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You must follow the chronological resume when. You have to portray a vertical progression in your career You more or less had a consistent career with no such big work-experience gaps in between You are planning a change of company but in similar trade. The functional resume format focuses mostly on the skills of the applicant rather than his work experiences. Unlike the conventional chronological format, this one ignores when where the ap literature prompts frankenstein applicant performed or learned those skills. It’s the child case outline fact that the candidate holds those skills relevant to the specific job opening, is organic assignment, highlighted in the functional format. The functional format would be useful for child case outline, you when- You need to create a Fresher Resume Format Templates with no previous work experience but when you are confident about introduction advertisement, your skills You have big gaps in your career history You are looking forward to promote a particular skill set.
As the name suggests, combination resume focuses on a fusion of the case study traditional chronological functional resumes. Organic! Such a resume would usually start with professional profile/summary of qualifications which will include your skills, abilities achievements that are pertinent to the specific job opening you are applying for- it’s for the functional side. The introductory section would be followed by child outline, job experience, education (B.E) additional related sections in the reverse chronological format. Such a resume would be great when- You are looking forward to highlight a well-developed relevant skill set You have mastered your art You are planning a switch to another industry. For example, let’s say you are working as an investment banker but you are really good at cartoons or conceptual sketching- such artistic skills would be a wealth for advertising industry in case you are planning to solving course description turn your hobbies into your profession. Formatting a resume is no rocket science but you have to child case study be really strategic with the atlantis essays overall planning. As mentioned earlier, the traditional chronological approach is relevant when you are proud of the upward mobility that you have attained in your career. Study Outline! If you are a person with huge or at advertisement essay, least some professional experience in your industry- the child outline chronological style would be the proper resume format for introduction advertisement essay, you. The best resume format for a functional resume strategically groups the key skills abilities of the candidate in child study outline, various categories to explain his eligibility expertise for some particular job. The skill-based focus will enable you to pull the prospective employer’s attention on your strength which would in turn divert the critical and problem focus from your absent or flawed employment record.
For example, let’s say you are applying for study outline, the position of a sales manager in a MNC with an alexander enlightenment, international market- and in such a case your functional resume would stress on study outline categories with headings like “team building leadership expertise”, “fluency in foreign languages” etc. In some of cases, the ap literature essay frankenstein functional resume is completely devoid of the employment history. Even if it is mentioned, it appears at the very bottom of the resume or in the next page to de-stress on its importance. When you are planning a combination resume , you have to commence with your key qualifications skills. You can include your career objective, expertise, accomplishments pertinent training relevant to the job application here.
The strategy here is to fill up 80-85% of your resume with your skills talents and the rest 15-20 percent would be about your career history. Unlike the functional resume, you cannot omit your career history here. Make sure it’s easy to read Use bullet points and adequate spacing- single spacing when you are writing about your skills under same category and child case double-spacing before the start of another category. Use contextual keywords relevant to your job position industry. Use formal fonts and the font size should be 14 for headings and atlantis essays 12 for the rest. You must use strong verbs such as “managed”, “handled”, “led”, “administered”, “charted” etc. Begin the resume with summary sentence so that the hiring manager can have a blue-print of your skills abilities at a glance. Include personal accomplishments if they are pertinent to child study outline the relevant job opening. Focus on quantifiable accomplishments include facts figures. Ap Literature! No grammar mistake or typo error is child study outline, allowed in your resume.
Don’t use generic words like hardworking or confident- rather use “efficient at handling big teams for crucial projects”. Don’t use informal email ids in contact details. Organic! Don’t use chronological resume when you have big gaps in case, your career. Thinking Solving! Don’t include irrelevant personal hobbies. No lengthy resume. Don’t lie in child study outline, your resume and be honest.
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It must be time saving for the user to use and customize and should also be self-explanatory. The following are some of the contents of a resume format which truly make it ‘best’: What is the format of a CV?(100 Words) When it comes to CV, it has to be professional. There are different types of CV possible depending on the purpose of its use and the expectation of the targeted audiences. Similarly, different types of CVs will have different formats. Critical Thinking And Problem! For example, CV for child case study, applying in an IT firm would be different from a CV to atlantis essays apply for a marketing company. Case Outline! Instead of internet is harmful, taking the risk of designing CV format yourself, it is better to download for sample CV collection. For example, if you download marketing resume collection, you will get a lot of Marketing Resume Format Templates and you can choose the best one that appeals to you and outline fill in introduction, the details to send it out. What kind of Resume Should I use?(100 Words) Basically, there are four types of resume available.
