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Mayfield Data Statistics Coursework - Lyce Seydina Limamou Laye

Statistics coursework mayfield data

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Gcse statistics coursework mayfield - Accademia 49

biograhpy Malcolm X was born Malcolm Little on statistics coursework May 19, 1925 in Omaha, Nebraska. Rousseau Essay? His mother, Louise Norton Little, was a homemaker occupied with the family#8217;s eight children. His father, Earl Little, was an outspoken Baptist minister and avid supporter of Black Nationalist leader Marcus Garvey. Earl#8217;s civil rights activism prompted death threats from the white supremacist organization Black Legion, forcing the family to relocate twice before Malcolm#8217;s fourth birthday. Regardless of the Little#8217;s efforts to statistics data, elude the Legion, in 1929, their Lansing, Michigan home was burned to the ground. Two years later, Earl#8217;s body was found lying across the town#8217;s trolley tracks.

Police ruled both incidents as accidents, but the Littles were certain that members of the Black Legion were responsible. Louise suffered emotional breakdown several years after the rousseau essay death of her husband and was committed to a mental institution, while her children were split up among various foster homes and mayfield orphanages. Eventually, Malcolm and his long-time friend, Malcolm #8220;Shorty#8221; Jarvis, moved back to Boston. In 1946, they were arrested and convicted on burglary charges, and Malcolm was sentenced to 10 years in prison, although he was granted parole after serving seven years. Recalling his days in school, he used the time to further his education. It was during this period of self-enlightenment that Malcolm#8217;s brother Reginald would visit and discuss his recent conversion to the Muslim religion. Reginald belonged to the religious organization the Nation of Islam (NOI). Apa 6th Dissertation Table? Intrigued, Malcolm began to study the teachings of NOI leader Elijah Muhammad. Muhammad taught that white society actively worked to keep African-Americans from empowering themselves and statistics achieving political, economic, and social success. Among other goals, the NOI fought for a state of their own, separate from one inhabited by white people. By the time he was paroled in writing intros for essays, 1952, Malcolm was a devoted follower with the new surname #8220;X#8221; (He considered #8220;Little#8221; a slave name and chose the #8220;X#8221; to signify his lost tribal name.).

Intelligent and statistics coursework mayfield articulate, Malcolm was appointed as a minister and national spokesman for the Nation of Islam. Elijah Muhammad also charged him with establishing new mosques in cities such as Detroit, Michigan, and Harlem. Essay Poem? Malcolm utilized newspaper columns, as well as radio and television, to coursework mayfield, communicate the NOI#8217;s message across the for essays United States. His charisma, drive, and coursework mayfield conviction attracted an astounding number of new members. Malcolm was largely credited with increasing membership in the NOI from 500 in 1952 to rousseau essay, 30,000 in 1963. Statistics Coursework Data? The crowds and controversy surrounding Malcolm made him a media magnet. He was featured in a weeklong television special with Mike Wallace in 1959, called The Hate That Hate Produced. The program explored the fundamentals of the NOI, and tracked Malcolm#8217;s emergence as one of writing intros for essays its most important leaders.

After the special, Malcolm was faced with the mayfield data uncomfortable reality that his fame had eclipsed that of his mentor Elijah Muhammad. In addition to the media, Malcolm#8217;s vivid personality had captured the government#8217;s attention. As membership in the NOI continued to grow, FBI agents infiltrated the organization (one even acted as Malcolm#8217;s bodyguard) and secretly placed bugs, wiretaps, cameras, and other surveillance equipment to monitor the group#8217;s activities. Malcolm#8217;s faith was dealt a crushing blow at the height of the writing for essays civil rights movement in 1963. He learned that his mentor and leader, Elijah Muhammad, was secretly having relations with as many as six women within the Nation of Islam organization. As if that were not enough, Malcolm found out that some of these relationships had resulted in children. Since joining the NOI, Malcolm had strictly adhered to the teachings of coursework mayfield Muhammad, which included remaining celibate until his marriage to Betty Shabazz in intros, 1958. Malcolm refused Muhammad#8217;s request to help cover up the affairs and subsequent children.

He was deeply hurt by coursework mayfield data, Muhammad#8217;s actions, because he had previously considered him a living prophet. Dissertation? Malcolm also felt guilty about the masses he had led to join the NOI, which he now felt was a fraudulent organization built on too many lies to ignore. Statistics? Shortly after his shocking discovery, Malcolm received criticism for writing for essays, a comment he made regarding the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. #8220;[Kennedy] never foresaw that the chickens would come home to roost so soon,#8221; said Malcolm. After the statement, Elijah Muhammad #8220;silenced#8221; Malcolm for 90 days. Malcolm, however, suspected he was silenced for another reason. In March 1964, Malcolm terminated his relationship with the NOI.

Unable to look past Muhammad#8217;s deception, Malcolm decided to found his own religious organization, the Muslim Mosque, Inc. That same year, Malcolm went on a pilgrimage to Mecca, which proved to be life altering for statistics coursework data, him. For the first time, Malcolm shared his thoughts and beliefs with different cultures and found the response to be overwhelmingly positive. When he returned, Malcolm said he had met #8220;blonde-haired, blued-eyed men I could call my brothers.#8221; He returned to rubrics dna, the United States with a new outlook on integration and a new hope for coursework mayfield data, the future. This time when Malcolm spoke, instead of just preaching to African-Americans, he had a message for all races. After Malcolm resigned his position in ap biology rubrics, the Nation of Islam and renounced Elijah Muhammad, relations between the coursework two had become increasingly volatile. FBI informants working undercover in the NOI warned officials that Malcolm had been marked for assassinationone undercover officer had even been ordered to help plant a bomb in Malcolm#8217;s car. Essay? After repeated attempts on his life, Malcolm rarely traveled anywhere without bodyguards. On February 14, 1965 the home where Malcolm, Betty, and their four daughters lived in East Elmhurst, New York was firebombed. Luckily, the family escaped physical injury.

One week later, however, Malcolm#8217;s enemies were successful in their ruthless attempt. At a speaking engagement in mayfield data, the Manhattan#8217;s Audubon Ballroom on February 21, 1965, three gunmen rushed Malcolm onstage. They shot him 15 times at rousseau essay, close range. The 39-year-old was pronounced dead on arrival at New York#8217;s Columbia Presbyterian Hospital. Fifteen hundred people attended Malcolm#8217;s funeral in Harlem on February 27, 1965 at the Faith Temple Church of God in Christ (now Child#8217;s Memorial Temple Church of data God in Christ). After the ceremony, friends took the shovels away from the proliferation weapons essay waiting gravediggers and buried Malcolm themselves. Statistics? Later that year, Betty gave birth to their twin daughters. Malcolm#8217;s assassins, Talmadge Hayer, Norman 3X Butler, and intros for essays Thomas 15X Johnson, were convicted of first-degree murder in March 1966. The three men were all members of the Nation of Islam. Statistics Mayfield? Malcolm X’s legacy has moved through generations as the subject of writing numerous documentaries, books, and coursework movies. A tremendous resurgence of interest occurred in 1992 when director Spike Lee released the acclaimed movie, Malcolm X. The film received Oscar nominations for Best Actor (Denzel Washington) and proliferation of nuclear weapons essay Best Costume Design.

Malcolm X is buried at the Ferncliff Cemetery in mayfield data, Hartsdale, New York.

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Sample Essay Responses and statistics coursework mayfield Rater Commentary for the Argument Task. The sample essays that follow were written in dissertation, response to the prompt that appears below . The rater commentary that follows each sample essay explains how the response meets the criteria for that score. For a more complete understanding of the criteria for each score point, see the Analyze an Argument Scoring Guide. In surveys Mason City residents rank water sports (swimming, boating and fishing) among their favorite recreational activities. The Mason River flowing through the city is rarely used for these pursuits, however, and the city park department devotes little of its budget to statistics coursework mayfield data maintaining riverside recreational facilities. Rousseau Essay. For years there have been complaints from residents about the quality of the river's water and the river's smell. Statistics Data. In response, the state has recently announced plans to clean up Mason River. Use of the apa 6th table of contents river for coursework mayfield data, water sports is therefore sure to of nuclear increase. The city government should for statistics, that reason devote more money in this year's budget to riverside recreational facilities.

Write a response in which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument. Be sure to explain how the argument depends on the assumptions and what the implications are if the assumptions prove unwarranted. Note: All responses are reproduced exactly as written, including errors, misspellings, etc., if any. While it may be true that the Mason City government ought to devote more money to riverside recreational facilities, this author's argument does not make a cogent case for rousseau essay, increased resources based on statistics coursework mayfield data, river use. Ap Biology Essay Rubrics. It is easy to coursework mayfield data understand why city residents would want a cleaner river, but this argument is rife with holes and assumptions, and thus, not strong enough to lead to increased funding.

Citing surveys of city residents, the author reports city resident's love of water sports. It is rousseau essay, not clear, however, the scope and validity of coursework that survey. For example, the survey could have asked residents if they prefer using the river for water sports or would like to see a hydroelectric dam built, which may have swayed residents toward river sports. The sample may not have been representative of city residents, asking only those residents who live upon the river. The survey may have been 10 pages long, with 2 questions dedicated to river sports. We just do not know. Unless the survey is fully representative, valid, and reliable, it can not be used to effectively back the and manners author's argument. Additionally, the author implies that residents do not use the river for statistics mayfield data, swimming, boating, and fishing, despite their professed interest, because the water is polluted and rousseau essay smelly. While a polluted, smelly river would likely cut down on river sports, a concrete connection between the resident's lack of river use and the river's current state is not effectively made. Statistics Coursework. Though there have been complaints, we do not know if there have been numerous complaints from a wide range of people, or perhaps from one or two individuals who made numerous complaints.

To strengthen his/her argument, the rousseau essay author would benefit from implementing a normed survey asking a wide range of residents why they do not currently use the river. Building upon the implication that residents do not use the river due to statistics the quality of the river's water and the smell, the author suggests that a river clean up will result in of a, increased river usage. If the river's water quality and statistics coursework mayfield smell result from problems which can be cleaned, this may be true. For example, if the decreased water quality and aroma is caused by pollution by factories along the river, this conceivably could be remedied. But if the quality and aroma results from the essay natural mineral deposits in statistics coursework mayfield data, the water or surrounding rock, this may not be true. There are some bodies of water which emit a strong smell of sulphur due to the geography of the area. This is not something likely to be afffected by a clean-up. Essay. Consequently, a river clean up may have no impact upon river usage.

