useful information missing or not prominently displayed And more. The Qantas website after Dannaway completed work: One look at Adrian Zumbrunnen's website and you'll know you've found something special. And, just like his website, his work is statement of purpose essay, edgy, smart, and ahead of the curve. Here's the thing though: Zumbrunnen's work may be a little too cutting edge for some. The concept of a website that talks to you is essay closing, really cool, but not all websites can actually utilize that concept.
If you're going to pay attention to Zumbrunnen (and you should), it should be for his UX know-how. Luckily for us, this user-focused UX designer writes regularly on the intersection between technology and design. He shares a lot of interesting content on Twitter and his Medium page. If you want to statement of purpose ut get a feel for where Zumbrunnen really shines, read his article, Creating Distraction-Free Reading Experiences. Essay. The design of the page itself complements concepts that he's writing about. And as you scroll down the page, you get a sense for essay ut, how he operates, his sense of humor, his style of prototyping, and room more. While you may not be able to use his particular set of skills, you can find a lot of inspiration from his writing. Andy Budd's name is synonymous with UX design. Statement Essay Ut. He's been writing about churchill colorado design and the tools we use to achieve it (like CSS) since the early 2000s, so he's been doing this a lot longer than most people.
Currently, he's a designer and partner at essay, Clearleft, a UK-based digital experience agency, as well as a curator for UX London. If you're interested in colorado, seeing how Budd has evolved in his work as a UX expert over the last decade+, be sure to of purpose essay check out both his website and his blog archives, which go as far back as 2003. Interestingly enough, you'll find that the essay closing paragraph topics he covered back when he started (CSS, usability testing, prototyping) are still very much the same principles we use in UX design today. If you're an avid Twitter user, follow his Twitter page for frequent easy-to-follow and practical insights on UX-related topics. Jared M Spool has founded not one, but two organizations dedicated to training up-and-coming web designers on statement of purpose essay, how to put user experience first. One of them is the Center Centre, a user experience design school located in Chattanooga, TN. Not only is essay, it this school's mission to of purpose produce some of the best UX talent in the world, but they offer students hands-on opportunities with companies like MailChimp and Northrop Grumman during their time at entry level administrative assistant cover, the school. The other organization he founded is UIE (User Interface Engineering). For anyone interested in learning more about UI and UX, this is a fantastic resource to follow. Newsletter subscriptions are free, but access to their other offerings come with a membership fee.
It's somewhat steep, but not when you consider how large their library of seminars, resources, and events are. If you're looking for a cheaper way to tap into Spool's insights on ut, all matters related to UX, connect with him on social media. His Twitter page, UIE's Twitter account, and his Medium page are all worth following as he often discusses how difficult UX design is, but how easy it can be to achieve when you have the right team, tools, and understanding in closing, place. Karen McGrane is entertaining and statement essay that's why she's the perfect person to write, speak, and of a room interview about UX design. As she once put it, On a good day, I make the web more awesome. On a bad day, I just make it suck less. But she's also a highly experienced UX professional. Here are just some of the statement of purpose highlights from her resume: Received an MS in Technical Communication with a focus on usability and interface design Currently runs Bond Art + Science, a company that offers consulting, audits, and workshops for organizations that need help translating their content to mobile Managed the critical lens User Experience department at Razorfish.
Take a look at essay ut, her website and churchill essay you'll notice that she's got a lot to say and that she's shared her UX expertise with the likes of UIE (see Jared M Spool), A List Apart , Creative Bloq , and the Harvard Business Review . But her 15+ years of knowledge don't just stop there. She tweets daily, blogs regularly, takes part in lots of podcasts, and even wrote a book, Content Strategy for Mobile . McGrane is of purpose, one of the top UX designers, and entry level assistant that is especially true in the area of design for mobile devices. Laura Klein has a varied background for being one of the top UX designers. She's worked as a research associate, a software app developer, a product and essay ut UX director, and now as one of the leading writers on the subject of UX. Her recent book, Build Better Products , may have a product slant to it, but the principles applied to product development are no different than the essay on description room ones used in statement essay, web design.
As she writes, Build Better Products is a hands-on, step-by-step guide that helps teams incorporate strategy, empathy, design, and analytics into their development process. (You can read a sample chapter of closing paragraph, her book for free.) Her website, Users Know, and Twitter account are chock-full of of purpose, visuals that demonstrate her dedication to improving the essay room experience for visitors. If you're a designer or developer who wants to gain a better (and easier) understanding of UX design principles and of purpose best practices, Klein's logical approach to UX is worth looking into. Nick Finck's bio is full of the kind of language you want to see from UX designers: interactive design, information architecture, and usability research. And although he currently serves as the Product Design Manager for essays enquiry, Facebook, he typically refers to himself as a user experience professional. Why is that? Probably because he's not just working to improve the experience of using Facebook; he's out there actively trying to help the design community. UX for Change is a project he launched in the hopes of giving back to fellow designers.
The mission of this project is two-fold: For professional UX designers who strongly feel (as Finck does) that they need more opportunities for guidance, you can join and become a mentor. For new UX designers, this project offers them the opportunity to ut build their portfolio while volunteering to design for charities. To further support his mission to help the future of enquiry, UX, Finck's Twitter (with almost 40,000 tweets) focuses on essay, sharing inspiration, insights, and stress-relieving tips with his fellow UX designers. Essay Room. Whether you want to support a good cause or you simply want solid guidance on UX, Finck is statement of purpose essay ut, a UX professional worth following. User experience design is essay, not easy. Sometimes it's just nice knowing there are others out there willing to talk about statement essay how difficult it all is. If you're looking for that sort of assurance and, beyond that, some career coaching and guidance, Patrick Neeman is an excellent resource to funding venture essay turn to. Neeman's brand is called Usability Counts, and that speaks volumes for his mission. He's done a lot of work to improve the user experience for social platforms and other websites like Jobvite, MySpace, Microsoft, eBay, and Orbitz. He now offers UX career coaching, remains active on the UX speaking gig circuit, and tweets often about what it's like to work as a UX professional.
It's unrealistic to expect that every web designer would understand the ins and outs of what makes for a high quality user experience on all devices and browsers. That's why the number of UX designers who specialize in mobile devices has risen greatly recently. One of the leaders in statement of purpose ut, that space is Roman Nurik who works on the Android platform for Google. While Roman's work isn't for essay, everyone, he is a must-watch if you're a UX professional involved in designing mobile apps. His professional portfolio and essay ut Dribbble page demonstrate how well-versed he is in Google's Material Design technique. If you're not familiar with Material Design, this is on hume's enquiry, Google's solution to statement of purpose essay ut the intersection between technology (specifically, mobile devices) and the user experience. If you like what you see there and you want to stay up-to-date in essay, the latest on mobile UX design trends, watch out for his latest tweet or blog post.
When it comes to web design, the path of least resistance typically is not the way to go. You need to consider the essay construction of a website from all angles: the underlying structure (the coding), the outward appearance (the UI design), and the strategic pathways created for the audience (the UX design). If you're looking for UX design tips, inspiration, or assistance, these designers are a good place to start. We have more guides, tutorials, and infographics related to web design: Composing Good HTML: this is a solid introduction to essay closing writing well-formed HTML and using HTML validator software. CSS3 Intro, Guides and Resources: this is a great place to statement of purpose start learning webpage layout.
Fonts For Web Design: a Primer: learn the basics of fonts and their use in web design. Web Design Trends You'll Never Forget. Every designer wants to entry level letter create timeless documents ones that will never look tacky. But we often fail at that. In our infographic Web Design Trends You'll Never Forget we run through decades of designs that were once thought to of purpose essay ut be the height of churchill essay, coolness. Web Design Trends You'll Never Forget. WhoIsHostingThis.com is ut, a webmaster tool that lets you discover which web host any site is hosted with. Read more about WhoIsHostingThis.com. WhoIsHostingThis.com is operated by Quality Nonsense Ltd, a company registered in entry level legal cover letter, England and Wales. Company No.
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Action Verbs #8212; By Skills Categories. Remember to use the below action verbs when describing your skills and statement of purpose accomplishments in a resume or cover letterby doing so, you’ll maximize the effectiveness of your accomplishments, and make potential employers take notice. Be sure to use these action verbs in their proper context. Always use action verbs in the past tense when describing responsibilities and accomplishments from a previous job . Funding A Business Venture Essay? Here’s an example: Trained, led, and supervised a team of statement of purpose essay content editors in the development, structuring, and writing of online classes. Always use action verbs in essays enquiry, the present tense when describing responsibilities and accomplishments in a current job . Remember, these are leads words that start off each descriptive bullet point of a job description. Train, lead, and supervise a team of content editors in the development, structuring, and writing of statement of purpose essay online classes.
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essays on acts 7 The inscription “The Acts of the Apostles” probably reaches back to the beginning of the second century CE, since it is found in virtually every MS which contains this book, as well as the anti-Marcionite Prologue to Luke (c. 150-80 CE). Although it has been suggested that the wholly anarthrous title ??????? ?????????? could be read “Some of the Acts of Some of the Apostles,” this is really quite artificial to the Greek sense. 1 Suffice it to say, the title is only partially accurate, for only Peter and Paul figure predominantly in this book for reasons which should become clear when we consider the purpose/occasion of writing. Attestation of Lukan authorship is found in the Muratorian Canon, the anti-Marcionite Prologue to Luke, Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Tertullian, Eusebius, and Jerome. These all not only affirm authorship of the Acts by Luke, but Lukan authorship for of purpose essay ut, the book which bears his name, too. Thus the external evidence is both unanimous and early. “At no time were any doubts raised regarding this attribution to Luke, and certainly no alternatives were mooted. Define Critical Essay? The tradition could hardly be stronger . . Statement Essay? .” 2 As with Mark, this unanimous tradition is all the more surprising if it were not true since Luke was not an apostle, nor even closely associated with one of the twelve. Caird makes the define, interesting observation: Not all the traditions of the early Church are to be accepted at their face value, but there are good reasons for accepting this one. . . . a book which was meant for of purpose ut, publication must have borne its author’s name from the start.
In this respect the literary conventions of the first century were stricter than ours, which allow an author to hide behind a pen-name. Funding Venture? Had it been otherwise, it is hard to see how the name of Luke could ever have been associated with the books which tradition has attributed to him. Luke can scarcely be described as a prominent figure in the annals of first-century Christianity. 3. There is another piece of external evidence which corroborates Lukan authorship, viz., Luke-Acts in Codex Cantabrigiensis (D), the fifth century ‘western’ diglot. Statement? Studies done on the singular readings of D (by G. E. Rice, E. Funding Venture Essay? J. Epp, etc.) show that it had certain theological tendencies. Among these is an statement essay anti-Semitic strain, which is much more prominent than in the Alexandrian or Byzantine MSS. But in particular, the anti-Semitic strain of colorado essay, D is found exclusively in Luke-Acts. That is to say, in the variant readings which are unique to this MS, it betrays an anti-Semitic strain in just these two books. Of Purpose Ut? What is to account for this?
Since the MS has all four gospels and funding a business venture, Acts, one cannot attribute this phenomenon to the scribe of D—or else he would certainly have been more consistent, making his theological view evident throughout all five books. Nor can we attribute this to Luke himself, for the western text is decidedly inferior and secondary to the Alexandrian, in statement of purpose essay spite of its antiquity. 4 If the theological slant of D in Luke-acts is not due to Luke himself, nor to the scribe(s) of D, it most likely was created by an earlier scribe who copied only Luke and Acts and did not have the a business essay, other gospels under the same cover. What is so significant about this is that, as far as we know, the gospels were transcribed as a four-fold unit from the middle of the second century . 5 This would mean that the ancestor of D who copied Luke and Acts in all probability did so before 150 CE. Copyists rarely precede scholars; consequently, one could surmise that patristic writers assumed that Luke and Acts were by one author within two or three decades of their publication. 6. There are three pieces of internal evidence which corroborate with the of purpose essay, external evidence: the unity of authorship of Luke and Acts, evidence that the author was a traveling companion of Paul, and incidental evidence. 7. a. Unity of Authorship of essays on hume's enquiry, Luke and Acts 8. There are five arguments which Guthrie uses to show common authorship: (1) Both books are dedicated to the same man, Theophilus; (2) Acts refers to the first treatise, which is most naturally understood as the gospel; (3) the books contain strong similarities of language and style; (4) both contain common interests; (5) Acts naturally follows on from Luke’s gospel . . . It may safely be concluded that the evidence is very strong for linking the statement essay, two books as the work of one man, a conclusion which few modern scholars would dispute. 9.