They are chronological, functional, combinational and targeted. Chronological resumes are most commonly used as it represents the data sequentially for child case outline, the employers to alexander enlightenment find them easily at the very first glance. In case you have some lapse in your work and study, then it is better to use a functional resume to cover it up skillfully. Child Study Outline! Combinational resume must be used when you are very experienced and your work history matters more than basic data. Targeted resumes are most effective and you need to spend more time preparing it. Download some Basic Resume Format Templates and assignment some samples to make a perfect resume yourself. Which Format do Most Employers Prefer for Resumes? Depending on the job requirement, different employers prefer different resume formats. If the job requirement is for freshers only, employers would like to receive chronological resumes as the data and information about the candidate would be sequentially and child outline it would be easy to locate required information easily. But in introduction advertisement essay, the case of hiring experienced professionals, employers prefer to have functional resumes where experience and skills get the case study priority.
But in ap literature prompts, general, employers prefer chronological resume format. Therefore, you need to download different formats like IT Resume Format Templates to apply in IT firm and then based on child the job requirements, you have to assignment form the resume that the employers would prefer the outline most. To write a resume, you have to collect all the required data and introduction information about you in one place. Then you have to download some sample resumes and resume templates as per the purpose of the study outline resume. For example, if you are applying in an IT firm, you should download IT resumes or if you are applying for a post of HR, you should download HR Resume Format Templates. After downloading them, open them and start filling the details. Atlantis Essays! If there are any unnecessary headings that do not match your profile, you have to omit and delete them. You should refer to sample resume for checking out how exactly to fill the data and information to look impressive. what are two of the Most Popular Resume Formats.
Out of the four different types of resumes we listed above, chronological and functional are the most popular resume formats. Case Outline! Chronological resume formats are popular among freshers or those who have light experience of atlantis essays, a couple of years. On the other hand, functional resumes are popular among experienced professionals with at least experience of working in child case study outline, two and more companies. Freshers can also use it in case the candidate has diverse skills and has done many internships in the past. Atlantis Essays! There are multiple formats available in these two categories and study one should download freshers and Experienced Resume Format Templates to have different variations to thinking and problem solving description choose from.
A chronological resume is the most used resumes in the world. In a chronological resume, everything is listed from the recent to child case outline the earliest format. For example, in academic background, your university degree would come first, followed by on man enlightenment, the college degree and then at last school qualification. Similarly, in work experience, your recent work would be listed and in the end, you can have your internships. This is the most preferred Writer Resumes format by the employers as it is study outline, easy for them to get a snapshot of everything very quickly in their mind.
There are various types of chronological formats available and you should download freshers resume format templates to get all the variations and choose the alexander best.
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Decolonising Indigenous Child Welfare: Comparative Perspectives
What Makes A Good Law, What Makes A Bad Law? Submitted by study outline, Gene Howington, Guest Blogger. In 1780, John Adams succinctly defined the principle of the alexander pope an essay on man, Rule of Law in the Massachusetts Constitution by seeking to establish “a government of laws and not of men”. This reflects the democratic principles enshrined in the Constitution’s preamble: “We the outline, People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of solving description, America.” The very foundation of our legal system says that the outline, law should work for alexander pope an essay on man, us all, not just a select few. This raises the question of what is a good law that serves the majority of society and what is a bad law that doesn’t serve the majority of society? This idea is child further bolstered by the Equal Protection Clause of the 14 th Amendment: “All persons born or naturalized in essay the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of child study outline, life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.” The latter addition of the 14 th Amendment as well as the Preamble of the Constitution both reflect the spirit in which this country was founded as set forth in the Declaration of Independence: “When in the Course of human events it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. — That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, — That whenever any Form of essay, Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the child case study, People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to is harmful essay, them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Child! Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable than to right themselves by introduction essay, abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is case their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.” Clearly, the pursuit of the Rule of Law under the Constitution as informed by internet, the Declaration is a pursuit of the Utilitarian concept of the right course of action is the one that maximizes the overall good consequences of an action; what is in the best interest of greatest numbers of We the People is in the best interests of the country. Utilitarianism is a quantitative and case outline, reductionist philosophical form.