Regardless of statistics coursework mayfield whether the river's quality is dissertation of contents, able to be improved or not, the author does not effectively show a connection between water quality and river usage. A clean, beautiful, safe river often adds to a city's property values, leads to increased tourism and coursework mayfield data revenue from those who come to take advantage of the river, and ap biology essay dna a better overall quality of life for coursework mayfield data, residents. Intros. For these reasons, city government may decide to invest in mayfield, improving riverside recreational facilities. Rubrics. However, this author's argument is not likely significantly persuade the city goverment to allocate increased funding. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 6.

This insightful response identifies important assumptions and thoroughly examines their implications. The essay shows that the proposal to spend more on riverside recreational facilities rests on three questionable assumptions, namely: that the survey provides a reliable basis for mayfield, budget planning that the river’s pollution and odor are the only reasons for its limited recreational use that efforts to clean the water and essay remove the odor will be successful. By showing that each assumption is highly suspect, this essay demonstrates the weakness of the entire argument. Statistics Coursework Data. For example, paragraph 2 points out rousseau essay that the survey might not have used a representative sample, might have offered limited choices, and might have contained very few questions on statistics coursework mayfield data, water sports. Paragraph 3 examines the tenuous connection between complaints and proliferation weapons limited use of the river for recreation. Complaints about water quality and odor may be coming from only a few people and, even if such complaints are numerous, other completely different factors may be much more significant in statistics coursework data, reducing river usage. Finally, paragraph 4 explains that certain geologic features may prevent effective river clean-up.

Details such as these provide compelling support. In addition, careful organization ensures that each new point builds upon the previous ones. For example, note the clear transitions at the beginning of paragraphs 3 and 4, as well as the logical sequence of sentences within paragraphs (specifically paragraph 4). Although this essay does contain minor errors, it still conveys ideas fluently. Note the effective word choices (e.g., rife with . . . Proliferation Essay. assumptions and data may have swayed residents). In addition, sentences are not merely varied; they also display skillful embedding of subordinate elements. Since this response offers cogent examination of the argument and conveys meaning skillfully, it earns a score of 6. The author of this proposal to increase the ap biology essay dna budget for Mason City riverside recreational facilities offers an interesting argument but to move forward on the proposal would definitely require more information and thought.

While the correlations stated are logical and probable, there may be hidden factors that prevent the City from diverting resources to this project. For example, consider the survey rankings among Mason City residents. The thought is that such high regard for water sports will translate into usage. Statistics Coursework Data. But, survey responses can hardly be used as indicators of actual behavior. Many surveys conducted after the winter holidays reveal people who list exercise and weight loss as a top priority. Yet every profession does not equal a new gym membership.

Even the wording of the survey results remain ambiguous and vague. While water sports may be among the residents' favorite activities, this allows for many other favorites. What remains unknown is the priorities of the general public. Rousseau Essay. Do they favor these water sports above a softball field or soccer field? Are they willing to sacrifice the municipal golf course for mayfield data, better riverside facilities? Indeed the survey hardly provides enough information to writing for essays discern future use of improved facilities. Closely linked to the surveys is the bold assumption that a cleaner river will result in increased usage. While it is not illogical to expect some increase, at what level will people begin to use the river?

The answer to this question requires a survey to find out the reasons our residents use or do not use the river. Is river water quality the primary limiting factor to usage or the statistics mayfield data lack of docks and piers? Are people more interested in water sports than the recreational activities that they are already engaged in? These questions will help the city government forecast how much river usage will increase and to assign a proportional increase to table the budget. Likewise, the author is optimistic regarding the state promise to clean the river. We need to hear the source of the voices and consider any ulterior motives. Is this a campaign year and the plans a campaign promise from the statistics coursework data state representative?

What is the timeline for the clean-up effort? Will the state fully fund this project? We can imagine the misuse of of nuclear weapons funds in renovating the riverside facilities only to watch the new buildings fall into dilapidation while the state drags the river clean-up. Last, the author does not consider where these additional funds will be diverted from. The current budget situation must be assessed to determine if this increase can be afforded.

In a sense, the City may not be willing to draw money away from statistics coursework data, other key projects from road improvements to schools and education. The author naively assumes that the money can simply appear without forethought on where it will come from. Examining all the various angles and factors involved with improving riverside recreational facilities, the argument does not justify increasing the on discipline and manners budget. While the proposal does highlight a possibility, more information is required to warrant any action. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 5. Each paragraph in the body of this perceptive essay identifies and examines an unstated assumption that is crucial to the argument. The major assumptions discussed are: that a survey can accurately predict behavior that cleaning the river will, in itself, increase recreational usage that state plans to statistics coursework mayfield data clean the river will actually be realized that Mason City can afford to weapons essay spend more on statistics coursework data, riverside recreational facilities. Support within each paragraph is both thoughtful and thorough.

For example, paragraph 2 points out essay rubrics dna vagueness in the wording of the survey: Even if water sports rank among the favorite recreational activities of Mason City residents, other sports may still be much more popular. Thus, if the statistics coursework mayfield data first assumption proves unwarranted, the of nuclear argument to fund riverside facilities rather than soccer fields or golf courses becomes much weaker. Paragraph 4 considers several reasons why river clean-up plans may not be successful (the plans may be nothing more than campaign promises or funding may not be adequate). Thus, the weakness of the third assumption undermines the argument that river recreation will increase and mayfield data riverside improvements will be needed at dna, all. Instead of dismissing each assumption in statistics mayfield data, isolation, this response places them in a logical order and considers their connections. Essay On Discipline. Note the appropriate transitions between and within paragraphs, clarifying the links among the assumptions (e.g., Closely linked to the surveys or The answer to this question requires. ).

Along with strong development, this response also displays facility with language. Minor errors in punctuation are present, but word choices are apt and sentences suitably varied in mayfield, pattern and length. The response uses a number of critical rhetorical questions, but the implied answers are always clear enough to support the points being made. Thus, the response satisfies all requirements for a score of mayfield 5, but its development is apa 6th of contents, not thorough or compelling enough for a 6. The problem with the arguement is the assumption that if the Mason River were cleaned up, that people would use it for water sports and recreation. This is coursework, not necessarily true, as people may rank water sports among their favorite recreational activities, but that does not mean that those same people have the financial ability, time or equipment to pursue those interests. However, even if the writer of the arguement is correct in assuming that the Mason River will be used more by the city's residents, the of a poem arguement does not say why the mayfield recreational facilities need more money.

If recreational facilities already exist along the Mason River, why should the city allot more money to of a fund them? If the recreational facilities already in existence will be used more in the coming years, then they will be making more money for themselves, eliminating the need for the city government to devote more money to them. According to the arguement, the reason people are not using the Mason River for water sports is because of the statistics coursework mayfield smell and the quality of water, not because the recreational facilities are unacceptable. If the city government alloted more money to the recreational facilities, then the budget is being cut from some other important city project. Rousseau Essay. Also, if the assumptions proved unwarranted, and more people did not use the river for recreation, then much money has been wasted, not only the money for the recreational facilities, but also the money that was used to clean up the river to coursework attract more people in the first place.

Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 4. This competent response identifies two unstated assumptions: that cleaning up the Mason River will lead to increased recreational use that existing facilities along the on discipline river need more funding. Paragraph 1 offers reasons why the statistics coursework mayfield first assumption is questionable (e.g., residents may not have the necessary time or money for water sports). Similarly, paragraphs 2 and critical essay of a poem 3 explain that riverside recreational facilities may already be adequate and may, in coursework mayfield, fact, produce additional income if usage increases. Thus, the response is adequately developed and satisfactorily organized to show how the argument depends on questionable assumptions. However, this essay does not rise to a score of dissertation of contents 5 because it fails to mayfield consider several other unstated assumptions (e.g., that the survey is ap biology essay rubrics, reliable or that the efforts to clean the river will be successful). Furthermore, the statistics coursework data final paragraph makes some extraneous, unsupported assertions of critical essay of a its own.

Mason City may actually have a budget surplus so that cuts to other projects will not be necessary, and cleaning the river may provide other real benefits even if it is not used more for water sports. This response is statistics data, generally free of errors in grammar and usage and displays sufficient control of language to support a score of 4. Surveys are created to rousseau essay speak for the people; however, surveys do not always speak for the whole community. A survey completed by Mason City residents concluded that the residents enjoy water sports as a form of recreation. If that is so evident, why has the river not been used?

The blame can not be soley be placed on the city park department. The city park department can only do as much as they observe. The real issue is not the residents use of the river, but their desire for a more pleasant smell and coursework mayfield a more pleasant sight. If the city government cleans the river, it might take years for essay, the smell to coursework mayfield go away. If the budget is changed to accomodate the essay poem clean up of the Mason River, other problems will arise. The residents will then begin to statistics coursework mayfield data complain about other issues in their city that will be ignored because of the great emphasis being placed on Mason River. Ap Biology Rubrics Dna. If more money is taken out of the statistics mayfield budget to clean the apa 6th dissertation table of contents river an statistics assumption can be made. This assumption is that the budget for another part of cit maintenance or building will be tapped into to. In addition, to the budget being used to clean up Mason River, it will also be allocated in increasing riverside recreational facilites. The government is trying to appease its residents, and one can warrant that the proliferation of nuclear weapons essay role of the government is to please the people. There are many assumptions being made; however, the statistics mayfield government can not make the assumption that people want the river to be cleaned so that they can use it for recreational water activities.

The government has to realize the long term effects that their decision will have on the monetary value of their budget. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 3. Even though much of this essay is tangential, it offers some relevant examination of the argument’s assumptions. The early sentences mention a questionable assumption (that the survey results are reliable) but do not explain how the essay on discipline survey might have been flawed. Then the response drifts to irrelevant matters a defense of the city park department, a prediction of budget problems and the problem of pleasing city residents. Some statements even introduce unwarranted assumptions that are not part of the original argument (e.g., The residents will then begin to complain about other issues and This assumption is that the budget for another part of mayfield city maintenance or building will be tapped into). Essay On Discipline And Manners. Near the end, the statistics coursework mayfield response does correctly note that city government should not assume that residents want to use the river for recreation. Hence, the ap biology proposal to coursework mayfield increase funding for rousseau essay, riverside recreational facilities may not be justified. In summary, the language in this response is reasonably clear, but its examination of unstated assumptions remains limited and therefore earns a score of 3. This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is not logical. First, this statement mentions raking water sports as their favorite recreational activities at the first sentence.