In addition there is a sixth argument that could be used: there are remarkable parallels in structure and content between Luke and Acts. To take but one example, “not only is Jesus’ journey to Jerusalem parallel to that of on description of a room, Paul, but also the events that take place when the of purpose essay ut, two men reach the colorado essay, city, and after, are similar.” 10 Talbert’s conclusion (which assumes unity of of purpose ut, authorship) is that “the conclusion seems irresistible. This architectonic pattern which has Gospel and Acts correspond in administrative content and in sequence at many points is due to deliberate editorial activity by essay ut, the author of Luke-Acts.” 11 The point is that the funding, architectonic structure of Luke-Acts is so beautifully executed that to deny common authorship is to attribute as much genius to ut, a second, anonymous writer (of Acts) as one should of the first writer (who wrote the gospel). 12. b. Evidence that the Author was a Companion of Paul.
The “we” passages in Acts (16:10-17; 20:5-15; 21:1-18; 27:1–28:16), prima facie , suggest a companion of Paul. On this supposition, this particular companion. (1) first joins Paul at Philippi [ sic : Troas]; (2) reappears on Paul’s return visit to Philippi; (3) accompanies the apostle on churchill colorado essay, the journey towards Jerusalem and stays with Philip at Caesarea, and (4) after Paul’s two years’ imprisonment at Caesarea, during which time there are no definite data regarding the author’s whereabouts, accompanies Paul to Rome and experiences shipwreck with him. It would also mean that the author could not be any of those companions of Paul who are mentioned by name in these sections (Silas, Timothy, Sopater, Aristarchus, Secundus, Gaius, Tychicus, Trophimus). 13. c. Indirect Evidence in statement of purpose essay ut Support of closing, Lukan Authorship. There are four main pieces of indirect evidence which support Lukan authorship. First, in Paul’s prison epistles, there are a number of people who were with Paul while he was in a Roman prison.
There is a definite probability that the author of of purpose, Luke-Acts was one of them. Excluding those already mentioned by name in the “we” sections in Acts, the following names are mentioned: Mark, Jesus Justus, Epaphras, Demas, Luke, Epaphroditus. Second, “in none of the epistles written on critical lens, the second and third journeys (Thessalonians, Galatians (?), Corinthians, Romans) is statement Luke mentioned, but since none of them was written during a period covered by lens essay, a we-section this corroborates the tradition.” 14. Third, according to Col. 4:10 and Philemon 24, Luke and of purpose, Mark were in close contact with one another.
Assuming Markan priority for the synoptic problem, this might explain how Luke got access to Mark’s gospel. 15 But there is more: Acts also betrays a ‘Markan flavor’ in the first few chapters. Fourth, Col. 4:14 calls Luke ‘the beloved physician.’ In 1882 W. K. Hobart wrote his celebrated The Medical Language of St. Luke in which he argued that where Matthew and Mark use common, everyday terms, Luke often used medical terms in describing Jesus’ healings. This, however, was challenged by H. J. Cadbury almost four decades later (1920), 16 who pointed out venture essay, that Luke’s language was no different than that of any educated person.
17 As Caird quips, if we should now appeal to statement of purpose ut, Hobart’s tome, “this would make doctors of almost all the writers of antiquity . . . ” 18 Nevertheless, one should admit that Luke’s terminology is essay compatible with an educated person, and that a physician would fit this picture well. Further, when one compares Mark 5:26 with Luke 8:43, it is interesting that whereas Mark mentions that the woman had spent her life’s savings on doctors and of purpose, only grew worse under their care, Luke omits the jab. In sum, the internal evidence certainly has nothing against Lukan authorship, though it clearly falls short of proof. This is all the essays enquiry, more reason to accept Lukan authorship, for this is the unanimous testimony from the statement of purpose essay ut, fathers: “Granted that an ancient scholar might have deduced from the prologue to the Gospel that the author was not an apostle and entry level administrative assistant cover letter, from the ‘we’ sections of Acts that he was a companion of Paul, he still would have had no means of putting a name to the author if there had not been a valid tradition connecting the books with the name of Luke.” 19. Assuming that Luke penned the statement of purpose essay ut, gospel which bears his name, and paragraph, the book of Acts, what do we know about him (apart from his occupation)? First, he was probably a Gentile since he is mentioned separately from the “men of the circumcision” in of purpose ut Colossians 4. 20 Second, he may have been from Troas for the ‘we’ sections in Acts begin there. 21 Beyond this there is very little information within the NT. However, the funding essay, Anti-Marcionite Prologue to Luke (found not infrequently attached to Latin MSS of the gospel) adds some interesting information: (1) Luke was a native of Antioch, (2) he wrote the gospel in Achaea, (3) never married, (4) and died at age 84 in Boetia. since the same source adds other, extremely doubtful information, all of the above is suspect as well.
22. 4. Arguments against Lukan Authorship. There are principally three arguments against Lukan authorship. Many have pointed out apparent discrepancies between Paul’s biographical notes in his Hauptbriefe and other secure epistles with the of purpose essay ut, information about Paul given in Acts. Three alleged discrepancies are particularly striking: (1) the number of visits Paul made to Jerusalem given in Acts and that given in churchill colorado essay Galatians, 23 (2) the make-up of the converts in Thessalonica, 24 and (3) Paul’s attitude toward the OT Law. Two points should be mentioned in response: (1) Even if such discrepancies were genuine, this would not necessarily argue against Lukan authorship, though it might say something about his reliability as a historian. 25 (2) All of the alleged discrepancies are capable of alternative explanations, thus rendering them “an insecure basis for rejecting the tradition.” 26. b. Different Interpretations of the “We” Sections. It is of course possible that the use of the first person plural was a literary convention, or even an uncorrected source which the author had used.
On the whole, German and American scholars favor either of these options over the prima facie view (especially because of the alleged historical discrepancies), while British scholars favor the statement essay, latter. Concerning the literary convention hypothesis, one wonders why it is employed so little (only in define critical parts of five chapters), and why it begins only in ut chapter 16. As to the diary hypothesis, if Luke used multiple sources for both his gospel and Acts why would we see the ‘we’ sections only here? Surely he received many first person reports (both written and oral) for essay on description of a room, the composition of statement, both books. 27 This view suggests that he was careful to change the first person plural all the churchill colorado essay, way through both Luke and Acts until Acts 16! Although these views are possible, they raise far more problems than they solve.
This is normally considered to be the most severe difficulty for maintaining Lukan authorship of Luke-Acts. There are two main difficulties to statement ut, be dealt with: (1) Paul’s solution to the problem of the OT law; 28 and (2) the speeches attributed to Paul in Acts. 29. (1) A superficial reading of Acts suggests that the Paul of essay, Acts is different from the Paul of the epistles in his handling of the OT law. In Acts, for of purpose essay, example, he has Timothy circumcised, while he denies the necessity of circumcision in Galatians. But two pieces of data must be kept in mind here: (a) the reason for Timothy’s circumcision in Acts was related to paragraph, evangelistic opportunity , while in Galatians he is opposed to circumcision for those who wish to rest on it as essential for salvation . Both of these actions are totally consistent with Paul’s self-portrait in 1 Cor. 9:19-23 (where, for the sake of the gospel, Paul can either accommodate his lifestyle to that of the Jews or that of the Gentiles). (b) The purpose of Acts is different than the purpose of the epistles. Whereas Paul is eager to dissociate himself from Judaizers (even with quite colorful language at statement ut, times!), Luke’s purpose is to present Paul as a good Jew who also was a Christian and that in a business essay this one man there was no desire to statement of purpose essay, start riots by colorado, inciting his own people.
Hence, Luke presents nascent Christianity as a movement which began very much within Judaism (one might even call it “Messianic Judaism” or “the Nazarene sect of Judaism”) with which other Jews have wrongly taken offense, while Paul is more concerned with reaching the Gentiles. This different perspective/purpose is nicely spelled out by Longenecker: 30. Undoubtedly there are differences between the Paul of his own letters and the Paul of his “biographer,” and statement essay ut, undoubtedly Pauline Christianity and early Jewish Christianity were distinguishable entities. But we play much too fast and loose with the evidence when we attempt to essays on hume's, drive a wedge between them. Paul writes as an evangelist and pastor to statement of purpose essay, his converts, affirming the essentials of his message within a context of personal humility, whereas Luke writes as an historian and admirer of the apostle, with a sense for the historical unfolding of the gospel and a desire to highlight the heroic. While we must ask for a body of agreement in the respective portrayals, we cannot reasonably call for identity in details or uniformity in viewpoints. 31. (2) Paul’s speeches in Acts do not sound like his letters. Some have argued that Luke’s historiographical model was Thucydides who invented speeches to essay, add verisimilitude to his narrative. However, this assertion neither does justice to Thucydides nor to Luke.
A careful reading of Thucydides’ statement 32 reveals that he did not invent speeches ex nihilo , but occasionally summarized or put in his own words what was said on specific occasions. Thus if it is true that Luke patterned his work after those of Thucydides (and we believe it is), he did not invent speeches, though he certainly felt the right to shape them. Statement Essay? 33 Still, what is remarkable is that several of the critical essay, speeches, especially those of Peter and James, have strong verbal parallels with the epistles alleged to statement of purpose ut, be by the same authors (1-2 Peter and James). 34 Further, although most of Paul’s speeches in Acts show little resemblance to his epistles, the one speech given to believers (in Acts 20) does. 35. In sum, Lukan authorship for both the third gospel and Acts has excellent external credentials and corroborative internal evidence. The difficulties to this view, though not altogether trivial, certainly fail to convince one of any other alternative. Indeed, it is precisely because there are theological and historical difficulties between Acts and Paul that the argument for Lukan authorship is the most plausible: what later writer (for those who deny Lukan authorship all put Luke-Acts late), who had access to Paul’s letters, would create so many discrepancies in the portrait of his hero, the apostle Paul? 36. A number of factors and presuppositions affect the date of this book.
Among the most important are: (1) authorship; (2) the solution to the synoptic problem; (3) whether the Olivet Discourse was truly prophetic or a vaticinium ex eventu ; and especially (4) evidence internal to the book of Acts (i.e., not related to the gospel per se ). Entry Level Assistant Cover Letter? Though most scholars date the essay, book c. 80-90, our conclusion is that it should be dated substantially earlier. (1) On the assumption of of a room, Lukan authorship, one cannot date this book too late. That is to say, since Luke was certainly an statement essay ut adult when he joined Paul in his second missionary journey, 37 he would have probably thirty to fifty years to have written this work. However, apart from F. C. Essay? Baur’s radical dating of Acts well into essay ut, the second century, this span poses no problem for any plausible date. (2) In our solution to the synoptic problem, Matthew and Luke have independently used Mark. It is most probable that Matthew was unaware of Luke’s work and essay, Luke was unaware of Matthew’s. Statement? If so, then both were probably written at level administrative, around the same time. If Matthew is statement essay dated c. 60-65 CE, then Luke (and, therefore, Acts) in all probability should be dated similarly. 38. (3) Was the funding a business venture, Olivet Discourse a vaticinium ex eventu (a prophecy after the fact)? It is safe to say that the assumption that it was is the single most important reason for overturning an statement ut early date (pre-70) for Luke-Acts (as it was for Matthew and Mark).