Utilitarianism, however, is atlantis essays not a unified philosophical view. It comes in child case study outline different flavors with the two primary flavors being Rule Utilitarianism and Act Utilitarianism. Strong Rule Utilitarianism is an prompts frankenstein, absolutist philosophical view and rules may never be broken. Like any absolutist view does not take into case study, account that reality occasionally presents situations where breaking a rule results in the greater good. For example, the strong reductionist rule that murder is atlantis essays bad is countered by the exceptional example of murder is not bad if performed in self-defense or the defense of case outline, others.
This result of practical application is reflected in what John Stuart Mill called Weak Rule Utilitarianism. It becomes apparent that since not all rules are absolutely enforceable when seeking the common good and chemistry assignment, exceptional circumstances require flexibility in the law, that the Utilitarian pursuit of the Rule of Law must be in Mill’s Weak Rule formulation of Utilitarianism. But is considering the greater good and circumstantial reasons for breaking or modifying rules the best way to child case study outline, judge whether a law is good or bad? If one considers Kant’s Categorical Imperative – “Act only according to that maxim whereby you can, at the same time, will that it should become a universal law.” – then any law not universally applicable should not be a maxim worthy of being recognized as universal. This is contrary to Utilitarianism in general as well as Weak Rule Utilitarianism specifically, but while Kant’s view takes subjectivity into account when dealing with circumstances it does not take into account that there can be objective differences in circumstances as well. It is part of the judiciaries role as a trier of introduction advertisement, fact to consider not only study, subjective differences but objective differences in ap literature frankenstein circumstances in formulating the most equitable and case, just solution to a case at bar. In seeking to be universally applicable in defining maxims, Kant is an absolutist as surely as Strong Rule Utilitarians are absolutists. As a consequence of reality not being neatly binary in is harmful nature and thus not often compatible to absolutists approaches to formulating laws for practical application, what can be done to keep Weak Rule Utilitarianism from degenerating into Act Utilitarianism where actors will seek the greatest personal pleasure when presented with a choice rather than the greater good? Utilitarianism conflicting with the Categorical Imperative? Is there a unitary philosophical approach to evaluating whether a law is good or bad?
The answer seems to be no. If there is child case study no single view, absolutist or otherwise, that leads to a practical system for evaluating whether a law is good or bad, then there is only one option for building a framework for evaluation. That option is synthesis. Consider that absolutist systems as they are not applicable in reality should be confined to being considered theoretical boundaries rather than practical boundaries. This does not negate the value of considering systems like Strong Rule Utilitarianism or Kant’s Categorical Imperative, but rather puts them in the place of aspirational goals rather than practically attainable goals in every circumstance. Given that Mill’s Weak Rule Utilitarianism can degrade into Act Utilitarianism and that degeneration can be compounded by the number of exceptions there are to chemistry, a rule, are there ways to minimize the defects of using only Weak Rule Utilitarianism to determine the societal value of a law? What supplements can be made to child case, that framework? I submit that one such supplement is found in the form of Negative Utilitarianism. Negative Utilitarianism is exactly what it sounds like; the inverse function of Utilitarianism.
Whereas Utilitarianism is the basic proposition that the right course of action is the one that maximizes the overall good consequences of an action, Negative Utilitarianism is the basic proposition that requires us to promote the atlantis essays, least amount of evil or harm, or to prevent the greatest amount of suffering for the greatest number. If one takes both into account in evaluation of the social value of a law (a synthetic approach), the test becomes a balancing act. On one side of the scale is the societal value of overall good consequences, on the other side is the societal value of preventing overall harm. This proposition suggests the following framework for evaluation of whether a law is good or bad. How many people benefit from the case study outline, good consequences of a law? How many people benefit from the reduction of harm as consequences of a law? Does the benefits from promoting good consequences outweigh the advertisement, costs of child outline, reduction of harm? Does the benefits from reducing harm outweigh the atlantis essays, costs to child study, the greater good in taking no action?
Are the net consequences of a law perfectly knowable from either perspective or does the possibility of unforeseeable consequences exist? Can the unforeseeable risks be minimized either by construction of the law(s) to atlantis essays, allow for contingencies or by regulating other risks or contributing factors? Do solutions from either perspective negatively impact human and/or civil rights? Do those negative impacts outweigh the positive effects to outline, the greater human and/or civil rights of all? This is but one way to evaluate whether a law is good or bad for society. What are other methods?
Are there ways to improve this method? What do you think? 2,113 thoughts on “ What Makes A Good Law, What Makes A Bad Law? ” My spouse and pope enlightenment, I stumbled over child here from a different web page and critical solving, thought I may as well check. things out. I like what I see so i am just following you.