However, it seems to have a ralation between the statistics first sentence and the setence which mentions that increase the quality of the river's water and the river's smell. This is a wrong cause and result to solve the problem. Second, as a reponse to the complaints from residents, the state plan to clean up the river. As a result, the state expects that water sports will increase. When you look at two sentences, the result is not appropriate for the cause. Third, the last statement is the conclusion. However, even though residents rank water sports, the city government might devote the budget to another issue. This statement is also a wrong cause and result.

In summary, the statement is not logical because there are some errors in it. Writing. The supporting setences are not strong enough to coursework support this issue. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 2. Although this essay appears to apa 6th be carefully organized, it does not follow the statistics coursework mayfield data directions for the assigned task. In his/her vague references to causal fallacies, the writer attempts logical analysis but never refers to any unstated assumptions. Furthermore, several errors in grammar and sentence structure interfere with meaning (e.g., This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is ap biology rubrics, not logical).

Because this response does not follow the directions for statistics mayfield data, the assigned task and contains errors in sentence structure and logical development, it earns a score of 2. The statement assumes that everyone in Mason City enjoys some sort of recreational activity, which may not be necessarily true. The statement also assumes that if the state cleans up the weapons essay river, the use of the river for water sports will definitely increase. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 1. The brevity of this two-sentence response makes it fundamentally deficient. Sentence 1 states an assumption that is actually not present in the argument, and sentence 2 correctly states an assumption but provides no discussion of its implications.

Although the response may begin to address the assigned task, it offers no development. As such, it is clearly extremely brief . providing little evidence of an organized response and earns a score of 1. Register for the GRE General Test. Get never-before-offered official GRE practice tests, scores within minutes for mayfield data, all three measures and explanations for correct answers! Show schools only the scores you want them to see only with the ScoreSelect ® option.

Registration, Test Centers and Dates ¡ Registration, Test Centers and Dates ¡ Tests and Products. ETS Measuring the Power of apa 6th dissertation Learning. Statistics Data. ® Copyright 2017 by Educational Testing Service. Essay On Discipline And Manners. All rights reserved. All trademarks are property of their respective owners.

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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in statistics mayfield a while, it can be hard to know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for weapons essay the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and statistics data, trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place. And Manners? Read on for tips and tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it.

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That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to data the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively. If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to rousseau essay add some tasteful design elements or a little color to statistics mayfield make it pop. Of A? No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome.

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By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the rousseau essay, level of work or responsibility you needed to statistics achieve them. Writing For Essays? Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to coursework show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the benefit was to your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the critical of a, employer will receive by hiring you. If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out these tips for turning your duties into accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of statistics meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. And Manners? Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the result you’re going for! 20. Coursework Data? Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work.

There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to ap biology essay dna mix it up ! Use keywords in statistics coursework data your resume: Scan the proliferation weapons essay, job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in coursework applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to include? Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords.

What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . Of Contents? We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24. Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Coursework Mayfield? Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to apa 6th table of contents you getting the job than where you went to statistics coursework mayfield college. Rousseau Essay? 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to grab the reviewer’s attention. Statistics Mayfield? Don’t list your graduation dates.

The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from rousseau essay, college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at your university. Coursework Data? 28. Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the skills you need for your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and weapons essay, Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications.

Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is coursework mayfield expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Essay On Discipline And Manners? Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. If you have lots of skills related to mayfield a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out one of those sections and listing it on its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an “Interests” section on proliferation weapons, your resume, but only add those that are relevant to statistics mayfield the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company?

Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at proliferation of nuclear a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it. 32. Beware of statistics coursework mayfield data Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for your church on essay on discipline and manners, the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns.

Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the data, cause. Zhang explains here how to writing intros weigh the decision of mayfield data whether to include them or not. Do include awards and critical, accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to include them. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations.

If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume. Coursework Mayfield? According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in essay an interview. If you have gaps of data a few months in your work history, don’t list the usual start and end dates for each position. Rousseau Essay? Use years only (2010-2012), or just the statistics coursework data, number of proliferation of nuclear weapons years or months you worked at your earlier positions. Statistics Coursework Mayfield Data? If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to intros each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to coursework new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. Re-entering the essay rubrics, workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for statistics coursework mayfield a summary statement at essay the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work.

See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume. Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on your resume. For example, if you took time out of the workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out coursework mayfield there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to essay rubrics dna take this section of your resume seriously. 39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is coursework mayfield interested in you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to address the essay of a poem, obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and clear of typos.

And don’t rely on spell check and coursework data, grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at it for essay on discipline you (or get some tips from an editor on coursework mayfield, how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of writing for essays your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the mayfield, hiring manager has to take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to writing intros pull up your resume and make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills?

Add them in. When your resume is mayfield updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in ap biology tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is coursework data a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about elevating the standard of writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the company’s branded content team.

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essay simplicity Is consumer culture the data, ultimate fulfillment of for essays human destiny? Or are we entitled to hope for something more? Our current use of language, it must be said, does not bode well for those of us who live in hope, for coursework mayfield data consider what today is proudly called the ‘developed world’: In the critical of a poem, face of extreme poverty we see gross overconsumption; in the face of environmental degradation we see a fetishistic obsession with economic growth; in the face of social decay and spiritual malaise we see a vast corporate wasteland eating away at the future of humanity. Our collective imagination lies dormant. What is to mayfield data, be done? How now shall we live? Intended as an invitation to poem, an alternative way of life, this essay describes and evaluates the post-consumerist living strategy known as ‘voluntary simplicity,’ otherwise known as ‘downshifting.’[i] Our planet urgently needs us to explore alternative ways to statistics coursework, live,[ii] and one promising way to lessen our impact on nature is to essay, reject the high-impact lifestyles of consumer culture and voluntarily embrace ‘a simpler life’ of reduced consumption. Statistics Mayfield! The central insight of voluntary simplicity is that by lowering our ‘standard of living’ (measured by income/consumption) we can actually increase our ‘quality of on discipline and manners life’ (measured by mayfield, subjective wellbeing). Paradoxical though it may sound, voluntary simplicity is ap biology essay, about living more with less. Since there may be some who are unfamiliar with the term ‘voluntary simplicity,’ I thought I should begin this essay by offering a preliminary definition of the mayfield, central idea.

After doing so I will outline various ways that voluntary simplicity can be justified as a way of life, and I will also spend a short time discussing the practice of simplicity and the attitudes that make the critical essay of a poem, practice of simplicity possible. I will close with a brief statement concerning the statistics coursework data, importance of voluntary simplicity as an emerging counter-cultural force. How one should respond to these issues is a creative and of nuclear weapons intimately personal matter – the following pages contain more questions than answers – but I wish to highlight the point that voluntary simplicity is an expression of human freedom and an affirmation of statistics mayfield life, and I believe that the idea requires evaluation in of nuclear weapons, these terms. WHAT IS VOLUNTARY SIMPLICITY? Allow me to coursework, spend a moment laying some groundwork and trying to put this discussion in rubrics dna, some context. Mayfield! The economic problem of how to provide for proliferation weapons essay ourselves and our families, of how to secure the necessaries of life, has been solved for the vast majority of ordinary people in mayfield, western society.[iii] We are fabulously wealthy when considered in dissertation table, the context of all known history or when compared to the three billion human beings who today subsist on one or two dollars per day.[iv] As one leading economist has noted, ‘Most westerners today are prosperous beyond the dreams of their grandparents.’[v] The houses of typical families are bigger than ever and they are each filled with untold numbers of consumer products, like multiple TVs, racks of unused clothes, washing machines, dishwashers, dryers, vacuum cleaners, kitchen gadgets, garages full of ‘stuff,’ etc. Statistics! Houses are often centrally heated and ap biology rubrics have air-conditioning, with spare rooms, and statistics mayfield two cars parked outside. Table Of Contents! It is nothing for an average parent to spend one hundred dollars on a present for a child or to mayfield data, buy them a personal mobile phone. Most of us have spare income to spend on take-out food, alcohol, going to the movies, books, taking holidays, etc. We generally have access to sophisticated health care and free primary and secondary education. On top of all this, we live in intros for essays, a democracy, our water is clean, and almost nobody goes hungry.

All this is indicative of coursework mayfield a society that has attained unprecedented wealth, which I am not about to suggest is a bad thing, necessarily. But it is a prosperity which has proven extremely easy to take for granted, leaving many in the global middleclass still complaining about the hardness of their lot, and feeling deprived despite their plenty.[vi] What I am suggesting is that western society is, at last, rich enough to be truly free, free from material want; although, as I have implied, not many people seem willing to accept that this is so. Is it because the prospect of freedom is terrifying? Perhaps it is terrifying because, once we recognize the sufficiency of our material situations and are able to quench the upward creep of critical of a material desire, we are forced to give an answer to that great question of what to do with the radical freedom that material sufficiency provides – a freedom which I believe is on offer to us today.

But rather than face this ultimate human question, many people today seem to have climbed or fallen upon a consumerist treadmill, and become enslaved, consciously or unconsciously, to a lifestyle in which too much consumption is never enough. There is no end to consumer cravings, for mayfield data as soon as one is of nuclear weapons essay, satisfied, two pop up. The goal in life does not seem to be material sufficiency, but material excess. In such cases, it seems to statistics, me, a life of freedom does not often arise. Despite the fact that western society is apa 6th table of contents, several times richer than it was in the 50s, at the beginning of the 21 st century we are confronted by what social critic Clive Hamilton has called an ‘awful fact.’[vii] Despite the unprecedented levels of material wealth, there is a growing body of social science which indicates that people today are no more satisfied with their lives than people were in the 50s and 60s.[viii] In other words, it seems that increases in personal and social wealth have stopped increasing our wellbeing. Getting richer is no longer making us any happier . It is troubling, therefore, to see that our whole society is geared towards maximizing wealth . As Henry David Thoreau would say, ‘We labor under a mistake.’[ix] Is it possible that we have reached a stage in our economic development where the process of getting richer is now causing the very problems that we seem to coursework mayfield, think getting richer will solve? As one of Thoreau’s disciples, I wish to suggest that we have.

I wish to apa 6th table of contents, suggest that, however suitable the pursuit of more wealth and higher standards of living were in the past, today that pursuit has become not just wasteful but dangerously counter-productive – fetishistic, even. Consumer culture, which everyday is being globalized further, has failed and coursework is still failing to fulfill its promise of a better life. Dissertation Table! It has even begun taking away many of things upon which our wellbeing depends, such as community life,[x] a work/life balance,[xi] spiritual and aesthetic experience,[xii] and a healthy natural environment.[xiii] We can no longer just fall in line, then, and continue the statistics mayfield, march ‘business as usual.’ We must explore alternative ways to dissertation table, live. We must experiment creatively, like the artist. We must be the poets of our own lives and of a new generation. That is the invitation/incitation embodied in this essay. Voluntary simplicity, or simple living, is a post-consumerist living strategy that rejects the materialistic lifestyle of consumer culture and affirms what is coursework mayfield data, often just called ‘the simple life,’ or ‘downshifting.’ The rejection of consumerism arises from the recognition that ordinary western consumption habits are destroying the planet; that lives of high consumption are unethical in a world of critical essay poem great human need; and that the meaning of life does not and cannot consist in the consumption or accumulation of material things.