We have dealt with this in our discussion of critical lens, Matthew’s date and simply need to of purpose essay, summarize our two points here: (a) only a denial of the possibility of predictive prophecy on the lips of Jesus would necessitate a late date; (b) the synoptic gospels are both vague and imprecise in their prophecies assuming that those prophecies were fulfilled in the Jewish War , but if there is more to come, and if the Olivet Discourse was given before 66 CE, then the discourse makes sense. (4) There are several pieces of internal evidence within Acts which are most significant in fixing the date of this two-volume work. Guthrie lists six, 39 of which the last is the most significant. (a) The absence of reference to important events which happened between AD 60 and colorado, 70 . The fall of Jerusalem (66-70), the statement of purpose essay ut, persecution of Christians by Nero (64), and the death of James by the Sanhedrin (62) are not mentioned. On this last point, it is a significant silence, for critical lens, “no incident could have served Luke’s apologetic purpose better, that it was the Jews not the Romans who were the real enemies of the gospel.” 40. (b) The primitive character of the subject-matter . In particular, “the Jewish-Gentile controversy is dominant and all other evidence apart from Acts suggests that this was a vital issue only in the period before the fall of Jerusalem.” 41. (c) The primitive nature of the theology . Terms such as “the Christ,” “disciples,” “the Way,” and the reference to the first day of the essay ut, week for the time when Christian met together to critical, break bread, all imply primitiveness. (d) The attitude of the state towards the church. The government is quite impartial toward the church, a situation which would not be true after 64 CE when Nero’s persecution broke out. It is significant that Luke ends this book by statement, saying that the on description of a room, gospel was able to spread “unhindered” ( ???????? ). (e) The relation of Acts to the Paul ine epistles . Luke shows no awareness of Paul’s literary endeavors.
This would certainly suggest a date which preceded the collection of the Corpus Paulinum . Further, there is evidence that such a collection existed as early as the 70s CE. 42 In the least, this suggests that the purpose of statement essay ut, Acts was not to reinstate Paul’s letters, as some have suggested. (f) The absence of reference to the death of Paul . The book of Acts, which begins with a bang and dies with a whimper, and which so carefully chronicles the events leading up to the trial of Paul in Rome, gives the distinct impression that Paul’s trial was not yet over. In other words, it is very doubtful that this book was written after 62 CE. Two counter reasons are often given as to funding venture essay, why Luke would end the book here.  He did not want to mention the trial’s outcome. The opinions put forth for of purpose essay ut, this refraint are very numerous—a telling argument against level legal assistant letter, them. Some argue that it would put too much emphasis on the man rather than on his mission; that it would hint at of purpose ut, a parallel with the death of Christ, which would be inappropriate; that the readers knew the rest of the story and hence Luke did not need to go on; etc. As Guthrie remarks, “It is not sufficient, on the other hand, to propose a theory of the essay, author’s intention without supplying an adequate motive for the intention, and it may be questioned whether this condition has been fulfilled.” 43.  Luke intended to write a third volume.
This was the view of Spitta, Zahn, Ramsey, and statement of purpose ut, W. L. Knox. It is based on the use of ?????? in Acts 1:1—a word which, in classical Greek, indicated “first of at least three.” That it does not do so in churchill essay hellenistic Greek is quite evident from the data supplied in BAGD; further that Luke does not use the superlative as a true superlative is evident from statement ut his discussion of the first census of a business, Quirinius in Luke 2:2: scholars have had enough trouble trying to locate two censuses of Quirinius, let alone three! Further, even if Luke did use ?????? as a true superlative on occasion, why would he break his three-volume work here? This explanation seems a quite desperate expedient. 44. All in all, that Acts ends where it does is essay ut a great embarrassment to those who do not maintain a pre-64 date.
Robinson, who bases much of essays enquiry, his Redating the New Testament on an early (62) date of Acts, argues ably for this view. 45 In particular, he points out that Adolph von Harnack, “whose massive scholarship and of purpose essay, objectivity of judgment contrast with so many who have come after him,” is still worth quoting precisely because “on this subject he was forced slowly and painfully to venture, change his mind.” 46 Two snippets from Harnack’s The Date of Acts 47 will have to suffice: “Throughout eight whole chapters St. Luke keeps his readers intensely interested in the progress of the trial of St. Paul, simply that he may in statement of purpose ut the end completely disappoint them—they learn nothing of the final result of the trial!” “The more clearly we see that the essay on description of a, trial of statement ut, St. Paul, and above all his appeal to Caesar, is the chief subject of the last quarter of Acts, the more hopeless does it appear that we can explain why the narrative breaks off as it does, otherwise than by define lens essay, assuming that the trial had actually not yet reached its close. It is no use to struggle against this conclusion.” At the same time, one has to ask how much later Acts was than the of purpose essay ut, gospel. In our view, the two were virtually simultaneous, since they would no doubt have been written on scrolls. Essay Paragraph? 48 Customarily, the longest usable scroll was about thirty-five feet.
Luke and Acts each would take up well over twenty-five feet, and hence could not at all conveniently be fitted onto one scroll. This fact, coupled with the internal continuity between the two books, 49 strongly suggests that they were meant to statement ut, be read virtually as a single document, written at almost the same time, bearing the same purpose(s). 50. In conclusion, the following points can be made: (1) Luke depends on Mark and therefore should not be dated earlier than the 50s CE. The date of Mark, then, provides the essay closing paragraph, terminu a quo for the date of Luke-Acts. (2) Luke neither knew of Matthew’s work, nor Matthew’s of Luke’s. If Matthew is dated c. 60-65, then Luke-Acts was probably written within the same time frame. Essay Ut? (3) Luke-Acts was written before the start of the Jewish War because his Olivet Discourse includes vague and not-yet-fulfilled material. (4) Acts is to be dated c. 62 CE, principally because of the ending of the book in which Paul’s trial seems to have been still future. Legal Assistant Cover Letter? Our conclusion is that Acts was written just before the end of Paul’s first Roman imprisonment, c. 61-62 CE. Both the gospel and Acts are addressed to one Theophilus. He is called “most excellent” ( ???????? ), a term usually indicating some sort of statement of purpose essay ut, government official, or at least high social rank. 51 It is possible to view the name as symbolic (“lover of God,” or “loved by God”), as if the real addressee needed to be incognito for some reason. But since this name was well attested up to three centuries before Luke wrote, it may well have been his real name.
If Theophilus was a Roman official, then he certainly was a Gentile, and the contents of this gospel, as well as the Acts, bear eloquent testimony of a Gentile readership. 52 As we shall see in essay on description of a room our discussion of the purpose of Acts, Theophilus was not only statement of purpose essay ut a Roman official (in all likelihood), but also was in Rome. Although Luke-Acts is addressed to funding a business venture, Theophilus, something must be said for the probability that Luke intended to have this work published and consequently envisioned an audience broader in scope than one man. Statement Essay Ut? His prologue to both the gospel and Acts emulates so much the ancient historians’ prefaces that it is quite evident that he wanted the work published. In this, it is probable, once again, that his intended audience was Roman Gentiles. However, whether they were to be primarily believers or unbelievers is more difficult to assess. In fact, whether Theophilus was a believer or not is difficult to assess! 53 The key issue is the meaning of ????????? (“of what you have been informed” or “of what you have been taught”; from ??????? ) in Luke 1:4. The term can refer either to Christian instruction (Acts 18:25; Gal. 6:6) or simply information, even a negative report (Acts 21:21, 24). Thus, even in the key term there is an impasse.
In our view, there is something of a double entendre here: Theophilus is of a room a high-ranking Roman official who is also a Christian. If his name is statement essay ut symbolic, then this is almost certainly the a business essay, case. Of Purpose Ut? 54 But since he seems to be a government official, then he has been “informed” about Christianity. In our understanding of (one of) the purpose(s) of Acts , Luke was preparing a trial-brief for Paul’s upcoming court hearing. In this case, Luke would certainly want a Roman official who was as sympathetic as he could be, ????????? , then, seems to indicate that Luke wanted to set the record straight about the entry level legal administrative assistant cover letter, origins of Christianity (thus, information) while “Theophilus” suggests that this particular recipient had been more than informed—he had believed. 55.
In our view, the specific occasion which precipitated this two-volume work was Paul’s upcoming court appearance in Rome. In our view, this is part of the essay ut, initial purpose as well, though it does not encompass the total purpose of Acts. Guthrie argues that “Luke’s primary purpose was historical and this must be considered as the major aim of Acts, whatever subsidiary motives may have contributed towards its production.” 56 Yet, Guthrie quickly adds five alternatives to level administrative, the purpose of Acts (a narrative of history, a gospel of the Spirit, an apology, a defense for of purpose, Paul’s trial, and a theological document [either written to address the triumph of Christianity or the delay of the parousia]). 57. Yet not all would even agree with Guthrie’s basic premise that the primary purpose was historical in a general sense, the real tension concerning the purpose of this work is between history and apologetic. However, more and more would conclude that history and apologetic do not stand in tension, as if an accurate historian could not have an apologetic purpose, or that an apologist could not write accurate history. It has long been recognized that the historical positivism of closing, Ernst Troeltsch of last century is passe—that is, that no history was ever written from an unbiased motive. If this is the case, then to charge Luke with an apologetic motive is not to deny his being an accurate historiographer. There can be no doubt that Luke intends to give a great deal of data concerning the early beginnings of the church—much of which would not necessarily fit into an apologetic mold. For example, how does the mention of the selection of the of purpose essay ut, seven “table waiters” (Acts 6) figure into an apologetic piece? A greater problem is the fact that this is on description room a two-part work—and the essay ut, gospel of Luke must be reckoned into the overall scheme.
Nevertheless, there does seem to be a very decidedly apologetic thrust to this work as well. Several have seen the apologetic tone going in different directions: to establish that Christianity is law-abiding, to show that Christianity is a world religion, or even to defend Paul’s apostleship in essay some way. It is our contention that Acts is both historical and apologetic, that Luke wrote the work both for Theophilus (as an statement essay ut apologetic piece) and for secondary readers (both for entry administrative cover, apologetic and of purpose ut, historical reasons). But the initial purpose—related to Theophilus—is decidedly apologetic. Specifically—and initially 58 —Acts was written to be a trial brief for Paul. The evidence is as follows: 1. The beginning of Luke, in which Theophilus is addressed as “excellent” ( ???????? ). We have already pointed out that this term is used of government officials. But there is more: the vocative is essay of a used almost universally in the papyri only in petitions , as far as my own cursory research reveals (an examination of the first two volumes on the papyri in LCL). If this is the case here, then a petition is of purpose implied in Luke-Acts, even though none is stated. 2. The ending of the book, which almost certainly dates it as just before the end of Paul’s first Roman imprisonment. This ending would be very strange unless it were meant to serve as a prompt for define lens essay, Theophilus to do something on Paul’s behalf.
The date of Acts and the reasons for the book ending here are the most compelling reasons to see this work as in some sense a trial brief for Paul. A general apologetic could be written at any time; but a trial brief needed to be written now. 3. Of Purpose Essay Ut? The mention of funding a business venture, Paul being under house arrest for “two years” in Acts 28:30. Although Cadbury made much of essay, this, arguing that after two years a prisoner must either come to trial or be set free, the evidence is not nearly as neat as he supposed. Entry Level Legal Cover? 59 Nevertheless, one could appeal to the Roman law of a “speedy trial.” The point may be that Luke is ut reminding Theophilus that Paul’s case is about to be heard and that his defense needs to be prepared. Further, as Sherwin-White points out, there is no reason to believe that Paul’s accusers would be allowed to drop their charges. They had to prepare the best case they could. The “two year” reference probably functions in funding a business venture essay a sympathetic manner: “Paul has been imprisoned long enough—see what you can do to get him out!” 4. The remarkable parallels between Peter and Paul attest to an apologetic for Paul.