Look forward. to looking at your web page repeatedly. who makes laws regarding harm is an interesting course of study throughout English and outline, American law. If the principle of doing no harm is respected, the harm must be viewed from the perspective of the essay, person harmed, not the child outline, person who harms – in all cases. The alternative would be ridiculous since the person who harms makes the rules. I think Hard Facts can bring good laws too, but only if the court system takes the time to think about the future instead of ap literature frankenstein, focusing on case study the present, temporary, danger. No. I call gibberish what it is, Bron. Grossman’s last comment was the equivalent of mental masturbation. Just like your last comment was gibberish. Taxes have been with us from day one.
“Article I, Section 8 – Powers of Congress. The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for ap literature essay frankenstein, the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;” If you don’t like how they are spent? Feel free to leave, not pay them and suffer the consequences or petition to get how they are spent changed. Just keep in mind that the job of government in this country is as it is child case study defined in the Preamble’s plain language and atlantis essays, not what you think it is in your haze of selfishness and self-worship, ergo, you’re going to be in for a lot of disappointment. I understand your property rights far better than you do.
As to what I want in re taxation, I want everybody and corporations to pay their equitable and fair share according to child, their ability. But I’m sure that’s a distinction incomprehensible to a black and white absolutist “thinker” such as yourself. In addition, your entire comment is atlantis essays based on your flawed Randian notion of child case, individualism. Society exists and organic, individuals have duties to society whether you think they do or not. In this country, most of those duties are defined by law. It’s that way in every country. Case Study! I know that your religion of organic assignment, you keeps you from study recognizing the existence and interrelation of essay prompts frankenstein, other humans, but that is child case study your failing as a person. Society is not all about you. It’s not about me. It’s certainly not all about Rand.
It’s about everyone. The protection of your rights without the advertisement essay, operation of law and the society it regulates extends no further than your ability to personally defend them and stop others from child study outline taking advantage of you; again the tyranny of the strong over the weak. One of these days you might grow up and realize that no, you are indeed not Superman and that society has an obligation to protect you from the predation of organic, others; the mutually gained benefit of the social compact. Study! It’s what you get for trading in your absolute liberty in the state of solving, nature (which is anarchy). I kind of doubt it though. Patterns of rigid and ossified thought such as those you display are rarely overcome later in life. You’ll continue to be selfish until the day you die.
Martin Luther King, Jr. said, “Every man must decide whether he will walk in the light of creative altruism or in case outline the darkness of destructive selfishness.” You have made your choice. Objectivists aren’t builders. Objectivists are destroyers. Essay! They seek to destroy society in their infantile fantasy that they are Supermen existing in a world that revolves around them. @Grossman: science is based on philosophy.
Philosophies are about belief systems, and there really isn’t much of a belief system behind science, there is case study outline a principle : That hypotheses must be testable, somehow, by others. The testing can take many forms: Falsifiability is introduction advertisement just one test. Predictive power is another (related) test. Child Outline! Improbably robust confirmatory evidence is another test, often used in topics where controlled experimentation is alexander pope an essay impossible, like astronomy, paleontology, sociology, biology, and other disciplines. I am a scientist, I am proud to be a scientist, but as a scientist it seems to child outline, me a little overblown to call something a “philosophy” when it is introduction advertisement essay really just adhering to a single root principle: Claims must be testable.
Everything in else in science is secondary principles about the details of the root principle: What is a valid claim (e.g. how specific must it be), and what is a valid test (e.g. does it have an unambiguous interpretation), and so on. Science is not based on any philosophy, it is based on child study outline the principle that claims must be testable, and thus the consequent rejection of simple assertion as fact, no matter how vehement, sincere, angry or popular the assertion (or asserter) may be. As far as philosophy, what we believe is atlantis essays that testability leads us to distinguish fact from fiction, and truth from lies, and reality from delusion. But our beliefs about the result of science are not necessary to conduct science, they are just what motivates us to conduct science. I notice when Gene H doesnt have a clue he just says that the other person is child case study outline talking gibberish. Is that a result of critical, his postmodern legal education? Interesting that you compare what our founders did to the ancients where individuals were nothing but pawns for the king/state.
It took over a hundred years in this country to get to the point of taxing labor which most of the founders were manifestly against because of Locke. Property is nothing but an extension of your life, it takes effort to make a living and child study, most people spend over 40 hours per week doing so. That 40 hours is your time, it is your life that you are expending and you are entitled by natural right to your life. Atlantis Essays! It does not belong to the state to case study, the king or to the masses. Property is an extension of your labor which is your life which you have a natural right to.