Extravagance and statistics coursework data acquisitiveness are accordingly considered an unfortunate waste of life, not so much sad as foolish, and certainly not deserving of the social status and admiration they seem to attract today. The affirmation of simplicity arises from the proliferation weapons, recognition that very little is needed to live well – that abundance is a state of mind, not a quantity of consumer products or attainable through them. Sometimes called ‘the quiet revolution,’[xiv] this approach to life involves providing for material needs as simply and mayfield data directly as possible, minimizing expenditure on consumer goods and services, and directing progressively more time and energy towards pursuing non-materialistic sources of satisfaction and on discipline meaning.[xv] This generally means accepting a lower income and a lower level of consumption, in statistics coursework mayfield, exchange for rousseau essay more time and freedom to pursue other life goals, such as community or social engagements, family time, artistic or intellectual projects, more fulfilling employment, political participation, sustainable living, spiritual exploration, reading, conversation, contemplation, relaxation, pleasure-seeking, love, and so on – none of which need to rely on money, or much money. The grounding assumption of voluntary simplicity is that all human beings have the coursework, potential to live meaningful, free, happy, and infinitely diverse lives, while consuming no more than an equitable share of nature. Ancient but ever-new, the essay poem, message is that those who know they have enough are rich.[xvi] According to this view, personal and social progress is statistics, measured not by the conspicuous display of wealth or status, but by increases in writing, the qualitative richness of statistics coursework mayfield data daily living, the cultivation of essay on discipline and manners relationships, and statistics mayfield data the development of social, intellectual, aesthetic, and spiritual potentials.[xvii] As Duane Elgin has famously defined it, voluntary simplicity is ‘a manner of living that is outwardly simple and inwardly rich, … a deliberate choice to live with less in the belief that more life will be returned to us in the process.’[xviii]

Voluntary simplicity does not , however, mean living in poverty, becoming an ascetic monk, or indiscriminately renouncing all the apa 6th table of contents, advantages of science and technology. Statistics Coursework Data! It does not involve regressing to a primitive state or becoming a self-righteous puritan. And it is not some escapist fad reserved for saints, hippies, or eccentric outsiders. Rather, by examining afresh our relationship with money, material possessions, the planet, ourselves and each other, ‘the simple life’ of voluntary simplicity is essay, about discovering the data, freedom and contentment that comes with knowing how much consumption is truly ‘enough.’ And this might be a theme that has something to say to everyone, especially those of us who are everyday bombarded with thousands of cultural messages insisting that ‘more is always better.’ Voluntary simplicity is an art of living that is aglow with the insight that ‘just enough is plenty.’ The spirit of late capitalist society, however, cries out like a banshee for us to expend our lives pursuing middle-class luxuries and coloured paper, for us to become faceless bodies dedicated to essay on discipline, no higher purpose than the acquisition of nice things.

We can embrace that comfortable unfreedom if we wish, that bourgeois compromise. But it is not the only way to live. Voluntary simplicity presents an alternative. So as not to be misunderstood, I now wish to clarify and statistics elaborate on a few points that I have just made, by ap biology essay dna, distinguishing voluntary simplicity from what it is mayfield data, not . Voluntary simplicity is not a glorification of rubrics dna poverty. Nor does it deny that a small percentage of people in statistics coursework mayfield, western society, and a large percentage around the rest of the essay of a poem, world, still live lives oppressed by material deprivation. Far from glorifying or ignoring poverty, voluntary simplicity is about the statistics data, importance of understanding and attaining material sufficiency , a concept that is all but unthinkable in a culture that generally assumes that ‘more is critical essay of a, always better.’ My point is that living simply involves having an honest answer to the question of ‘How much consumption is enough?, and then honestly attaining that much, and not bothering with superfluities. And the voluntary simplicity movement is demonstrating, through the lives of millions of participants, that surprisingly little is mayfield, needed to live well and to be free, if only life is approached with the right attitude.[xix]

Just as voluntary simplicity does not mean living in poverty, nor does it imply that people must leave the city to live to the country or join a hippie commune. Although some may decide that, for example, the life of an independent, self-sufficient rural farmer is dissertation table, a very good and natural way to live, it will not be for everybody; nor will joining a hippie commune. Indeed, learning how to live more sustainably in an urban setting strikes me as one of the greatest challenges of our age, especially since our political and economic institutions and our social infrastructure make urban simple living, especially, much more difficult than it needs to coursework mayfield data, be, a point which I will touch on again later.[xx] For now, suffice it to say that voluntary simplicity is not synonymous with the ‘back to the land movement’ or the counter-cultures that arose in the 60s and 70s. I should note, however, that these movements do share some common ideals with voluntary simplicity, such as anti-consumerism, a reverence for nature, and table non-violent resistance to statistics data, unjust features of our society. Voluntary simplicity, furthermore, does not mean indiscriminately renouncing all the advantages of writing intros science and technology . It does not mean living in mayfield data, a cave, giving up electricity, or rejecting modern medicine. Writing For Essays! But it does question the assumption that science and coursework mayfield data technology are the only paths to health, happiness, and freedom. To live simply, as I am using the proliferation of nuclear weapons essay, phrase, is to statistics mayfield data, at least put one’s mind to the question of whether some new technology or scientific discovery actually improves our lives, or whether, on table the contrary, it ultimately costs us more than it comes to, in terms of ‘life.’ Furthermore, the simple liver might come to see that there is a certain elegance and coursework sophistication to writing, the clothesline or the bicycle that the statistics coursework mayfield, washing machine and the automobile decidedly lack.

The simple liver will not build a ten billion dollar, hi-tech, desalination plant. The simple liver will install a water tank and think up ways to use less water. Critical Poem! Rather than using central heating, the statistics coursework, simple liver will be inclined to put on writing intros for essays a sweater. And so on and so forth. Soon enough a new form of life emerges. Now that I have offered a preliminary definition of voluntary simplicity, I now wish to say a few words on why, exactly, we might want to statistics coursework mayfield, adopt voluntary simplicity, why we might want to step out of the rush and begin shaping a simple life of our own. Ap Biology Essay Rubrics! I have divided my discussion of statistics this question into four overlapping sections – personal, social, environmental, and critical of a poem spiritual. Consumer culture can distract us from what is best in statistics, our lives, and it functions to keep many locked in a work-and-spend cycle that has no end and attains no lasting satisfaction. But if we rethink our relationship with money and critical poem possessions, we may be able to statistics coursework mayfield, free up more time and energy for essay rubrics the pursuit of what truly inspires us and statistics mayfield makes us happy, whatever that may be. In this way voluntary simplicity can be seen to of nuclear, enhance the meaning of our lives. I begin with this point not because it is the most important, necessarily, but because I believe that if the voluntary simplicity movement is to expand, it must be shown that simple living does not generate deprivations, but actually frees people from an insidiously addictive consumerism and an unhealthy relationship with money and ‘stuff.’[xxi]

Rather than dedicating one’s life to coursework data, the pursuit of riches or status, simple livers are more likely to have a balanced working life or even work part-time, and are more likely to ap biology essay dna, seek fulfilling employment and accept a modest income, rather than get too hung up about a high salary. Mayfield Data! With less time devoted to acquiring expensive things, simple livers will have more time to spend with friends and family, and more time to spend pursuing their private passions or enjoying their civic responsibilities.[xxii] The point is that disciplined and enlightened moderation with respect to rousseau essay, our material lives will not tend to give rise to any sense of deprivation, but will ultimately lead to a happiness, a satisfaction, and a freedom far greater than that which is ordinarily known in the hectic, dead-end lifestyles of consumer culture. In short, many are drawn to statistics data, simplicity because they want to escape the rat race and live more with less.[xxiii] Although there are indeed many personal incentives for adopting voluntary simplicity, it would be an impoverished philosophy that sought to justify itself only in relation to personal self-interest. For that reason, it is critical of a, important to recognize that there are also many social and statistics coursework mayfield data humanitarian reasons for apa 6th of contents adopting voluntary simplicity. Living simply can be a powerful lifestyle response to social injustices, and many people are drawn to simplicity because it can be understood to be an coursework data, act of sharing, an act of human solidarity. It can therefore foster a heightened sense of human community, both locally and globally. One obvious way to weapons, share with others is simply to take less, to try to take only what one needs for a dignified life, and no more. Mayfield! This may not be easy, but it could be said that before the problem of global poverty can ever be solved, those in the consuming middleclass will need to rousseau essay, show some enlightened, compassionate restraint in relation to their material lives, and accept that in coursework mayfield, a world of great human need the wasteful consumption of material things is an unambiguous act of violence. The global population is expected to essay, approach nine or ten billion by the middle of this century, and trends indicate that most of these extra souls will find themselves born into the Third World.[xxiv] This, among other factors, has lead the United Nations to publish several urgent and strongly worded warnings to the effect that if First World attitudes to consumption persist, then future generations not so far away should expect humanitarian crises beyond what we have ever experienced.[xxv]

Fortunately, at least part of the solution is at hand. As Mahatma Gandhi once said, ‘Live simply so that others may simply live.’ As well as personal and social reasons for simplifying, there are, of course, also environmental reasons for adopting voluntary simplicity. It is becoming increasingly obvious to more and more people that simpler living, in some form or another, is needed to save our planet from real ecological disaster, and that lifestyles of reduced consumption will be a necessary part of statistics coursework any sustainable future for human civilization.[xxvi] We know this very well, I suspect, both in our heads and in our hearts, so I need not review the details of the environmental predicament which is beginning to define our age. Let me just assert, then, that simple living is one very promising way – if not the most promising way – to personally confront global environmental problems such as climate change, pollution, and the overconsumption of non-renewable resources. And given what is at of nuclear stake here – the health of the life-support system we call Earth – perhaps this should be justification enough for everyone. Finally, for statistics coursework immediate purposes, there are what could be called spiritual reasons for living simply. I acknowledge that I am now touching on a very private matter – ‘private,’ not because spiritual exploration must be done alone, but because nobody can do it for us. By shifting attention from the essay rubrics, material to the non-material side of life, voluntary simplicity can facilitate a deeper awareness of the spiritual dimension of being. I will not now argue this point, however, since it is one that I suspect can only be experienced, not explained; at least, not explained by me. I will only say this: That if we take time to isolate ourselves from consumer culture for long enough to unlearn it, for statistics coursework mayfield data long enough to rouse ourselves from the table of contents, daze of unexamined habit and reopen the doors of perception, we just might provoke a surprisingly fresh interpretation of the form of life behind, as well as provoke a new appreciation of the possibilities of an alternative mode of being.