Even Guthrie admits that “the history before the narrative of Paul’s life and work is statement somewhat scrappy and essay on description room, gives the impression that the of purpose essay ut, author’s purpose is to get to Paul as soon as possible.” 60 C. H. Talbert has argued quite cogently that there is a strong architectonic pattern found in Luke-Acts, in which both books mirror each other, and both halves of Acts mirror each other. 61 The reason for this seems to lens, be that Peter was already accepted by Theolophilus as a legitimate apostle while Paul needed credentials. Luke employed a deja vu approach, showing that Paul was every bit as much an apostle as was Peter—because he performed the same miracles and gave the same messages. Statement Of Purpose Ut? Further, as we suggested, the reason Peter would have already been accepted by Theophilus is essay because he would have had access to Mark’s gospel in which Peter figured prominently. 5. Coupled with the remarkable parallels between these two great apostles is the fact that the last comment about Peter (apart from his message in Acts 15) is his release from statement essay ut certain death in Acts 12 (the narrative then picks up on Paul’s missionary journeys). Essay On Description? This may well be intended to prompt Theophilus to “finish the story” for Paul in the same way. 6. Further evidence is seen in the incredible amount of space devoted to the trials/ hearings in which Paul was involved before he came to Rome. The last eight chapters of Acts (Acts 21–28) are devoted to a mere four years of of purpose essay, history, while the first twenty chapters cover approximately twenty-four years of history.
The material is more than twice as compact because it now focuses on Paul’s trials and material which would be useful in critical proving his innocence. 7. The use of statement essay ut, ?????? in essay of a Acts 1:1 might be a literary device similar to the ending of Mark (at 16:8), making the statement of purpose essay, work open-ended. The suggestion of many older commentators was that this superlative was used as a true superlative—thus, “first of at least three.” If so, then Acts might have ended where it did simply because Luke intended to write a third volume. We have already discussed this view and found it wanting. However, a modification of it has some attractiveness to it: Could it be that Luke intended Theophilus to “write the essay on description of a, third volume”—that is, do what he could to see that Paul’s ministry continued? Not much can be made of this possibility, however, because it suffers from the same linguistic fate that the older view suffers from, viz., Luke has already shown that he uses this superlative as a comparative, in accord with other Koine writers.
8. Finally, although Acts 27 ostensibly does not fit in with the trial-brief idea, recent scholars have pointed out of purpose essay ut, that there was a widespread “pagan belief that survival at a shipwreck proved a man’s innocence.” 62. Taken together, these eight (or at least seven) reasons form a compelling argument that Acts was indeed intended to be a trial brief for essay, Paul. At the same time, one criticism should be mentioned here: If Acts is statement of purpose essay ut really intended (in part) to be a trial brief for Paul, then how does Luke fit into this picture? Since both works really belong together, the purpose of Acts is seemingly the purpose of Luke-Acts. In response, it need only be mentioned that one of the purposes of Acts is the trial brief for Paul. It is essays true that Luke does not neatly fit into this purpose, though it does fit into the broader picture of apologetic of Christianity before the Roman government. The occasion for essay, Acts necessitated the publication of Luke, but it did not thereby dictate the funding a business, purpose of Luke. The theme of Acts is of purpose essay intrinsically bound up with its purpose. In a nutshell, the theme is “The Beginnings of the Church and the Expansion of the funding venture, Gentile Mission.”
In volume two of Luke’s work, he picks up where he left off in the first volume, namely, with the ascension of the Lord (1:9-11). But he begins with a prologue (1:1-2) similar to that in the first volume. The ascension—recorded only by Luke—becomes a crucial motif for of purpose ut, it is necessary if the disciples are to continue the ministry which Jesus began. That is define critical essay why Luke refers to volume one as detailing what “Jesus began to do and to teach until the statement, day he was taken up into heaven” (1:1-2a). After this brief prologue, the body of the work commences.
It is possible to organize Luke’s thought in several different ways, all of essay, which have a certain legitimacy. It could be organized personally —that is, centering on Peter and Paul (thus having two halves). It could be organized geographically , from Jerusalem, to Judea and Samaria, and the ends of the earth (cf. Statement? 1:8) (thus having three sections). Or it could be organized according to Luke’s progress reports (thus having seven portions). The reason for this variety has to do with Luke’s varied purposes. His work is both historical and apologetic.
And in funding a business venture his apologetics he deals with the of purpose essay, legitimacy of churchill essay, Paul, as well as with his mission. Statement Essay? We will look at the book according to the progressive scheme, though recognizing the Luke’s organizational scheme is more multifaceted than that. In the progressive approach, there are seven units of thought, or “books.” In Book One, Luke touches on the birth of the Church in Jerusalem (1:1–2:47). Immediately, he gives us a glimpse of essay, one of of purpose, his organizational schemes, for the birth of the Church parallels the birth of Christ. This can further be seen in essays on hume's enquiry that at Jesus’ baptism, while he is praying, the Spirit descends in a physical form and while the disciples are praying, the Spirit again descends in a physical form.
Scores of other parallels can be detected between these two volumes, each of which carries different levels of conviction. 63 although these are significant sub-motifs, in our view they are not the overarching control. This is due to the fact that it is difficult to organize Luke and Acts (in terms of macro-structure) along the same lines. Of Purpose Essay Ut? Nevertheless, there is something to the architectonic approach to entry level legal assistant cover letter, Luke-Acts and we will occasionally interact with it in our argument. This first Book, as we have said, continues the narrative from Jesus’ resurrection until the time of his ascension (1:3-11), a period of forty days. During this time he commissions the essay ut, apostles to be his witnesses in define critical ever-expanding circles (1:8). After his ascension, there is a ten-day wait—until the day of Pentecost (1:12-26). And during this waiting period the apostles likewise commission Matthias to essay, join them as a replacement for Judas (1:15-26). When the funding venture, day of Pentecost came the apostles were all together (2:1). The Spirit descends on them (2:1-13) like individual flames of fire (2:2-3).
The significance of this may be related to the “already, not yet” of the kingdom. When the Spirit descended on Jesus at his baptism, coupled with the heavenly voice declaring him to be God’s Son, this seemed to be an enthronement of sorts (similar to the use of the enthronement Psalms in the OT [cf. especially Psalm 2:7!] and the motif of the Spirit abiding on statement of purpose, the king [cf. Psalm 51]), thus inaugurating the kingdom. Before Jesus’ ascent into heaven, the question heaviest on the apostles’ minds was, “Lord, are you at this time going to define lens essay, restore the kingdom to Israel?” (1:6). Jesus’ response was “already, not yet”: when the Spirit comes they would be imbued with the power of the king, though the statement of purpose essay ut, consummation of the kingdom was yet future.
God was surely doing a new work on the day of Pentecost. The apostles spoke in foreign tongues (2:4), though the crowd of pilgrims and residents wondered what this meant (2:5-13). Peter’s sermon explained what had happened and define essay, he seized the moment to gain converts to Jesus of Nazareth (2:14-39). In this message there is an statement essay emphasis on the resurrection of a business, Christ (2:23-32), and on the crowd’s guilt in the crucifixion (2:36-37), as well as the promise of the essay, Spirit to those who would repent and venture, believe (2:33-39). It is evident that the statement of purpose essay ut, Spirit had indeed descended on Peter, for a business essay, about three thousand people believed his message (2:40-41). Book One concludes with the first progress report, after summarizing the unity and growth of the essay, nascent Church (2:42-47a): “And the Lord added to their number daily those who were being saved” (2:47b). Book Two now deals with the on hume's enquiry, expansion of the Church in Jerusalem (3:1–6:7). Luke arranges the material in an A B A B pattern. First, Peter heals a crippled man and this act has reverberations (3:1–4:31): he preaches to the crowd (3:11-26), gets arrested along with John (4:1-4), defends himself before the statement of purpose essay ut, Sanhedrin and entry level administrative cover, is released (4:5-22).
All this finds a parallel in the third part of Book Two (5:12-42): the apostles heal people, get arrested and escape (5:17-24), appear before the Sanhedrin (5:25-40), and are released (5:40). Statement Of Purpose Ut? Clearly Luke shapes the two episodes to show that though Theophilus had accepted Peter as a messenger from God, the other apostles, deserved the same respect. Coming right after each of a business, these episodes is a vignette on the community of the statement of purpose essay ut, nascent Church, the first dealing with harsh discipline when wealth distribution was handled deceptively (4:32–5:11), the second dealing with correction when food distribution was handled poorly (6:1-6). Essay Paragraph? In both pericopae, the authority and priorities of the apostles are clearly displayed. Book Two concludes with the summary statement, “So the word of statement of purpose, God spread.
The number of critical essay, disciples in statement of purpose essay ut Jerusalem increased rapidly, and a large number of priests became obedient to the faith” (6:7). With this addendum on the priests’ conversions, it is as if Luke is saying that the paragraph, apostles had now done all they could in Jerusalem. This is seen in the next section, Book Three, where it is evident that the religious leaders who had not obeyed were not about statement of purpose ut, to. In Book Three we see the extension of the church beyond the walls of Jerusalem, spreading out all the way to Judea and Samaria (6:8–9:31). This book focuses on three non-apostles: Stephen, Philip, and essay on description, Saul. What is significant is that these three—more than all of the apostles combined—were instrumental in fulfilling the commission to be witnesses in Judea and Samaria (Acts 1:8). Just as the other apostles were seen to have all the “power” that Peter had (cf. Acts 1:8a), so these non-apostles were seen to ut, be “witnesses” (cf. Essay Closing Paragraph? Acts 1:8b) every bit as much as the twelve. What is more, Saul is viewed as unwittingly helping to fulfill the Great Commission even before his conversion, for the Church first spread to Samaria and Judea because of his persecutions (8:1)! This Book’s purpose, then, is to of purpose essay, foreshadow both the essay closing, full apostolic status of Paul and his superiority over all the statement of purpose essay ut, rest of the original apostles in carrying out the mandate of Acts 1:8.
The first cameo of Book Three is of Stephen, the first martyr of the Church (6:8–8:1a). Like the apostles before him, he is arrested because of his miracles and proclamation (6:8-15). A Business Venture? But unlike the apostles, his appearance before the essay, Sanhedrin results in his death, not his release. In his defense (7:2-53) he outlines the on hume's, nation’s history (with a focus on the patriarchs, Moses and David) up until their murder of statement essay, “the Righteous One” (7:52), thus paralleling Peter’s sermon on the day of Pentecost. Define Critical Lens Essay? Although Stephen was thus every bit as much a witness as was Peter, 64 the response to him was different. Statement Ut? With the death of churchill colorado essay, Stephen, Luke is statement of purpose ut indicating that fruitful ministry in Jerusalem had come to an end. The transition to the second cameo, that of Philip (8:1b-40), is via Saul (8:1): because of his role in Stephen’s death and subsequent role in persecuting the Church, Philip and level legal, others “were scattered throughout Judea and Samaria” (8:1). Philip, like Stephen, performed miracles and proclaimed Christ (8:4-8). But, unlike Stephen, there was a very positive response to his ministry in Samaria (8:7-8, 12).
But not every response was positive. Even though Philip was very powerful in his preaching, a certain sorcerer named Simon “believed” only to statement of purpose ut, gain the power which he saw in define critical lens essay Philip (8:13). The apostles Peter and John came down from Jerusalem to Samaria to investigate the phenomenal response of the people (8:14). Statement Of Purpose? They laid hands on them, causing them to receive the Spirit (8:15-17). Churchill Colorado Essay? Through this event Simon’s wickedness was exposed (8:18-24), and Peter’s and John’s perspective was enlarged (8:25). Luke then gives two other vignettes about Philip’s ministry, showing how the gospel was spreading (8:26-40).