The law should protect the advertisement, individual and therefore his property as well. Locke said there are 3 things government protects: Life, Liberty and Property. Liberty and property only exist with life. Individual life I might add, not collective life. You are right that government can take my property but the way the founders wanted it done was in a very limited way because they, unlike you, understood property rights of the individual.
The current environment of eminent domain laws is child case study outline collectivist in introduction advertisement essay nature, promulgated by people with a deep seated hatred of human beings and human life. Property is nothing but individual life made concrete, in the house of the working man or the factory of the industrialist, property comes from the effort of an outline, individual life and critical thinking solving description, is not the effort of the collective. As far as trusting Stephen or a collectivist like yourself? No question I would trust Stephen because he understands property rights while you do not. Case Outline! People like you take my money/life every day I work, some fraction of my daily effort goes to the collective in the form of advertisement, taxes. Some are necessary for defense and police and the court system and for child case study outline, waste water treatment plants and maybe you could make the case for atlantis essays, roads and bridges as well but those can just as easily be private.
They also take my money for things which are not necessary and they waste it because they have not earned that money. So yes, I trust Stephen far more than I would trust you to hold my money. Study! I already know what your kind does with my money, they piss it away. Too bad for you the topic of this thread is the law and is harmful, the rational basis for it. You clearly have no idea what the law is for in your Randian myopia.
It’s about case study outline, a lot more than just protecting property. That’s one of the reasons you don’t understand the law. You see the word “property” and your brain locks up. Your right to property is protected here, but it is not absolute and it never has been in alexander pope any society with laws and taxes – which is all of case study, them since Sumer and civilization began. Law, in this country, is also about justice, equity and the common good among other things. You may read the introduction essay, Constitution, but you sure don’t understand it. You stop reading it and trying to understand it as soon as you see what you want to see, which in your case is an absolute right to outline, your property that doesn’t really exist and never has. As to critical thinking and problem description, who you’d trust?
Someone who is manifestly and proudly selfish versus someone who isn’t? That would be your decision to make. As to what I’d do? Liberal or not? You really don’t have a clue, but let’s look at your $1,000,000 dilemma on child case its face. “I trust a confessed and proudly selfish person to internet is harmful, give me my money back more than a non-selfish person, whom I expect to take and give it away and take credit for it.” Do you realize exactly how ridiculous that sounds?
Obviously, you don’t. Yet more gibberish on your part. It sounds like you are saying he doesn’t have the intellectual tools to properly understand our founding? Everything will be warped toward a Marxist conception of reality. Objectivity , integration and child case study, systematic reasoning have been long gone from the organic assignment, mainstream in the humanities. Marxism is merely one part of the the latest philosophical fad, postmodernism, a thoroughgoing nihilism composed of Pragmatism and child case study, other academic oppositions to ap literature essay frankenstein, conceptual knowledge. Its basic concern is child study outline rationalizing emotion-guided action. my comment about pope an essay, volunteerism was in the context of helping those less fortunate. It had nothing to do with the law. But that raises a good point, the case, reason laws are needed is, for the most part, to protect property. Typically from people like you who think others should provide for chemistry, them.
I can trust Stephen with a million dollars, he would return it to me, possibly with interest. You on the other hand would give it to the needy and say it was from you. Case Study! Which is internet is harmful essay what liberals do on child study a grand scale. “your total disregard for objective scientific evidence (biological, sociological and psychological) You corrupt objectivity into social agreement. And science is based on philosophy.
Your philosophy of subjectivism yields specific scientific methods, premises and conclusions.” That should read: “You apply objectivity in the form of evidence into social agreement.” “And science is based on philosophy. Your philosophy of subjectivism yields specific scientific methods, premises and introduction, conclusions.” Empiricism is based on child observation. The Scientific Method is based on observation and experimentation.
It isn’t subjective in the slightest. “and logically consistent and formal arguments’ Youre a consistent subjectivist. Kyudos. Your forms are subjective.” [Rand] faulty premises about human nature and the nature of tyranny. You evade my refutation of your irrational man.”
Randian gibberish. Nothing has been evaded in the slightest. Alexander Pope An Essay! Her premises were proved faulty. Study Outline! More than once. “the sentence that starts “Its good, ie, selfish,” is loaded with false equivalences and more gibberish.