In other words, when we let ourselves be enchanted by ordinary experience,[xxvii] it quickly becomes clear that ‘a simple life’ is a profoundly beautiful life, one that is exciting and worth living. For simplicity is nothing if it is statistics coursework, not an affirmative state of mind, an authentic celebration of life, and it is a state of mind that often seems to reflect a mystical interpretation of rousseau essay life and coursework mayfield a deep reverence for nature, even if one does not subscribe to any traditional religion nor any crude pantheism. Earlier generations confronted spiritual questions face to face, we through their eyes. But why, as Emerson would insist, should we not also enjoy an original relation to the universe?[xxviii] THE PRACTICE OF SIMPLICITY.

Having now defined voluntary simplicity and offered a few words on essay why we might embrace it as a living strategy, it is important, I think, to say at statistics mayfield least a few words about the practice of simplicity, about ‘how’ exactly one might go about apa 6th dissertation table, simplifying one’s life, and ‘how’ one might try to live the idea , if one were convinced that this way of life was desirable. I will, however, be very brief on this aspect of mayfield data simplicity, not because it isn’t important. Obviously, it is very important. But the fact is that there is no Doctrine or Code of Simplicity to follow, as such. There is no Method or Equation of Simplicity into apa 6th dissertation table of contents which we can plug the facts of our lives and be told how to statistics coursework mayfield data, live. That is precisely what the idea cannot do – but perhaps that suits your disposition as well as it does mine. Voluntary simplicity, as I have said, is writing for essays, more about questions than answers, which implies that practicing simplicity calls for creative interpretation and coursework mayfield personalized application.

It is not for me, therefore, or for anyone, to prescribe universal rules on of a poem how to live simply. We each live unique lives, and we each find ourselves in different situations, with different capabilities, and different responsibilities. Statistics Coursework! Accordingly, the practice of simplicity by one person, in one situation, will very likely involve different things to a different person, in a different situation. But, as I have implied, I do not think that this practical indeterminacy is an objection to rousseau essay, the idea. With that proviso noted, allow me say a few general and very brief words on what a simple life might look like and how one might begin to live it. Money: Although living simply is much more than just living cheaply and mayfield consuming less – it is also a state of mind – spending wisely plays an rousseau essay, important role. The following exercise may surprise you: Over a one month period, record every purchase you make, and then categorize your expenses. Multiply each category by twelve to get a rough estimate of the annual cost. Then consider how much of your time and energy you spent obtaining the money required to data, buy everything you consumed that month. Question not only the amount of money you spent on each category, but also the categories on which you spent your money. You might find that seemingly little purchases add up to an inordinate amount over proliferation of nuclear a whole year, suggesting that the money might be better spent elsewhere, not at all, or exchanged for more time by working less.

One does not have to be a tightwad, as such, only thoughtful. ‘The cost of a thing,’ after all, ‘is the amount of life which is required to be exchanged for it.’[xxix] You may find that some small changes to your spending habits, rather than inducing any sense of deprivation, will instead be life-affirming.[xxx] And when it comes to statistics coursework, spending our money we should always bear in mind Vicki Robin’s profound democratic insight: That how we spend our money is ap biology essay dna, how we vote on what exists in the world. Coursework! If this is true, then the global middleclass has the potential to become a non-violent revolutionary class and change the world, simply by changing its spending habits. Money is power, and rousseau essay with this power comes responsibility. I repeat: How we spend our money is how we vote on what exists in the world. Shelter: Housing or accommodation is typically life’s greatest expense, so we should think especially carefully about where we live and why, and how much of our lives we are prepared to spend seeking a nicer home. Statistics Coursework Mayfield! Exactly what kind of shelter does one need to live well and to be free? Obviously, we must answer this question for ourselves, but again the words of Henry David Thoreau might give us a moment’s pause: ‘Most people appear never to have considered what a house is, and rubrics dna are actually though needlessly poor all their lives because they think that they must have such a one as their neighbors have.’[xxxi] The individual or family who today is admired for a large and luxurious house might find that our culture comes to admire those who have learned how to coursework, combine functional simplicity and beauty in apa 6th dissertation, a smaller, much more modest, home.[xxxii] Clothing: The historic purpose of statistics coursework data clothing, of course, was to keep us warm and, in time, for reasons of modesty. Poem! Today its primary purpose seems to coursework data, be fashion and the conspicuous display of wealth and status.

People can, of course, spend thousands and thousands of dollars on clothing if they want, in of nuclear essay, search of statistics coursework data themselves. Apa 6th Dissertation Table! But we should never forget that functional, second-hand clothing can be obtained extremely cheaply. And those who ‘dress down’ often express themselves more uniquely than those who are limited to the styles found in shopping malls or who try to statistics coursework mayfield data, imitate celebrities. Many hundreds of billions of dollars are spent each and of a every year on statistics coursework mayfield data the fashion industry. Just imagine if even half of that money was redirected towards green energy or humanitarian initiatives? We would lose so little and gain so much. Once again, how we spend our money is how we vote on what exists in the world. Food: Eating locally, eating green, eating out in intros for essays, moderation, eating less meat, eating simply and creatively – I know by experience this can be done very cheaply. Given some thought and a little discipline, a good diet can be obtained at statistics coursework mayfield data a surprisingly low cost, especially if you are able to cultivate your own garden, which is essay on discipline and manners, a very natural and strangely satisfying thing to do.

Work: I have just outlined, with a very broad brush, a voluntarily simplistic perspective on statistics coursework data acquiring the apa 6th dissertation of contents, most basic necessities of life – shelter, clothing, and statistics mayfield data food. Proliferation Weapons! Once upon a time these necessities could be obtained by hunting and gathering in the commons, but in our day and age, of course, they must be obtained through economic transactions in the marketplace, usually through the medium of money, which we must work to coursework, acquire. It is important to consider, therefore, however briefly, the question of employment. When it comes to work, we would do well, I believe, to more carefully put our minds to the question of essay dna what our time is worth. For once we have obtained the necessities of life, and have acquired a few comforts appropriate for a dignified life, there is another alternative than to spend our lives working to obtain material superfluities. And that is to coursework data, pass up those superfluities and instead ‘adventure on life now,’ as Thoreau would say, ‘our vacation from humbler toil having commenced.’[xxxiii] From the perspective of voluntary simplicity, this exchange of money for essay of a time will often prove to be a very good trade. If we keep raising our standard of living every time we come into more money, through a raise, for example; or if we keep raising our standard of living every time we become more productive, through some new technological development, for example; then we will never shorten our working week. Most westerners, especially North Americans, are working longer hours today than they were in the 50s,[xxxiv] despite being many times richer and many times more productive. Why should we always be working for more consumer products and not sometimes be content with less?

Why should we not accept a lower standard of mayfield living and work half as much? Who can say what wonders such a cultural style might not bring! The immediate point is simply that if we can embrace the simple life and stop the upward creep of material desire, then we can take some of our pay increases or increases in table of contents, productivity, not in terms of dollars and statistics things, but in ‘freedom’ instead. Ap Biology Rubrics Dna! Again, this seems like it would be a very good trade – a no-brainer, even. But history suggests that most westerners will choose otherwise. The ruts of coursework mayfield data conformity run deep. A Thumbnail Sketch: A comprehensive guide to simple living would obviously require much more space than is available here, so let me just round off this part of my discussion by proliferation weapons, summarizing what simple living tends to involve. It tends to involve thoughtful thrift and environmentally and socially conscientious spending habits.

It can involve recognizing that there is no good reason for desperately trying to ‘keep up with the Joneses,’ since modest accommodation and few possessions are perfectly sufficient to live a free and statistics data happy life. Simple living can involve buying secondhand clothing and furniture, creating one’s own style, and rejecting high fashion. It might involve cultivating a garden, eating simply, locally, and creatively, and rousseau essay discovering that doing so can be both cheap and satisfying. And it might involve riding a bike instead of mayfield driving a car, choosing a washing line over rousseau essay a dryer, or even something as simple as choosing a book over television. Rather than stay at a luxurious resort, the statistics coursework mayfield, simple liver might spend $12 a night bush camping in midst of nature. Rather than work long hours to afford a life dedicated to consumption, the simple liver might step out intros, of the rush and reduce working hours, freeing up more time to paint, play the piano, meditate, spend with family, read, walk in Nature, etc. Rather than choose competition, the statistics coursework data, simple liver is likely to choose community. Not money, but meaning. And so on rousseau essay and so forth, until the data, very elements of life have been transformed. Despite these tentative remarks on how to practice simplicity, I wish to reiterate that there is not one way to live the simple life, and that anyone who wishes to embrace simplicity must be prepared to on discipline, think over the idea for oneself, until it takes root in statistics mayfield, personal experience. I am convinced, however, both by faith and by experience, that if someone is writing, genuinely committed to the idea of simplicity then that person, with a little courage and some imaginative effort, will find a way to shape a simple life of their own.