Saul’s conversion concludes this third Book (9:1-30). Luke spends much time telling his audience about Saul’s conversion (it is rehearsed three times in of purpose essay ut the book of Acts), with a special emphasis on the revelation of the risen Lord to Saul (9:4-5) as well as the entry level legal cover letter, Lord’s disclosure to Ananias that Saul had truly converted and would be the “chosen instrument to carry my name before the statement of purpose essay, Gentiles” (9:10-15). Thus Saul is seen not only to have a remarkable conversion experience, but also from the first to be the one who would exemplify the mandate of enquiry, Acts 1:8. Book Three, which began with an expanding church because of persecution now concludes with the words, “Then the of purpose ut, church throughout Judea, Galilee and churchill essay, Samaria enjoyed a time of peace. It was strengthened and ut, encouraged by the Holy spirit and it grew in numbers, living in the fear of the essays enquiry, Lord” (9:31). To make sure that Theophilus would not be forced to statement essay, choose between Peter and Paul Luke now demonstrates, in Book Four, that Peter too promoted the Gentile mission (9:32–12:24). But it was not just Peter who promoted this; it was the Lord himself. Luke begins by affirming Peter’s apostleship in that he healed Aeneas (9:32-35) and even raised Dorcas from the dead (9:36-43). Lens? While in ut Joppa (where Dorcas had been raised), Peter saw a vision of unclean animals descending from heaven accompanied by a voice which bid him to kill and eat (10:8-23a). The message was clear: the critical essay, “unclean” Gentiles should not be shut out of the kingdom (10:15, 28).
Peter subsequently went to the house of a Roman centurion named Cornelius and proclaimed the gospel to statement essay, him and his friends (10:23b-48). The response of the essay on description room, Gentiles was the statement of purpose essay ut, same as that of the first hearers on the day of Pentecost (10:44-48); the Gentiles even received the gift of the Spirit. Peter was thus convinced that the Gentile mission was from essays enquiry God. Not only did Peter have to statement of purpose ut, be prepared for the Gentile mission; the Jerusalem church did, too (11:1-18). Since Peter was recognized by all as a legitimate spokesman for God, his recounting of what happened at essay on description of a, Cornelius’ house was enough to convince the Jewish believers. Chapter 11 concludes with the account of the birth of the church at Antioch (11:19-30)—a birth which paralleled the birth of the Jerusalem church. To show that there was no animosity between the two churches, the statement of purpose essay, Antiochian Christians sent financial aid to the Jerusalem church via Saul and Barnabas (11:27-30). Book Four, which began with peace in Judea and Samaria, now reaches an ironic climax with persecution in Jerusalem (12:1-23). Entry Level Cover? This time, rather than Saul, Herod is the of purpose essay ut, one persecuting the church.
First, he executes James (12:1-2), then arrests Peter (12:3-19). But Peter miraculously escapes (12:6-11) and Herod dies (12:20-23). This is the last we see of Peter in his evangelistic efforts. 65 The stage is essay thus set for the comparison and contrast with Paul, the man with whom the rest of Acts is concerned. What may be of significance is that there is no parallel with Paul—within the pages of statement, Acts—with Peter’s final arrest and churchill colorado essay, release . It is our conviction that Luke has written his book in such a way to beckon Theophilus to “write the final chapter.” Book Four concludes with the words, “But the statement of purpose, word of God continued to increase and spread” (12:24). The Fifth Book addresses the extension of the entry assistant letter, Church to Asia Minor, but might just as properly be called “The Book of the Establishment of Paul’s Apostleship” (12:25–16:5). Statement Of Purpose Essay Ut? Here we begin to see the deja vu pattern emerge once again. But rather than between Luke and Acts, or Peter and the other apostles, this Book now compares Peter and Paul.
The Fifth Book opens with the commission of essay on description of a room, Barnabas and Saul by the Spirit to take their first missionary journey (12:25–13:3). Saul, who was also called Paul (13:9), has his apostleship authenticated on Cyprus and in Pisidian Antioch. On Cyprus (13:4-12), he is seen to be just as much a “witness” as was Philip—and to ut, have the same power of discernment as Peter, for in Paul’s confrontation with a sorcerer (13:6-12 cf. 8:9-13), he, like Peter, pronounces judgment on the man—accompanied by essay closing, a miraculous blinding. In Pisidian Antioch (13:13-52) Paul is seen to be just as much an orator as Stephen and Peter (13:14b-41). In fact, his message is an statement of purpose ut amalgamation of both Stephen’s speech and Peter’s sermons. In these first two stories we see that Paul, by himself was equal to both Philip and Peter, and then Stephen and Peter. When Paul travels to essay closing paragraph, South Galatia (13:51–14:21a), to the city of ut, Lystra (14:8-18), he is seen to have the same miraculous powers as Peter (cf.
3:1–4:31). The parallels are hard to miss: (1) both Peter and Paul healed a man crippled from birth (3:1-8/14:8-10); (2) there was a positive response from the crowd (3:9-10/14:11-14); (3) both addressed the crowd (3:11-26/14:15-18); (4) both were accompanied by another apostle (John, Barnabas); and (5) both suffered at the hands of the Jews, though Paul’s suffering was far worse (4:1-4/14:19). Clearly, Paul was just as much an apostle as was Peter. 66. After a brief return to Antioch (14:21b-28) where the issue of the Gentile mission came to a head (15:1-5), Paul goes up to Jerusalem to essay paragraph, where the apostles and elders met to of purpose ut, consider the administrative assistant cover, matter. Here Paul’s mission is statement essay ut rat i fied by the Jerusalem Council (15:6-21)—a council in which Peter plays a part (15:7b-11).
Paul and Barnabas are selected as letter-bearers (15:22), and churchill colorado, are to bring the good news of the Council’s decision back to Antioch and elsewhere. This stands in bold relief against the last time Paul carried a letter for a Council (9:2)! The second missionary journey (15:36–18:22) begins after a brief rest in Antioch, but Paul took Silas instead of Barnabas and Mark because of Mark’s earlier desertion in Pamphylia (15:36-41). On this journey Paul takes the northern route, allowing Barnabas and statement of purpose ut, Mark to retrace their steps by closing paragraph, going to Cyprus once again (15:39b). The journey begins with a confirmation of the churches in South Galatia (16:1-4). On this positive note, Book Five concludes: “So the churches were strengthened in the faith and statement of purpose essay ut, grew daily in the numbers” (16:5). On Paul’s second missionary journey, his own widening net now extended as far as the Aegean region, the topic with which Book Six (16:6–19:20) is occupied. Having established that Paul was an authentic apostle and that his message was ratified by critical lens, Peter himself, Luke now concentrates especially on the historical side to his tome.
There is no dichotomy between the history and apologetic of statement ut, Luke, but the on hume's, emphasis now is on the former, while through Book Five it was on the latter. Still, there are parallels to be seen between Paul and Peter even here (cf. e.g., Paul’s vision to come to Macedonia [16:8b-10] with Peter’s vision of accepting “unclean” Gentiles [10:8-23]; the twelve disciples of John in Ephesus speaking in statement ut tongues when they receive the Spirit [19:1-7] with the twelve apostles speaking in tongues on the day of Pentecost when they receive the Spirit [2:1-4]; etc.). Paul’s missionary travels take him to Philippi (16:6-40) in Macedonia, where a small church is on hume's planted. Luke then records that Paul and Silas bypass Amphipolis and Apollonia (17:1a) because there was no synagogue there. This becomes a motif throughout the rest of statement essay, Acts: Paul consistently went to the Jews first and then the essay, Gentiles, even till the very end (28:17-28). Yet, equal to this motif, is Jewish hostility wherever the apostle went.
The next stop was the thriving metropolis of Thessalonica (17:1-9), where Paul preached for statement, three Sabbaths before being driven from the city. A short stay at Berea (17:10-14)—again due to persecution initiated by the Jews—resulted in essay his trek to Athens (17:15-34). After a relatively unsuccessful ministry with the philosophers there, he traveled to Corinth (18:1-18a), where he was able to settle down for the first time because of God’s protection of his ministry (18:5-11). After a court appearance before the proconsul Gallio, in which the case was dismissed (18:12-18a), Paul returned to Antioch, his home base (18:18b-22). After a very brief stay in Antioch, Paul began his third missionary journey (18:23–21:16). Of Purpose Essay Ut? He had left Priscilla and Aquila, two of his co-workers, in Ephesus on his return trip to Antioch. Now he returned to Ephesus, by way of the South Galatian region (18:23). Altogether he would stay there almost three years and Ephesus would effectively become what Antioch had been: a base of operations for his missionary endeavors.
Book Six ends with Paul having a successful ministry in Ephesus, though not one lacking in conflict (cf. Paragraph? 19:8-9a, 11-19). but because of a final victory over one opponent, namely, the occult, “the word of the Lord spread widely and grew in statement of purpose essay power” (19:20). After disclosing some of the missionary endeavors of Paul in the Sixth Book, primarily with a historical purpose in mind, Luke now returns to his apologetic emphasis. But rather than further comparison of Paul with Peter, his primary thrust is to prepare a trial brief for Paul. Since Theophilus was apparently an essay closing influential Roman official, and one who had had at least a sympathetic ear toward Christianity, especially in its Petrine forms, 67 he needed to have as much information at his disposal which would be helpful in court. Book Seven (19:21–28:31) provides just such information. The Book begins with Paul’s announcement to go to Rome (19:21-22) and ends with him getting there. But there is irony seen here, for Acts began with the growth of the church being stimulated by ut, the persecutions of Saul the Jew; it closes with the essay closing paragraph, Church reaching all the way to Rome because of the imprisonment of Paul the Christian. A riot at Ephesus over ut the adverse impact Paul’s gospel was having on idolatry (19:22-41) provides the funding a business, catalyst for Paul to move on. But before he could go to Rome, the capital of the Gentile world, he felt it necessary to go to Jerusalem, the capital of the Jewish world. Surely this was in keeping with his own missionary principle, “To the Jew first, and essay, then to the Greek.”
The journey to Jerusalem (20:1–21:16) involves a circuitous route in which Paul comforted his converts along the way. He went through Macedonia and Greece (20:1-6) and came to Troas, where he raised Eutychus from the dead (20:7-12; cf. 9:36-43). From there he sailed for Miletus and met the Ephesian elders for the last time (20:13-38). From Miletus Paul traveled to essay room, Tyre (21:1-6) and then to statement of purpose, Caesarea (21:7-14). At Caesarea Agabus predicted that Paul would be imprisoned if he went on to Jerusalem (21:10-14). Agabus’ prophecy came true.
When Paul arrived in Jerusalem he was arrested in the temple on trumped up charges of violating the temple by bringing in a Gentile (21:27-36). The recounting of entry level legal administrative, his conversion (22:1-21) only angered the Jewish crowd more (22:22), which prompted him to seek protection on of purpose essay ut, the basis of his Roman citizenship (22:23-29). There follows a series of trials, all properly documented to reveal Paul’s innocence. First, Paul was brought before the Sanhedrin (22:30–23:10) who almost broke out in a riot themselves (22:30–23:10). A Jewish plot to kill him (23:12-22) led to more protection by the Romans (23:23-30) as they escorted him to Caesarea to be tried before the Roman governor, Felix. Paul was then successively tried before Felix (24:1-26), Festus (24:27–25:12) and Agrippa II (25:23–26:32) over funding a business a period of two years.
Ironically, he would have been found innocent but because he had appealed to Caesar (26:22-23), he would have to go to Rome (26:30-32). Most likely, Paul made such an appeal because he believed he would get fairer treatment from the Roman government than from statement his fellow countrymen. Throughout Acts, in fact, Luke seems to embrace the on hume's enquiry, same position. The voyage to Rome (27:1–28:10) commences with a shipwreck (27:1-44) in which Paul is statement seen both as survivor and savior. The pagans of the entry legal assistant letter, day believed that those who survived shipwrecks must be innocent. Statement Essay Ut? 68 Whether or not Theophilus held to this superstition, it could certainly come in handy in the trial.
The book of Acts then concludes with Paul meeting his final destination, Rome (28:11-31). Once there, although in chains, he first proclaims Christ to the Jews (28:16-24), then to the Gentiles (28:25-28). Book Seven ends with Paul imprisoned for two years (28:30), though “Boldly and legal administrative assistant, without hindrance he preached the kingdom of statement ut, God and essay room, taught about the Lord Jesus Christ” (28:31). That the statement of purpose ut, outcome of the essay paragraph, trial is not mentioned is no accident: it had not happened yet. But like Peter’s angel in of purpose chapter 12, Luke wants Theophilus to essays enquiry, do what he can to get Paul out of prison that the essay ut, gospel might continue to spread.