Start with a few small steps, enjoy the adventure, and mayfield soon enough your life has changed. From what I have said so far, it should be clear that voluntary simplicity embodies a way of life that is very different from the high consumption, materialistic lifestyle that is ap biology essay, widely celebrated in coursework data, advanced capitalist society today. And it should be of concern to all those who are sympathetic to voluntary simplicity that this way of life is given very little serious attention by politicians and the mass media, two of the most powerful forces in our society. Rousseau Essay! Our politicians and the mass media seem not just indifferent but fundamentally opposed to the idea of voluntary simplicity, despite the occasional lip-service that is paid to the social and environmental problems caused by data, overconsumption. It is little surprise, then, that to of a, date the voluntary simplicity movement has not entered the mainstream, although perhaps some light is beginning to break through the crust of convention, albeit with much difficulty.[xxxv]

The mass media, in statistics mayfield data, particular, has very little interest in promoting voluntary simplicity, since it is, by in large, made up of privately owned corporations, each of which is driven almost exclusively by the incentive of private profits. Corporate shareholders, by definition, it seems, want us only to consume more and more – never less. Indeed, many of the world’s most sophisticated psychologists are today hired by corporations as ‘marketers,’ and I do not think it misrepresents the situation to say that these marketers spend all day thinking up ways to make us – potential consumers – feel dissatisfied with what we have, despite our plenty, in order to get us buy things we didn’t even know we wanted and on discipline certainly didn’t need. Statistics Coursework Mayfield! The message they convey in their slick, ever-present advertisements is writing intros for essays, that more money, more material things, more consumption, is coursework mayfield data, what is apa 6th table, needed to improve our lives. And we are easily persuaded.[xxxvi] Disappointingly, we can perceive the very same message in the rhetoric of our so-called ‘political representatives.’ In the newspapers everyday, on the television news every night, and statistics coursework mayfield throughout every political campaign I have ever experienced, political parties seem to assume that it is their overriding objective to maximize economic growth. Almost every political party, whether on the Left or the Right, claims that they will run the economy ‘best,’ by which it is implied that they will increase our standard of living, make us all richer, and make us better able to buy more things – as if that were the solution to all our problems. This is a point that has been picked up on and criticized heavily by essay poem, Clive Hamilton, who I mentioned earlier. Statistics Coursework Mayfield Data! To oversimplify slightly, he sums up contemporary public policy as follows: Unemployment is dissertation table of contents, high: only economic growth can create the jobs; schools and hospitals are under-funded: economic growth will improve the budget; protection of the environment is too expensive: the solution is economic growth; poverty is entrenched: economic growth will rescue the poor; income distribution is unequal: economic growth will make everyone better off.[xxxvii] Just as with the mayfield, mass media, the point is that our politicians are telling us that more money and more consumer products are the ap biology essay rubrics dna, key to statistics mayfield, a better life. Voluntary simplicity rejects this approach.

To repeat a phrase mentioned earlier, in stark contrast to the idea that ‘more is always better,’ voluntary simplicity is an art of living that is aglow with the insight that ‘just enough is plenty.’ But, whether we like it or not, most of essay and manners us today have been educated into coursework mayfield data a materialistic culture that assumes the legitimacy of writing intros for essays ever-higher levels of consumption. Even though we are now aware that ordinary western-style consumption habits are destroying the statistics mayfield data, planet, we think that it is normal and acceptable for the mass media and our politicians to essay on discipline, dedicate themselves to encouraging and facilitating ever higher levels of consumption. So embedded are we in consumer culture that these perversities seem natural and inevitable; facts of life; just the way the world is. Coursework Data! An alternative is of a, almost unthinkable and largely unspeakable. When a whole society is geared towards producing and then consuming ever-more consumer products, it can be very difficult for coursework mayfield data people to dna, live and think differently, even for those of coursework us who want to. As I see it, there is no easy, silver-bullet, solution to ap biology rubrics, this problem. But one step that can be taken is to dedicate more of our attention to exploring alternatives, and that was one motivation I had for coursework mayfield writing and publishing this essay. Obviously, just reading and talking about voluntary simplicity is not enough to change our lives and our society, but I am convinced that it is an on discipline and manners, important and perhaps necessary first step.

In a world such as ours, focused so intently on making money, it is important that we occasionally take time to step back and ask ourselves, ‘What is money is for ?” and coursework mayfield “What is our economy for ?” For when we ask ourselves these questions, it quickly becomes apparent that the on discipline and manners, meaning of life does not and cannot consist in the consumption and accumulation of statistics coursework mayfield data material things. There is more to life than desiring big houses, new carpet, fine clothing, expensive cars, and luxurious holidays, etc. There is essay and manners, freedom from such desires.[xxxviii] What I am suggesting is that ‘the simple life’ is statistics coursework mayfield, a viable alternative to writing for essays, consumer culture, one that will improve not only statistics coursework, our own lives, but the lives of others, and, at the same time, help save the planet from the environmental catastrophe towards which we are so enthusiastically marching. By reading and of nuclear weapons talking about data, voluntary simplicity, I believe we can revolutionize – a term I do not use lightly – the form of life we have inherited from the past. Proliferation Of Nuclear Essay! By giving more attention to coursework mayfield, alternatives to consumer culture, we will discover that there are other, better, more fulfilling ways to on discipline and manners, live.

By acting upon this realization, we can reshape our own lives, improve our culture, and upset the statistics mayfield, ruts of ap biology essay dna conformity. We can better face the social and coursework environmental challenges which confront us today, and which will undoubtedly confront us for all of the foreseeable future. What we can be sure of is writing intros, that the 21 st century will be defined, to a large extent, by coursework mayfield data, how we today deal with the problems caused by overconsumption – not only essay on discipline, how we deal with them politically and economically, but perhaps most importantly how we deal with them through the everyday decisions we make in our private lives. And it is for this reason that the idea of voluntary simplicity gives me such hope, because it shows (although perhaps this is obvious) that the power to change the world ultimately lies in data, the hands of ordinary people. It is a reminder that, in the end, the nature of a society is the product of nothing more or less than the rousseau essay, countless number of small decisions made by private individuals. The corollary of this, of course, is that those small decisions, those small acts of coursework data simplification – insignificant though they may seem in isolation – can be of of contents revolutionary significance when added up and taken as a whole. And that, I wish to data, emphasize, is one of the central messages I would like to rousseau essay, convey: That if we are concerned about the direction our society is mayfield data, heading, and if we seek a different way of life, then we must first look to our own lives, and begin making changes there, and not be disheartened by the fact that our social, economic, and political institutions embody outdated materialistic values that we ourselves reject . As Gandhi once said, in a phrase that captures the revolutionary spirit of voluntary simplicity: ‘Be the change you wish to see in ap biology, the world.’[xxxix] This inspiring call to personal action complements the mayfield, call of another great simple liver, Henry David Thoreau, who never tired of on discipline reminding us that, ‘The individual who goes it alone can start today.’[xl] The point, as I understand it, is that there is no reason, nor is there any time, to wait for politicians to coursework mayfield, deal with the problems that we face.

For what the world needs more than anything else is for brave visionaries to quietly step out of the rat race and show, by for essays, example, both to themselves and to others, that a different way of life is both possible and desirable. Let us, then, be pioneers once more. As the globalization of coursework mayfield western consumption habits pushes our planet towards the brink of rubrics environmental collapse, as evidence mounts that consumer culture has failed to fulfill its promise of a better life, and at a time when three billion of our fellow human beings still live in the darkness of mayfield data poverty amidst plenty, one may be forgiven for writing intros thinking that there is a certain inescapable logic to pursuing a way of life that is ‘outwardly simple, inwardly rich.’ Yet, from earliest childhood onward, first upon mayfield data, somebody’s knee, then through lessons ratified by polite society, we are educated into a materialistic form of life that squarely contradicts that of voluntary simplicity. What is more, it seems we are forbidden to and manners, admit this. If it is true, however, as some existentialists have argued, that we can always make something new out of what we have been made into, then it might be interesting to inquire: Did you choose your mode of living because you preferred it to any other? Or did you honestly think that it was the only way? Reading and talking about voluntary simplicity with these questions in mind can be unsettling, rather like being shaken awake from the most dogmatic slumber. But it can also be exhilarating and uplifting, in the most unexpected ways. I hope that some readers will find, or have already found, that this is so. Despite what seems to be a strong case for voluntary simplicity, one may nearly despair of the statistics mayfield data, possibility that the entrenched economics of consumerism will ever lose its authority over western minds. Weapons Essay! But as Theodore Roszak has said:

There is one way forward: the creation of flesh-and-blood examples of statistics mayfield data low-consumption, high-quality alternatives to the mainstream pattern of life. This we can see happening already on table the counter cultural fringes. And nothing – no amount of argument or research – will take the place of such living proof. What people must see is mayfield data, that ecologically sane, socially responsible living is good living; that simplicity, thrift, and of nuclear weapons reciprocity make for an existence that is statistics coursework mayfield data, free.[xli] This essay will have served its purpose if the reader goes away with an increased curiosity about essay of a, this life-affirming freedom, and an appreciation that with a little courage and some imaginative effort, the door to mayfield data, voluntary simplicity will swing gracefully open.

Our world can change. Thoughtful, dedicated people like you and critical essay of a poem me can change it. Statistics Coursework Mayfield Data! And if not us, then who? If not now, then when? My closing words must be that if it is not us, then it will be nobody. And if not now, then never. ‘Old deeds for old people, and new deeds for new.’[xlii] [i] See generally, Samuel Alexander (ed.), Voluntary Simplicity: The Poetic Alternative to Consumer Culture (2009). [ii] For example, see New Economic Foundation, ‘100 Months: Technical Note’ (2008, www.neweconomics.org) (which calculates that 100 months from August 2008, atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases will begin to exceed a point whereby it is no longer be likely we will be able to avert potentially irreversible climate change). [iii] In Australia, for example, average income is over apa 6th of contents AU$50,000 per statistics coursework mayfield annum, as reported by rousseau essay, the Australian Bureau of Statistics in August 2008 (see www.abs.gov.au). And there are 14 countries with higher GDP than Australia (in terms of statistics mayfield data Purchasing Power Parity), as reported by proliferation of nuclear weapons, the International Monetary Fund in 2009 (World Economic Outlook Database, April 2009). [iv] World Bank Development Indicators, ‘Poverty Data’ (2008), available online at: [v] Clive Hamilton, Growth Fetish (2003) xi.

This paragraph draws on Hamilton’s discussion. [vi] See Clive Hamilton and Richard Denniss, Affluenza: When Too Much is Never Enough (2005) (arguing in statistics, all seriousness that western society is in the grip of a collective psychological disorder called ‘affluenza’ which deludes people into thinking that they are deprived despite their plenty.) [vii] Clive Hamilton, Growth Fetish (2003). [viii] For a comprehensive review and analysis of this research, see Ed Diener and Martin Seligman, ‘Beyond Money: Toward an Economy of Well-Being’ (2004) 5(1) Psychological Science in the Public Interest 1 (reviewing over 150 studies assessing the correlation between financial wealth and wellbeing); See also, Robert E. Lane, The Loss of Happiness in Market Democracies (2000); Tim Kasser, The High Price of Materialism (2002); Richard Layard, Happiness: Lessons from a New Science (2005); Bruno Frey and Alois Stutzer, Happiness and for essays Economics (2002); Avner Offer, The Challenge of Affluence: Self-Control and Wellbeing in the United States and Britain since 1950 (2006); Bill McKibben, Deep Economy (2007). [ix] Henry David Thoreau, Walden , in Carl Bode (ed.) The Portable Thoreau (1982) (‘Men labor under a mistake.’) 261. [x] Robert D. Putnam, Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community (2001). [xi] Juliet Schor, The Overworked American: The Unexpected Decline of Leisure (1992). John de Graaf et al, Take Back Your Time: Fighting Overwork and Time Poverty in America (2003). [xii] David G. Myers, The American Paradox: Spiritual Hunger in an Age of Plenty (2000).

[xiii] Exemplifying this consensus of environmental degradation was the panel of 1,300 scientists assembled by the United Nations which in 2005 issued a ‘Millennium Ecosystem Assessment’ report. They found that ‘human actions are depleting the Earth’s natural capital, putting such strain on the environment that the statistics coursework data, ability to sustain future generations can no longer be taken for granted.’ Or see the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), a science-based nonprofit affiliation of scientists/citizens with over 250,000 members. Their publications include “World Scientists’ Warning to Humanity,” issued in 1992 by 1,600 of the world’s leading scientists, including the majority of ap biology essay dna Nobel laureates in statistics data, the sciences, which begins: ‘Human beings and proliferation essay the natural world are on a collision course. Human activities inflict harsh and statistics data often irreversible damage on the environment and on for essays critical resources. Statistics Coursework Mayfield Data! If not checked, many of our current practices put at serious risk the future that we wish for human society and writing the plant and animal kingdoms, and may so alter the living world that it will be unable to sustain life in the manner that we know. Fundamental changes are urgent if we are to avoid the collision our present course will bring.’ Towards the end of statistics mayfield data this publication the UCS concludes, ‘A new ethic is rousseau essay, required.’ One could list several dozen such warnings. [xiv] Duane Elgin, Promise Ahead: A Vision of Hope and Action for Humanity’s Future (2001) Ch. IV. [xv] Amatai Etzioni, ‘A New Social Movement?’ in mayfield data, William Halal and Kenneth Taylor (eds.) Twenty-First Century Economics (1999). [xvi] Lao Tzu, Tao Te Ching (300 BCE).

[xvii] By defining ‘progress’ in these terms I intend to intros for essays, position my discourse in relation to the conception of progress espoused by Arnold Toynbee in his Study of History (1972). Statistics Coursework Mayfield Data! According his ‘Law of Progressive Simplification,’ as a civilization evolves it will come to transfer increasing increments of rubrics dna energy and attention from the coursework mayfield data, material to the nonmaterial side of life (relationships, contemplation, community, leisure, art, etc.), from which it follows that simplicity approaches the peak of civilization. (‘Nature is going to compel posterity to revert to a stable state on the material plane and to turn to the realm of the dissertation table of contents, spirit for statistics mayfield data satisfying man’s hunger for infinity.’) [xviii] Duane Elgin, Voluntary Simplicity: Toward a Way of apa 6th Life that is Outwardly Simple, Inwardly Rich (Revised edition, 1993). [xix] See Mary Grigsby, Buying Time and Getting By: The Voluntary Simplicity Movement (2004). [xx] See generally, John de Graaf, ‘Political Prescriptions’ in statistics mayfield data, Samuel Alexander (ed.) Voluntary Simplicity: The Poetic Alternative to Consumer Culture (2009). [xxi] Amatai Etzioni, ‘A New Social Movement?’ in William Halal and Kenneth Taylor (eds.) Twenty-First Century Economics (1999). [xxii] For recent discussions of the sociology of the proliferation weapons essay, Voluntary Simplicity Movement, see Clive Hamilton and Richard Denniss, Affluenza: When Too Much is Never Enough (2005); and statistics mayfield data Mary Grigsby, Buying Time and Getting By: The Voluntary Simplicity Movement (2004). [xxiii] Discussing the ‘less is more’ paradox, see Philip Cafaro, ‘Less is More: Economic Consumption and the Good Life’ (1998) Philosophy Today 42(1) 26-39. [xxiv] United Nations Department of table of contents Economic and Social Affairs (UN, 2007).

[xxv] See, for example, the United Nations Development Programme, ‘Human Development Report,’ (2007/8) 3 (using the term ‘apocalyptic’ to describe what may lie in coursework data, store for the poorer nations.) [xxvi] See note 13, above. [xxvii] See Jane Bennett, The Enchantment of Modern Life: Attachments, Crossing, and Ethics (2001). [xxviii] Ralph Waldo Emerson, ‘Nature’ in Carl Bode (ed) The Portable Emerson (1977) 7. [xxix] Henry David Thoreau, Walden , in Carl Bode (ed.) The Portable Thoreau (1982) 286. [xxx] For more elaborate financial exercises, see Vicki Robin and Joe Dominguez, Your Money or Your Life: Transforming your relationship with money and achieving financial independence (1992) and ap biology Jim Merkel, Radical Simplicity: Small Footprints on a Finite Planet (2003). [xxxi] Henry David Thoreau, Walden , in data, Carl Bode (ed.) The Portable Thoreau (1982) 290. [xxxii] Duane Elgin, Voluntary Simplicity: Toward a Way of Life that is Outwardly Simple, Inwardly Rich (Revised edition, 1993) 150-51. [xxxiii] Henry David Thoreau, Walden , in essay, Carl Bode (ed.) The Portable Thoreau (1982) 270-71. [xxxiv] This argument has been made most famously by Juliet Schor, in The Overworked American: The Unexpected Decline of statistics mayfield data Leisure (1992) and The Overspent American: Upscaling, Downshifting, and the New Consumer (1998), and by John de Graaf et al, in Take Back Your Time: Fighting Overwork and critical essay of a poem Time Poverty in America (2003). [xxxv] See Mary Grigsby, ‘Extending the Movement,’ in Samuel Alexander (ed.) Voluntary Simplicity: The Poetic Alternative to statistics coursework mayfield data, Consumer Culture (2009) (outlining ways that the Voluntary Simplicity Movement could extend into the mainstream and of a become a more significant oppositional force.) [xxxvi] Juliet Schor, The Overspent American: Why We Want What We Don’t Need (1998). [xxxvii] Clive Hamilton, Growth Fetish (2003) 2. [xxxviii] See Erich Fromm, To Have or To Be? (1976). [xxxix] On Gandhi’s view of simplicity see, Mahatma Gandhi, ‘The Quest for statistics data Simplicity: My Idea of rubrics Swaraj,’ in mayfield data, Majid Rahnema (ed.) The Post-Development Reader (1997) 306-7.

[xl] Henry David Thoreau, Walden , in Carl Bode (ed.) The Portable Thoreau (1982) 326. [xli] Theodore Roszak, Where the Wasteland Ends (1972) 422 (emphasis in rousseau essay, original). [xlii] Henry David Thoreau, Walden , in Carl Bode (ed.) The Portable Thoreau (1982) 264. Also, see www.simplicitycollective.com. The Simplicity Collective is founded upon the idea that a 'simpler life' of reduced resource and energy consumption is a viable and desirable alternative to consumer culture. Our position is that simple living will improve not only our own lives, but the coursework mayfield, lives of others, as well as help save our planet from the environmental catastrophe towards which we are so enthusiastically marching. We must not just fall in line, then, and continue the rousseau essay, march ‘business as usual.’ We must explore alternative ways to live. We must experiment creatively, like the artist.

We must be the poets of statistics mayfield data our own lives and of a new generation. For a non-profit copy of Voluntary Simplicity: The Poetic Alternative to Consumer Culture by Samuel Alexander - Click Here. Listen to Affluenza by Senses of Walden - Click Here.

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Hobbes’ And Locke’s Political Philosophy Essay. On Hobbes’ Political Philosophy. Hobbes’ scientistic philosophy presupposed that man is the self-sufficient interpreter of the facts of coursework data life and that man can correctly define what the facts of life are. Similar to the Sophists, Hobbes asserted that the knowable facts of life are only particular empirical things. Thus, Hobbes asserted that universal words, such as good and evil, are incomprehensible to man in the objective sense as rooted in reality. Because they are non-empirical and universal, they are mere names.

Like the Sophists, Hobbes was also a nominalist. Rousseau Essay! Moreover, Hobbes asserted that metaphysical essences and metaphysical forms do not exist. God’s attributes are merely names that man thinks would honor Him. Thus, like the Sophists, there is no natural hierarchy tied to the essences or purposes of things, but only a realm of natural causes. For Hobbes, man existed individually in a state of nature before civil government was formed. He asserted that human equality is based upon an empirical condition, namely power. Man in statistics the state of nature was obligated only to seek Peace by self-preservation. Hobbes embraced a negative theory of freedom.

There was really no law in the state of proliferation nature because the obligation to seek peace was not declared from a higher power; no one had a Bible in the state of nature to proclaim to him the will of coursework data almighty God. As one who believed in God’s existence, Hobbes’ scientistic epistemology and ontology forced him to embrace theological voluntarism. Ultimately, morals are grounded in ap biology the arbitrary will of statistics coursework mayfield God rather than His character. Hobbes postulated that the superior will and power are the essay and manners, only legitimate grounds of law.[1] In terms of what is coursework data, good and essay, evil, just and unjust, the natural man in a state of nature did whatever he reasonably thought was right in his own eyes to preserve his life. If killing another person was deemed necessary to mayfield data, preserve his life, then it was good and just in the sense that it preserved the peace. Thus, because good and rubrics dna, evil, just and statistics coursework data, unjust are mere names whose meanings no one can agree on, the state of nature is a state of critical essay war, every man against every man. And because man naturally avoids the risk of harm, he arms himself to preserve the peace.[2] For Hobbes, only coursework, civil society has a supreme sovereign to give the citizens the standard they so desperately need to judge between good and evil, virtue and rousseau essay, vice. For Hobbes, good and evil are not objective ideas rooted in reality that man can conceive and understand with his own mind. Therein is the fountain from which springs forth the statistics coursework, conflict of individual man in a state of nature. Man, as a risk avoider, contracts with his fellow man to leave the state of nature and create an artificial civil society in which a third party will act as the supreme power.

Hobbes pointed, the will of the parties in their social contract create their duties to each other and to the third party. The third party, the king, must define for the society what is rousseau essay, good and statistics coursework mayfield data, evil, just and rousseau essay, unjust so that the natural war of all against all will cease. The king, however, is not a party to mayfield, the contract. The king has no contractual duty to the citizens, but only on discipline, a natural duty to God to seek peace. Statistics Mayfield Data! The king seeks peace by deterring evildoers (the king defines who is evil) by wielding the sword and table, restricting free speech. Thus, any punishment meted out by the government is for the purpose of deterring wrongdoing, not retribution. That is, the “evildoer” is neither punished because he necessarily deserves it nor punished proportionally to his just desert, but because the punishment is an example to others how seriously the king takes his duty to preserve the peace. Thus, logically, the king could “rightly” punish an innocent citizen. The only statistics mayfield data, inalienable right the citizens have is the weapons essay, natural right to preserve their life.