After all, the room, Gentiles “will listen” (28:28). Thus in a masterful series of Seven Books, Luke has not only shown how the Church grew from its humble beginnings, but he has also vindicated both Paul’s apostleship and his innocence. His literary labors to of purpose essay, get Paul free were successful: the essays on hume's enquiry, apostle to the Gentiles was released; he ministered for three more years and wrote three more epistles before his beheading by essay, Nero in the summer of closing, 64 CE. I. Book One: The Birth of the Church in Jerusalem (1:1–2:47) B. Anticipation: From Resurrection to Pentecost (1:3-26) 1. Essay Ut? From Resurrection to ascension: Christ’s Forty Day Ministry (1:3-11) a. The Apostles’ Commission (1:3-8) b. The Ascension (1:9-11) 2. From Ascension to Pentecost: The Apostles’ Ten Day Wait (1:12-26) a. Praying in the Upper Room (1:12-14) b. Selecting a Replacement for Judas (1:15-26) C. Essay? Realization: The Day of Pentecost (2:1-41) 1. The Descent of the Spirit (2:1-13) a. The Response of the Apostles: Speaking in statement essay Tongues (2:1-4) b. The Reaction of the a business, Crowd (2:5-13)
2. Statement Of Purpose? The Proclamation of Peter (2:14-39) a. Introduction: Fulfillment of Prophecy (2:14-21) b. Body: Jesus Is the Messiah (2:22-39) 1) Proof: Miracles (2:22-32) a) During His Life (2:22) b) After His Death: Resurrection (2:23-32) 2) Promise: Holy Spirit (2:33-39) 3. The Response of the Crowd (2:40-41) D. Conclusion of Book One (2:42-47) II.
Book Two: The Expansion of the essays enquiry, Church in of purpose ut Jerusalem (3:1–6:7) A. A Healing by Peter and Its Consequences (3:1–4:31) 1. The Healing of a Man Crippled from Birth (3:1-8) 2. The Response of the Crowd (3:9-10) 3. The Message of Peter (3:11-26)
4. The Arrest of Peter and John (4:1-4) 5. Peter and John before the essays enquiry, Sanhedrin (4:5-22) a. Peter’s Defense (4:5-12) b. Of Purpose Essay? The Debate in essay the Sanhedrin (4:13-17) c. The Release of Peter and John (4:18-22) 6. The Thanksgiving of the Saints (4:23-31) B. Community and of purpose essay, Discipline (4:32–5:11) 1. The Sharing of All Possessions (4:32-37)
2. The Deception of Ananias and Sapphira (5:1-11) C. Healings by the Apostles and their Consequences (5:12-42) 1. Healings of the Apostles, Responses of the Crowds (5:12-16) 2. The Arrest and Escape (5:17-24) 3. The Apostles before the essay, Sanhedrin (5:25-40) a. Of Purpose Essay? The Sanhedrin’s Rebuke (5:25-28) b. The Apostles’ Defense (5:29-32) c. The Debate in the Sanhedrin (5:33-39) d. The Release of the Apostles (5:40) 4. Level Administrative Assistant Cover? The Rejoicing of the of purpose essay ut, Apostles (5:41-42) D. Community: Distribution and Administration (6:1-6) E. Conclusion of Book Two (6:7) III. Book Three: The Extension of the Church to define lens essay, Judea and ut, Samaria (6:8–9:31)
A. Stephen’s Martyrdom (6:8–8:1a) 1. Essay Closing? His Arrest (6:8-15) 2. His Defense (7:1-53) a. The High Priest’s Question (7:1) b. Stephen’s Response (7:2-53) 1) The Patriarchal Age (7:2-8) 2) The Nation in Egypt (7:9-19)
3) The Rejection of Moses by the Nation (7:20-39) a) Moses’ Early Years (7:20-29) b) Moses’ Call by God (7:30-34) c) The Nation’s Rejection in of purpose ut the Wilderness (7:35-39) 4) The Rejection of the Nation by God (7:40-43) 5) The Tabernacle and a business venture essay, the Temple (7:44-50) 6) The Rejection of statement, Christ by the Nation (7:51-53) 3. His Death (7:54–8:1a) B. Philip’s Ministry (8:1b-40) 1. Setting: the churchill colorado essay, Persecution by Saul (8:1b-3)
2. Philip in Samaria (8:4-25) a. Statement Of Purpose Essay Ut? The Activities of Philip (8:4-8) b. The Response of Simon (8:9-13) c. The Coming of Peter and John (8:14-25) 1) The Reception of the Spirit by the Crowd (8:14-17) 2) The Wickedness of Simon the Sorcerer Revealed (8:18-24) 3) The Return of the Apostles to Jerusalem (8:25) 3. Philip and the Ethiopian on the Road to Gaza (8:26-39) 4. Level Legal Assistant Cover? Philip on the Coast of Palestine (8:40) C. Statement? Saul’s Conversion (9:1-30) 1. Setting: On the Road to Damascus (9:1-2) 2. The Conversion of Saul on the Road (9:1-9) 3. The Coming of Ananias in Damascus (9:10-19) 4. The Confrontations with the Jews in Damascus (9:20-25)
5. The Coming of essay on description of a room, Saul to Jerusalem (9:26-30) D. Conclusion of Book Three (9:31) IV. Book Four: The Extension of the Church to Antioch (9:32–12:24) A. Essay? The Preparation of Peter for of a, the Gentile Mission (9:32–10:48) 1. Peter in Western Judea: With Aeneas and Dorcas (9:32-43) a. Of Purpose Essay? In Lydda: The Healing of Aeneas (9:32-35) b. In Joppa: The Raising of Dorcas (9:36-43) 2. Peter in Caesarea: With Cornelius (10:1-48) a. Cornelius’ Vision: Send for Peter (10:1-7) b. Churchill Colorado Essay? Peter’s Vision: Receive the Gentiles (10:8-23a) c. Of Purpose Essay Ut? Peter at Cornelius’ House (10:23b-48)
1) Setting (10:23b-27) 2) Recounting of Peter’s Vision (10:28-29a) 3) Recounting of Cornelius’ Vision (10:29b-33) 4) Peter’s Message (10:34-43) 5) The Gentiles’ Response (10:44-48) a) Gift of the enquiry, Spirit (10:44-46) b) Water Baptism (10:47-48a) c) Fellowship (10:48b) B. The Preparation of the statement of purpose essay ut, Leaders of the Jerusalem Church for the Gentile Mission (11:1-18) 1. The Accusation of the Jewish Believers (11:1-3) 2. The Explanation of Peter (11:4-17) a. Recounting of Peter’s Vision in Joppa (11:4-10) b. Recounting of Peter’s Visit to Cornelius in Caesarea (11:11-16) c. Recognition of the Legitimacy of the Gentile Mission by closing, Peter (11:17) d. Response of the Jewish Believers (11:18) C. The Preparation of the Church at Antioch for the Gentile Mission (11:19-30) 1. The Birth of the Church in Antioch (11:19-21) 2. The Response of Jerusalem to statement, Antioch: The Sending of Barnabas (11:22-24)
3. Barnabas and Saul at Antioch (11:25-26) 4. The Response of Antioch to Jerusalem: The Sending of Barnabas and Saul (11:27-30) a. Churchill Colorado? The prophecy of Agabus: Worldwide Famine (11:27-28) b. The Poverty of the Judean Churches: A Collection Taken (11:29-30) D. Of Purpose? Herod’s Persecution of the Church at Jerusalem (12:1-23) 1. The Martyrdom of James by Herod (12:1-2) 2. The Arrest of Peter by Herod (12:3-19) a. Assistant Cover Letter? The Arrest and Imprisonment (12:3-5) b. The Angel and Escape (12:6-11) c. The Response of the Church (12:12-16) d. The Withdrawal of statement of purpose, Peter (12:17) e. The Reaction of Herod (12:18-19) 3. The Death of Herod (12:20-23) E. Define Critical Essay? Conclusion of Book Four (12:24)
V. Book Five: The Extension of the statement essay ut, Church to Asia Minor (12:25–16:5) A. The Commission of Barnabas and Saul at Antioch (12:25–13:3) [Paul’s First Missionary Journey (13:4–14:28)] B. The Mission of Barnabas and Paul In Asia Minor (13:4–14:28) a. From Antioch to Seleucia to Cyprus (13:4) b. On the closing paragraph, Island of Cyprus (13:5-12) 1) At the Synagogue in Salamis (13:5) 2) At Paphos: Confrontation with Bar-Jesus the Sorcerer (13:6-12) 2. Pisidian Antioch (13:13-52) a. Statement Essay? From Paphos to Perga in Pamphylia: John Mark’s Departure (13:13) b. From Perga to Pisidian Antioch (13:14a) c. In Pisidian Antioch (13:14b-52) 1) Paul’s Message on the Sabbath (13:14b-41) a) Setting (13:14b-15) b) Introduction (13:16) 1] Preparation for Christ in critical essay the OT (13:17-22) 2] Proclamation of Christ to the Hearers (13:23-37) d) Application (13:38-41) 2) Initial Jewish Response to of purpose essay, Paul’s Message (13:42-43) 3) Later Gentile Response and Jewish Opposition to Paul’s Gospel (13:44-50)
3. South Galatia: Iconium, Lystra, Derbe (13:51–14:21a) a. In Iconium: Jewish and Gentile Response (13:51–14:5) b. In Lystra and Derbe (14:6-21a) 1) From Iconium to Lystra and Derbe (14:6-7) 2) A Healing in Lystra (14:6-18) a) The Healing of a Man Crippled from funding venture Birth (14:8-10) b) The Response of the Crowd (14:11-14) c) The Message of of purpose ut, Paul and Barnabas (14:15-18) d) The Stoning of Paul (14:19) 3) Escape to Derbe (14:20-21a) 4. Return to Antioch (14:21b-28) C. The Council at Jerusalem Concerning the Gentile Mission (15:1-35) 1. The Occasion: Judaizers in Antioch (15:1-5) 2. Level Cover? The Meeting of the ut, Apostles and Elders at Jerusalem (15:6-21) a. The Setting (15:6-7a) b. Peter’s Message (15:7b-11) c. Barnabas’ and Paul’s Testimony (15:12) d. James’ Concluding Thoughts (15:13-21) 3. Essay Closing Paragraph? The Council’s Letter to Gentile Believers (15:22-35) a. The Selection of Barnabas and Paul as Letter-Bearers (15:22) b. The Contents of the Letter (15:23-29) c. The Response in Antioch (15:30-35)
D. The Confirmation of the Churches in Asia Minor (15:36–16:4) [Paul’s Second Missionary Journey [15:36–18:22] 1. The Dispute between Paul and Barnabas over John Mark (15:36-41) a. The Desire to Return (15:36) b. The Discussion over John Mark (15:37-39a) c. Barnabas and statement ut, Mark Depart for Cyprus (15:39b) d. Paul and Silas Depart for Tarsus (15:40-41) 2. On Hume's Enquiry? In South Galatia (Derbe, Lystra): Timothy Joins Paul and Silas (16:1-4) E. Of Purpose Essay Ut? Conclusion of Book Five (16:5) VI. Book Six: The Extension of the Church to the Aegean Area (16:6–19:20) A. Philippi (16:6-40) 1. Throughout the Phrygian-Galatian Region (16:6) 2. To Troas in Mysia (16:7-8a) 3. Paul’s Vision: Come to essay, Macedonia (16:8b-10) 4. Troas to Samothrace to Neapolis to Philippi (16:11)
5. In Philippi (16:12-40) a. The Conversion of Lydia (16:12-15) b. Of Purpose Essay Ut? The Exorcism of a Slave Girl (16:16-18) c. Lens Essay? The Conversion of a Philippian Jailer (16:19-34) 1) Paul and Silas Arrested (16:19-24) 2) An Earthquake: Shackles Released (16:25-28) 3) The Response of the Jailer (16:29-34) d. The Release of Paul and Silas (16:35-40) B. Essay? Thessalonica (17:1-9) 1. Through Amphipolis and Apollonia (17:1a)
2. In Thessalonica (17:1b-9) a. Paul’s Proclamation in the Synagogue (17:1b-3) b. The Conversion of Some Jews and Greeks (17:4) c. The Hostility of other Jews (17:5-9) D. Athens (17:15-34) 1. Discussion in the Agora (17:15-18) 2. Dispute on the Areopagus (17:19-34) a. Paul’s Message (17:19-31) b. Critical Lens Essay? The Athenians’ Reaction (17:32-34) E. Statement Of Purpose Essay? Corinth (18:1-18a) 1. With Aquila and Priscilla: Tentmaking and essays on hume's enquiry, Preaching (18:1-4) 2. With Silas and Timothy: Eighteen Months of Ministry (18:5-11) 3. Before Gallio (18:12-18a) F. Return to Antioch (18:18b-22) 1. From Cenchrea to Ephesus to Caesarea (18:18b-22a) 2. Arrival in Antioch (18:22b)
G. Ephesus (18:23–19:19) [Paul’s Third Missionary Journey (18:23–21:16)] 1. Return to the Galatian-Phrygian Region (18:23) 2. Apollos in Ephesus: Forerunner to Paul (18:24-28) a. Apollos’ Arrival in Ephesus (18:24) b. Statement Of Purpose Essay Ut? Apollos’ Instruction by essay paragraph, Aquila and Priscilla (18:25-26) c. Apollos’ Departure for Corinth (18:27-28) 3. In Ephesus (19:1-19) a. With Twelve Disciples of John (19:1-7) b. Of Purpose? In the Synagogue of the venture, Jews (19:8-9a) c. In the Lecture Hall of Tyrannus (19:9b-10) d. In Conflict with the Occult (19:11-19) H. Conclusion of Book Six (19:20) VII. Book Seven: The Extension of the Church to Rome (19:21–28:31)
A. The Plan Announced (19:21-22) B. The Riot in Ephesus (19:22-41) 1. The Accusations by the Silversmiths (19:22-27) 2. The Demonstration in the Theater (19:28-34) 3. The Quieting of the Mob by the Town Clerk (19:35-41) C. The Journey to Jerusalem (20:1–21:16) 1. Through Macedonia and statement ut, Greece (20:1-6)
2. Churchill Colorado Essay? In Troas: The Raising of Eutychus (20:7-12) 3. From Troas to Miletus (20:13-17) 4. In Miletus: Farewell Message to statement of purpose ut, the Ephesian Elders (20:18-38) a. Paul’s Message (20:18-35) b. The Elders’ Response (20:36-38) 5. Essays Enquiry? From Miletus to Tyre (21:1-6) 6. From Tyre to Caesarea (21:7-14) a. Staying with Philip (21:7-9) b. The Prediction of Agabus (21:10-14) 7. Arrival at Jerusalem (21:15-16) D. Paul In Jerusalem (21:17–23:30) 1. The Meeting with James and the Elders (21:17-26) 2. Statement Of Purpose Ut? The Arrest of Paul in the Temple (21:27-36) 3. The Address of Paul to the Crowd (21:37–22:21) a. The Request to Speak (21:37-40) b. Recounting His Conversion (22:1-11) c. Recounting His Call (22:12-21) 4. The Disclosure of Paul’s Roman Citizenship (22:22-29)
5. Paul before the Sanhedrin (22:30–23:10) a. Confrontation with the High Priest (22:30–23:5) b. Dispute over the Resurrection (23:6-10) 6. Night Vision of the Lord (23:11) 7. The Plot to funding a business venture essay, Kill Paul (23:12-22) a. The Plot by the Jews (23:12-15) b. The Revelation to the Romans (23:16-22) 8. The Protection of the Romans (23:23-30) a. Essay? Protection provided (23:23-24) b. Cover-Letter Written (23:25-30) E. Paul in of a Caesarea (23:31–26:32) 1. Statement Essay Ut? A Roman Escort to Caesarea (23:31-35)
2. The Trial before Felix (24:1-26) a. Accusations of the Jews (24:1-9) b. Defense of Paul (24:10-21) c. Lens Essay? Adjournment by Felix (24:22-23) d. Intermittent Interviews by Felix (24:24-26) 3. Ut? The Trial before Festus (24:27–25:12) a. Define Lens? Felix Replaced by Festus (24:27) b. Ut? Arrival of Festus in Jerusalem (25:1-5) c. Paul before Festus: Appeal to Caesar (25:6-12) 4. Consultation of essay paragraph, Festus with Agrippa II (25:13-22) 5. Paul before Agrippa (25:23–26:32) a. The Briefing by Festus (25:23-27) b. The Defense by statement of purpose essay, Paul (26:1-23) 1) Introduction (26:1-3) 2) The Jewish Hope of Resurrection (26:4-8) 3) Paul’s Persecution of essays enquiry, Christians (26:9-11) 4) Paul’s Conversion (26:12-18) 5) Paul’s Commission to the Gentiles (26:19-20) 6) Paul’s Arrest in Jerusalem (26:21) 7) Concluding Appeal (26:22-23) c. Interchange between Festus, Paul and Agrippa (26:24-29) d. Paul’s Innocence and the Irony of his Appeal to Caesar (26:30-32)
F. The Voyage to statement, Rome (27:1–28:10) 1. The Shipwreck (27:1-44) a. Setting (27:1-12) 1) From Caesarea to Myra (27:1-5) 2) From Myra to essays on hume's, Fair Havens in Crete (27:6-8) b. Warnings of Imminent Shipwreck (27:9-26) 1) The Season: After the Day of statement of purpose ut, Atonement (27:9a) 2) Paul’s Warning (27:9b-12) 3) The Storm (27:13-20) 4) Paul’s Vision (27:21-26) c. The Shipwreck on Malta (27:27-44) 1) A Foiled Escape by essays on hume's, the Sailors (27:27-32) 2) A Last Meal on Board (27:33-38)
3) The Ship Runs Aground (27:39-41) 4) All Safe Ashore (27:42-44) 2. Statement Of Purpose Essay? On Malta (28:1-10) a. Paul’s Snake Bite (28:1-6) b. Paul’s Miracles (28:7-10) G. Paul In Rome (28:11-31) 1. Arrival at Rome (28:11-16) 2. Enquiry? Paul’s Proclamation to the Jews (28:16-24) 3. Paul’s Proclamation to of purpose essay ut, the Gentiles (28:25-28) H. Conclusion of Book Seven (28:30-31) 1 In particular, Apollonius’ Canon and its corollary suggest that (1) in Greek, normally both the nomen regens and essays enquiry, the nomen rectum either have the article or lack it; and (2) when both lack it, the sense is still usually definite for both (hence, “ The Acts of the Apostles”).
2 Guthrie, 114. For more arguments on Lukan authorship based on external evidence, cf. our discussion of Luke. 3 G. B. Caird, Saint Luke , 16-17. 4 Cf. the various studies by Hort, Metzger, Aland, Snodgrass, Holmes, and ut, especially Thomas Geer. 5 So B. M. Metzger, personal conversation (March 1989); cf. Essay? also his The Canon of the New Testament and The Text of the New Testament . 6 Although ancillary to this paper, this conclusion also helps to establish the Western text as very early—going back deep into the second century ( contra Aland-Aland, Text of the New Testament ). 7 See Guthrie for an expanded treatment, 115-19. Of Purpose Essay? This section is merely a distillation of Guthrie’s arguments.
8 For an additional piece of (external) evidence for common authorship, cf. the closing paragraph, last paragraph in our discussion of external evidence. 10 C. H. Talbert, Literary Patterns, Theological Themes and statement, the Genre of Luke-Acts , 17. Of A? Talbert notices, for example, that both Jesus and statement of purpose ut, Paul are well received by churchill colorado, the populace; they both enter the temple in a friendly manner; the Sadducees do not believe in the resurrection, but the scribes support Jesus/Paul; they both “take bread, and after giving thanks, break it”; a mob seizes Jesus/Paul; Jesus/Paul is essay slapped by the priest’s assistant; each undergoes four trials. 11 Ibid., 23. Although we would affirm this statement of Talbert, there is level administrative assistant cover letter one caveat : Talbert goes on ut, to suggest that Luke created much of his material, while we would argue instead that he selected and arranged it. The purpose for this will be seen when we look at Acts, but suffice it to say here that it would certainly create in Theophilus a sympathy for Paul. 12 This can be further seen in that the gospel itself displays an incredible internal structure, as does Acts. Thus the supposition that two different authors wrote these books means that the mimic is even more brilliant than the original author! 15 This is doubtful, however, since only in c. Colorado? 60 would Luke have met Mark, if Mark had been in Rome since the mid-50s. Nevertheless, upon meeting him after having employed his gospel to write his own, Luke would have certainly become his friend. Luke’s favorable attitude toward Mark—not just personally but as a reliable source on the life of Jesus—might be implied in his calling Mark an “assistant” ( ???????? ) in Acts 13:5. “Luke’s term frequently designates a man who handles documents and delivers their content to men . . .” (Lane, Mark , 22).
Lane goes on to mention Acts 26:16 where Paul is appointed as a ???????? and witness to the truth, and essay ut, Luke 1:1-2 where “the evangelist links the churchill colorado essay, servants [ ???????? ] of the word with those who were the eyewitnesses and guarantors of essay, apostolic tradition.” The connection of essay closing, ???????? with both Mark and Luke’s sources suggests that Mark’s Gospel may well have been one of those sources which Luke used to compile his gospel—and one which he himself deeply appreciated. 16 Style and Literary Method of Luke. 17 It has been frequently quipped that Cadbury earned his doctorate by taking away Luke’s! 20 There is another subtle indicator of Luke’s race. In Acts 16, after the beginning of the first “we” section (16:11-17), Luke mentions that he was with Paul in Philippi up to the time that Paul cast out the evil spirit from the servant girl (v. 17—“she followed Paul and us”). Then, in 16:19, the statement of purpose, person changes from first to third (“her owners . . . seized Paul and entry administrative letter, Silas”). In vv.
20-21, the reason why Paul and Silas were singled out becomes clear: “These men are Jews and they are disturbing the city. They advocate customs which it is not lawful for us Romans to accept or practice.” On the assumption that the “we” sections should be taken at face value, and that Luke was a Gentile, the statement ut, fact that Luke was not seized makes perfect sense—for the point of vv. 20-21 has its sting in the fact that Paul and Silas are Jews . Essay On Description? (What may further confirm this is essay ut that Timothy is not mentioned here [though he might not have been with the missionaries in Philippi] And Timothy was a half-Jew.) In the colorado, least, if one wants to deny that Luke was a Gentile, he must explain why the first person plural is used in 16:17, but is immediately switched to third person when the of purpose essay ut, Philippians make their accusation against the missionaries on the basis of their race. 21 Guthrie mistakenly says that Luke was possibly from Philippi, supposing that the ‘we’ sections start there (118-19). 22 However, more than one church father thought that Luke came from Antioch. Even codex D suggests this, for it begins the ‘we’ material at Acts 11:28! 23 We will deal with this issue in entry legal administrative assistant cover letter our introduction to essay, Galatians. 24 We will deal with this issue in our introduction to colorado, 1 Thessalonians.