Thus, they contracted to obey the statistics coursework data, king; they did not contract not to resist the on discipline, king when being punished. In the state of nature, no man is obligated to heed another person’s opinion or power. Coursework Mayfield! Every person has a right to all things, to define what is good and what is essay of a, evil, even to kill a person if one does not trust him. For Hobbes, the primary means of achieving peace is by creating an “artificial” society through individual covenantal relationships (Ibid, 66). In De Cive, Hobbes defined a contract as “the act of two, or more, mutually conveying their rights” and a covenant as that which involves promises that bind one to perform in the future (Ibid, 35-36). Hobbes’ political theory involves more of a social covenant idea than a social contract.

But he does tend to use the two terms interchangeably, as is evidenced below, perhaps signifying both that rights are given up and that one is bound to perform in the future with the creation of statistics mayfield data civil society out of the state of nature.[3] Most assuredly, Hobbes’ political philosophy is essay and manners, a recipe for a tyrannical and data, oppressive government Similar to on discipline and manners, the Sophists, Hobbes’ scientistic philosophy supports the argument that any philosophy that has scientific presuppositions and coursework mayfield, begins with physical particulars produces a negative view of freedom, a simple view of critical essay of a human equality based upon power, authority that is equated with mere power and sanction, a deterrence theory of coursework punishment, a natural law that can only be known in selfish generalities, natural rights that are grounded in man’s self-interests, nominalism, and theological voluntarism. In addition, because the social contract or covenant is made with each other and not with the sovereign, the on discipline, sovereign has no obligation to the people that arises from the social contract. The only obligation the absolute sovereign king has is to God. In Leviathan, Hobbes discusses why a king with such absolute power “will not take all, spoil all, kill all”. Hobbes states: “[T]hough by right, that is, without injury to them, he may do it, yet can he not do it justly, that is, without breach of the natural laws, and injury against God. And therefore there is some security for subjects in coursework mayfield the oaths which princes take”.[4] Hobbes seems to say that the king would not be seeking peace, the one obligation of the natural law, if he sought to “take all, spoil all, and kill all”. But if the king does abuse his power, the proliferation of nuclear weapons, citizens have an inalienable right to resist death. For Hobbes, the citizens contracted or covenanted away their natural right to all things, but one: the preservation of life.

According to Hobbes, that is the one inalienable right that men have. In essence, men contract or covenant with each other that the king may kill them if they do not perform their contractual duty, not that they will not resist when then king attempts to kill them. Although the king can “sin … against God,” in statistics coursework data no situation “is the right taken away from him, of slaying those who shall refuse to obey him”.[5] Moreover, the king has the right “to judge what opinions and doctrines are enemies unto peace, and also that he forbid them to be taught”.[6] Hence, it is the sole purpose of having a civic government. On Locke’s Political Philosophy. The state of nature refers to table of contents, the natural pre-political state of man. Except for the fact that Locke believed man naturally is a social person in a family, he agreed with Hobbes that man is statistics mayfield, not naturally a social being. Similar to Hobbes, civil society is not natural, but artificial. Essay Dna! In a state of nature, man was free within the bounds of the natural law and was equal in power in relation to everyone else to act as judge in his own case and controversy with anyone else. The natural law obligates man to preserve himself: to do no harm, and to preserve the community in the absence of competition.[7] Similar to Hobbes, Locke equated human equality with power. Although Locke believed in statistics mayfield data a positive view of proliferation essay freedom whereby man is free only within law, Locke failed to show that man could know the statistics, specifics of the natural law code and thus, he failed to show that man really possessed a positive freedom in proliferation weapons essay the state of nature. Coursework! Do no harm does not provide much moral guidance.

In reality, like Hobbes, for rousseau essay, Locke man possessed a negative freedom. Locke stated “state all men are naturally in… is a state of perfect freedom to statistics, order their actions, and dispose of and manners their possessions, and persons as they think fit, within the statistics coursework data, bounds of the law of nature, without asking leave, or depending upon the will of any other man. A state also of equality, wherein all the power and jurisdiction is reciprocal, no one having more than another”.[8] Similar to the Sophists and Hobbes, Locke believed man began his existence in a state of nature. For Locke, the state of nature is divided into two historical stages. In the first stage, man had a natural property right over for essays his own body. Everything else was naturally held in common. Statistics Coursework! When a man labored over something that was held in common, he acquired property in essay it. Moreover, man had a natural right of subsistence, which was regulated by spoilage. In other words, what man possessed as property by mixing his labor with it was limited by what he could consume before spoiling.

The second stage of the state of nature was initiated in by the invention and use of money. With the statistics mayfield data, invention of money, man could enlarge his possessions way beyond what he could consume before spoiling. Money does not spoil. Although the use of money produced the unequal division of the earth, overall, Locke argues everyone is better off: For Locke, mankind socially compacted to for essays, form civil society for coursework mayfield, several reasons: first, some in the state of nature were ignorant of the law of nature, second some were biased by the amount of property they had, third, there was no impartial judge to on discipline, resolve disputes, and fourth, there was no third power to execute the law of nature. Underlying all of data these reasons to form civil society is, similar to the Sophists and Hobbes, man’s self-interested passion to preserve himself. Because not one theoretical or practical principle is written on man’s heart, the natural law is not written on man’s heart.

Because the natural law can be known only from a lawmaker, those who are ignorant of apa 6th God’s existence because they fail to apply their reason are ignorant of the natural law. Statistics Data! For those who do apply their reason and come to know of God’s existence and writing for essays, the natural law, Locke claimed that they could know the statistics data, natural law code as they could know the specifics of mathematics. But Locke never came close to showing that the specific moral code is capable of essay poem mathematical demonstration. Locke extremely overestimated how much moral knowledge his empiricist epistemology could deliver. Locke’s empiricist epistemology could not demonstrate in detail what was good or evil, just or unjust For Locke, man’s conscience is statistics coursework data, nothing other than his own opinion of what is right and wrong. Ap Biology! Thus, similar to the Sophists and Hobbes, Locke was essentially a skeptic. God’s natural law governs his creatures. Although Locke wrote of God’s right and authority to rule over mayfield data his creatures, Locke never justifies his assertion.

Locke never demonstrated that God was anything except the most powerful being that could compel obedience through rewards and punishments. Locke’s empiricist epistemology does not allow him to draw the distinction between authority and mere power. Rousseau Essay! Thus, like Hobbes, punishment for Locke was merely deterrence. Moreover, because Locke was so consumed with, and analyzed so thoroughly, the empiricist epistemology of natural law, Locke demonstrates clearer than Hobbes that scientism coupled with a belief in God leads to nothing but theological voluntarism, i.e., the law is ultimately grounded in God’s almighty will, not His unchanging character, such that God can will anything to be moral. Thus, whoever embraces an empiricist epistemology and at the same time, acknowledges God as the ultimate lawgiver, will be left with nothing but theological voluntarism. Thus, scientistic modernism destroyed the firm and statistics mayfield, unchanging foundation of for essays civil law and the only real restraint to civil tyranny, namely, a natural law grounded in God’s eternal and statistics coursework mayfield data, unchanging character. Similar to Hobbes, the source of civil governmental power for Locke is the consent of the people. Dna! There are two natural powers that are given to civil society, the statistics, legislative and executive. The legislative power in rousseau essay any civil government is superior over the executive because it gives the laws to the executive. Some of coursework mayfield data man’s natural executive power is retained.

This is so because man’s natural right of writing self-preservation is inalienable, i.e., it cannot be given over to civil government. Thus, men in civil society have a right to resist the civil government if, after a long train of abuses, their opinion on the basis of coursework data their feelings grounded in their experience is that the civil government has violated the natural law. The civil governmental authority puts itself into a state of war with the people when it repeatedly violates the natural law. Essay On Discipline! Tyranny occurs when the civil government acts out of its own self-interest and does not protect the property of the people. Locke’s theory of mayfield data civil resistance is dissertation table, weak, however, because he failed to demonstrate that the specific code of the natural law is knowable.[9]

Similar to Hobbes, Locke’s empiricist epistemology made the end of civil government empirical, i.e., the self-preservation of the people. Coursework! Locke’s theory of civil resistance is based upon the personal opinions of the people. Thus, Locke could support that notion that the civil government should tolerate every religious opinion that does not threaten the rousseau essay, people’s physical property.[10] Moreover, Locke placed most religious beliefs in the realm of mere opinions. For Locke, only a few religious propositions were within the realm of demonstrative knowledge. Overall, Locke’s theory of statistics mayfield data religious toleration is a two-edged sword. In a sense, it encouraged theological relativism.

In another sense, it allowed religious liberty, albeit seemingly equating toleration with liberty (negative freedom). Finally, if Hobbes’ political philosophy described how a society of rubrics dna skeptics could live together under one sovereign power, then Locke’s political philosophy described how a society of skeptics could live together by statistics coursework balancing their opinions with the civil government’s. Thus, contrary to Hobbes, Locke believed that a little civil resistance now and then is a good thing. Although Locke’s political philosophy guard’s against tyranny better than the intros, political philosophy of the Sophists and Hobbes, similar to the Sophists and statistics mayfield data, Hobbes, Locke’s scientistic philosophy supports the argument that any philosophy that has scientific presuppositions and begins with physical particulars produces a negative view of freedom, a simple view of human equality based upon power, authority that is equated with mere power and sanction, a deterrence theory of punishment, a natural law that can only be known in selfish generalities, natural rights that are grounded in man’s self-interests, nominalism, and theological voluntarism. Hobbes, Thomas. Leviathan: Or the Matter, Forme and Power of a Commonwealth Ecclesiasticall and Civil , ed. Ap Biology Dna! Michael Oakeshott. Data! New York: Simon . Schuster, Inc., 1997. Locke, John. Two Treatises of Government , ed. Peter Laslett.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988. [1] Hobbes, Thomas, Leviathan: Or the Matter, Forme and Power of a Commonwealth Ecclesiasticall and Civil (New York: Simon . Schuster, Inc., 1997), 54-63) [7] Locke, John, Two Treatises of Government (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988) 283-290. University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 15 March 2017. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Hobbes’ And Locke’s Political Philosophy. for only $16.38 $13.9/page.

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