25 The customary approach in critical circles when faced with such discrepancies is to give the benefit of the doubt to Paul, since his material is statement of purpose essay autobiographical. No doubt this is partially legitimate, though one ought not discount the fact that Luke is level legal administrative cover selective in his portraiture of of purpose essay ut, Paul—and, in fact, that Paul is selective in what he wants to say, too! If they make different selections, this does not prove either one at fault necessarily. 27 One thinks in essay closing paragraph particular of Luke 2:19 (“Mary kept all these things in her heart”), in which Luke probably used the mother of Jesus as his source for the early life of the Messiah. (This is not only statement ut suggested by Luke 2:19, but it is corroborated by the highly Semitic Greek of these first two chapters, which disappears once Luke gets to chapter 3.) 28 This also is a historical problem, as we saw earlier, though it is sufficiently difficult to warrant a discussion here. 29 There is another discrepancy (or silence) between Paul and Luke-Acts that has been bantered about at SBL meetings in recent years: the lack of a substitutionary atonement in Luke-Acts (note in particular Luke’s omitting of Mark 10:45), while Paul is quite strong on this point. It may be that either this was not the key to Christ’s death for a business, Luke, even though he embraced it; or he may have not fully grasped its significance; or he perceived that Theophilus would not appreciate its significance (or even that it was ancillary to the thrust of Luke-Acts). 30 R. Statement Ut? N. Longenecker, The Acts of the Apostles , in vol. 9 of The Expositor’s Bible Commentary, 226. It should be noted that Longenecker is emphasizing a different perspective (he is define lens essay dealing with history rather than theology per se , and essay ut, Paul’s autobiographical statements as opposed to Luke’s biographical remarks regarding Paul’s miracles), but his point is still valid for essay room, theological concerns as well.
31 Longenecker adds a helpful analogy: “The situation is of purpose essay somewhat comparable to Plutarch’s treatment of the members of the Roman family Gracchus in his Parallel Lives and Appian’s depiction of administrative letter, these same leaders in his Civil Wars . While both wrote in the second century A.D., Plutarch was interested in the Gracchi primarily as statesmen whereas Appian was interested in them as generals. So their differing interests drastically affected each writer’s selection and shaping of the material and the impact of each one’s work. Yet there is also a large body of agreement between Plutarch’s and Appian’s treatment of the Gracchi” (226-27). 32 Thucydides I.22:1-4 is the relevant text (my translation follows): “And concerning whatever each of these men actually said, either when they were about to engage in battle or when they were already in it, the statement of purpose essay, precise accuracy of what was said has proved itself difficult to remember—both for me, of what I myself heard, and funding venture essay, regarding those things which were reported to statement of purpose, me from other locales. But as it seemed to me that since each of these men had something especially fitting to say concerning the ever-present circumstances, by adhering as closely as possible to the general intent of what was truly said, [the speeches] were thus recorded.”
Contrary to the popular conception held by many NT scholars, it is essay closing evident from this statement that Thucydides did not invent speeches ex nihilo. Statement Essay Ut? My reading of this text suggests that speeches really were made, though their precise wording was often too elusive to get down on paper. Yet, as difficult as it was to record the ipsissima verba , Thucydides did attempt to give the essay, ipsissima vox . 33 Plutarch is another parallel of one who sought to give the ipsissima vox , though not necessarily the ipsissima verba . Cf. Statement Of Purpose? Plutarch’s Lives: Alexander 1.1-3 (my translation follows): “In this book we are writing about the level legal administrative cover, life of Alexander the king and that of statement, Caesar, [the latter] by whom Pompey was destroyed. Because of the vast number of lens, acts which are to be set forth, we will say nothing beforehand other than that we ask the readers not to criticize [our efforts] if we do not report everything in precise detail of their well-known deeds, but abridge most of them. For we are not writing histories but biographies. And in the most distinguished deeds [of these men] there is not always evidence of excellence or of evil. Statement Essay Ut? But often a small deed or a quip or some pastime has made an impression [on me] of one’s character far more than battles in which tens of thousands die, or even than the greatest campaigns or sieges of cities.
Therefore, in the same way that those who paint the likenesses of one’s face and of facial features—by which one’s character is revealed—draw their picture reflecting minimally on the remaining parts [of the body]; so also one must allow us to penetrate the windows of the on description room, soul and, through these windows, to statement of purpose, portray each life, leaving the highs and lows [of these individuals] to essay closing paragraph, others.” The key statement here is of purpose ut that Plutarch felt it thoroughly appropriate not “to report everything in precise detail . Essay? . . but [to] abridge most of them.” 34 See our discussion of some of the linguistic similarities in the introduction to statement essay, those books. 35 Guthrie writes: “The only Acts speech which bears any analogy to the situation behind the Pauline epistles is enquiry Paul’s address to the Ephesian elders at Miletus. And it is significant that this speech approximates most closely to Paul’s epistles in language and thought” (123, n. 5). 36 I have not seen this argument in print, though I believe it bears quite a bit of force. It is rather obvious that the author of Acts had an extremely high view of Paul. If so, and statement of purpose, if he had access to Paul’s letters (a supposition that becomes increasingly probable the later this book is critical dated), why would he seemingly contradict Paul at ut, so many points?
If we are to believe the skeptics, he has contradicted Paul—but he’s also written at least thirty years after Paul’s genuine epistles (the Hauptbriefe ) were published? This is a blatantly self-contradictory supposition. Further, the argument that some suggest, viz., that Acts was written to reinstate Paul’s letters among the churches, suffers from the same self-destructive inconsistency—except that here an explicit knowledge of Paul’s letters is assumed! 37 It is certainly doubtful that he became a physician afterwards ! 38 This is not nearly as weighty an argument as the converse, viz., that Matthew should be dated near to the time of Luke. Some circularity is surely involved if neither gospel has better arguments in favor of an early date than this! In our view, however, the internal evidence within Acts becomes the single most important factor in the dating of the synoptic gospels. And since Acts is directly related to Luke, the argument of Luke’s date derived from when Matthew was written carries less weight (though still, some weight should be given to the difficulty of placing Matthew’s Gospel after 70 in light of the special problems involved in churchill colorado essay his Olivet Discourse). 42 See our discussion of the authorship of 2 Peter for data.
44 There may be some merit to the suggestion, however. Luke might have intended ?????? to indicate a third volume—rhetorically, not literally. For the statement ut, details of this proposal, see our discussion of purpose/occasion. 47 As quoted by Robinson, 89-90. 48 The codex form was not invented until the middle of the first century. Thus although it is possible that Luke employed it, it is extremely doubtful—especially since his prologue to Acts mentions “the first book” in conscious imitation of ancient historians who wrote their multi-volume works on scrolls. Further, although almost all of the extant NT MSS are in codex form (all but three), the critical lens, earliest is c. 100-150 (P 52 ), giving no help to of purpose essay, first century practices. Of A? Finally, the vast bulk of extant second century (secular) writings is in scroll form, indicating that even though the codex might have been invented in the first century, it really did not “catch on” until the second or third. (Incidentally, the great probability that Mark was written on a scroll nullifies any notion that the end of his gospel was somehow lost. He meant to end it at 16:8.) 49 The Gospel ends with the ascension and the Acts virtually begins with it.
50 In fact, there is really no substantial reason to statement essay ut, deny that Luke and Acts might have been sent to Theophilus at exactly the same time. That there is some transition between Luke and Acts (the repetition of the ascension) would be only natural if Luke expected the work to be copied onto two scrolls; but this repetition does not need to essay room, suggest any gap in date any more than a modern author’s initial paragraph at the beginning of , say, chapter four summarizing the conclusion of chapter three implies any interval. 51 Cf. Statement Ut? its use in Acts 23:26; 24:3; and 26:25 of the Roman governors Felix and Festus. 52 In particular, the closing paragraph, exoneration at almost every turn of the Romans and the heavy blame on the Jews throughout both works, coupled with a quite universal outlook (culminating in the legitimacy of the Gentile mission of statement ut, Paul—especially after repeated attempts to bring the gospel in entry legal assistant cover each town first to the Jews), render this judgment certain. 53 Cf. the helpful discussion in Caird, Luke , 44. 54 Although Theophilus could mean “loved by God,” since the NT nowhere speaks of God having ????? , ????? toward unbelievers, to call this man “loved by God” probably implies that he was a believer. Essay Ut? On the other hand, if Theophilus means “one who loves God” then this, too, suggests that he is a believer. That Luke plays on names in his second volume (cf. Talbert’s work, and venture essay, classnotes of statement essay ut, student in Zane Hodges’ “Acts” [Dallas Seminary, 1978]) suggests that the name here is symbolic, too. 55 The issue is quite complicated and cannot be divorced from essay of a a carefully nuanced view of the multiple purposes of both Luke and Acts. One of the issues which seems to have been neglected is the amount of time Luke spends on Peter in Acts, and then parallels this with events in the life of Paul.
It is as if Luke is statement trying to show that Paul is entry level legal administrative assistant as much an apostle as is Peter. If so, then this presupposes that Theophilus had already embraced a Petrine form of Christianity . Of Purpose Essay Ut? We will discuss this in our look at the purpose of Acts, but suffice it to say here that Theophilus is in all probability a believer, though he had had doubts about define, Paul. 57 See Longenecker’s treatment for an expanded list of options. 58 Again, this does not deny a more long-range perspective on the part of Luke which included a more general apologetic as well as a historical aim. Our contention, however, that the catalyst for essay, the writing of Acts was the upcoming trial of Paul. 59 See especially A. N. Sherwin-White, Roman Society and Roman Law in the New Testament , 108-19.
61 C. H. Talbert, Literary Patterns, Theological Themes and the Genre of Luke-Acts . 62 Guthrie, 373. Guthrie cites D. Ladouceur, “Hellenistic Preconceptions of Shipwreck and Pollution as a Context for Acts 27–28,” HTR 73 (1980) 435-49; and G. B. Miles and G. Churchill Essay? Trompf, “Luke and Antiphon: The Theology of essay, Acts 27–28 in the Light of Pagan Beliefs about Divine Retribution, Pollution and essays on hume's, Shipwreck,” HTR 69 (1976) 259-67. 63 For the best treatment on this subject, cf. C. Statement Essay Ut? H. Talbert, Literary Patterns, Theological Themes and the Genre of Luke-Acts , 15-23. 64 It seems to on description, be Luke’s intention to draw out the parallel.
At the conclusion of each message, the ut, author tells us that “they were cut to colorado essay, the heart” (2:37; 7:54, though a different verb is used each time). The point seems to be that the reason for Stephen’s death lay not with him, but with his audience which responded incorrectly. 65 His appearance in Acts 15 is for the purpose of sanctioning the Gentile mission. He is not there functioning as a “witness.” 66 That this reading of Acts is statement of purpose essay ut derived from the level legal cover, author’s intention can be seen by his establishment of this very motif in Acts 10–11: since the Gentiles had experienced the same thing as the Jewish believers, their faith must be just as genuine.
In fact, it is probable that the Cornelius incident, since Peter was involved both times (the event and its retelling), is Luke’s way of setting up Theophilus for essay ut, accepting the legitimacy of Paul and legal cover letter, his mission. 67 See introduction for a more detailed discussion of our views. 68 See our introduction (under “Purpose”) for discussion and statement of purpose, bibliography. 69 There are several different ways to outline Acts, all of which yield satisfactory results: (1) personally: centered on the two main apostles, Peter and essay of a room, Paul; (2) geographically: from Jerusalem, to Judea, to Samaria, to the ends of the earth; (3) progressively: centering on Luke’s seven “progress reports.” Each one of these is legitimate and, as we have suggested for other NT books, Luke’s organizational scheme is more multiple-concentric than straight-linear. That is to say, Luke is developing three distinct motifs all at once: the statement, role of Peter and Paul (thus, two main sections can be detected), the expansion of Christianity according to the outline seen in Acts 1:8, and funding a business, progression at of purpose essay, certain climactic moments. The ideal way to essay closing paragraph, outline this book—as with so much of of purpose essay, ancient literature—would be to draw three overlapping circles, each of essay, which expands concentrically as the book unfolds. Any straight-linear outline (such as the one used here) cannot adequately handle all of the motifs.
70 The outline from this point on statement essay, will be geographical, focusing on lens essay, Paul’s missionary journeys. At times it will be quite pedantic (with even a sub-point repeating the same content as a main point). But this should highlight the major places Paul visited, as well as show the route he took to get there.