Arbitrary, lacking even invalid evidence” Not arbitrary in the slightest. The valid evidence is your post, which is cherry picked nonsense. Chemistry Assignment! The post immediately afterward is literally nothing but circular logic and appeals to Rand’s authority. “Seriously, critical legal studies is somehow the equivalent of Marxism? One is an analytical framework for study outline, the study of law and internet essay, the other is a disproved political/economic ideology. “The critical legal studies (CLS) movement attempts to expand the radical aspects of legal realism [skepticism, uncertainty, self-doubt] into a Marxist critique of mainstream liberal jurisprudence.” [Internet Ency. of case, Philosophy, “A Peer-Reviewed Academic Resource]” Again with the cherry picking. There is more than once school of CLS. Pope! There is outline a school of CLS that runs uses some Marxist social theory.
Even that is on man not the outline, equivalent of Marxism. Ap Literature Essay Prompts! The Frankfurt School of CLS looked only to Marx for social theory, concerned that most Marxists missed the point of Marx’s social critiques by distorting or misapplying those lessons in support of one flavor of Communism or another. The Frankfurt School incorporated the work of thinkers as such Kant, Hegel, Freud, Weber and child outline, Lukacs. Unfortunately for you, that’s not what was taught where I went to school. The other school of CLS is based on the works of Jacques Derrida and deconstructionalism. This school of thought also uses Weber’s work on social sciences but as tempered by Max Horkheimer, Deconstruction is the effort to understand a text through its relationships to various contexts. What was taught where I attended was a combination of deconstruction, the application of prompts frankenstein, formal logic in that process and study, the scientific method as applied to the analysis of evidence, i.e. deconstruction where context is organic informed by best evidence. Evidence is king.
“Is this sufficiently scholarly?” It’s not even close. “just another post that underlines your total lack of understanding of America. Volunteerism is what we believe in, not force.” Actually, we believe in the Rule of Law which by order of operation requires the use of force. Laws without enforcement are suggestions. Just another post by you that underlines your complete lack of understanding of the law.
I figured as much, it was probably used/taught at his top tier law school. A mind is a terrible thing to waste and for that amount of money to boot. It sounds like you are saying he doesn’t have the child case, intellectual tools to properly understand our founding? Everything will be warped toward a Marxist conception of critical solving course description, reality. Outline! That makes a good deal of sense. Comments are closed.
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The impact of child study HIV and AIDS research: a case study from Swaziland. Swaziland is experiencing the world#x02019;s worst HIV and AIDS epidemic. Prevalence rose from four percent of antenatal clinic attendees in 1992 to 42.6 percent in 2004. The Report #x02018;Reviewing #x02018;Emergencies#x02019; for introduction advertisement essay Swaziland: Shifting the Paradigm in a New Era#x02019; published in 2007 bought together social and child study outline, economic indicators. It built a picture of the organic chemistry assignment epidemic as a humanitarian emergency, requiring urgent action from international organisations, donors, and child outline, governments. Ap Literature Frankenstein? Following a targeted communications effort, the report was believed to have raised the profile of the issue and Swaziland - a success story for HIV and AIDS research. Keen to understand how, where and why the report had an impact, Health Economics and HIV/AIDS Research Division commissioned an assessment to track and evaluate the influence of the research. This tapped into literature on the significance of understanding the research-to-policy interface. This paper outlines the report and its impact.
It explores key findings from the assessment and suggests lessons for case future research projects. The paper demonstrates that, although complex, and not without methodological issues, impact assessment of research can be of real value to researchers in understanding the research-to-policy interface. Only by gaining insight into organic assignment this process can researchers move forward in delivering effective research. HIV and AIDS Research in study outline, Swaziland. The Kingdom of Swaziland is a small, landlocked Southern African country with a population of about one million. Essay? In the 1980#x02019;s it experienced a significant upturn in investment and growth, benefiting from a regional advantage due to war in Mozambique and child, apartheid in South Africa.
This was combined with relative political stability, sound macroeconomic policies, and a cheap and an essay, productive workforce, and resulted in significant inflows of foreign direct investment. Between 1985 and 1999 the growth rate was 6% and the well-being of the Swazi#x02019;s was on a modest upward trajectory . Since 2000 these gains have been reversed, largely due to child case study outline the impact of HIV and internet essay, AIDS. Swaziland has the distressing distinction of having the highest HIV prevalence rate in the world. Its epidemic spread with exceptional speed, from case study outline four percent of antenatal clinic attendees in 1992 to chemistry 42.6 percent in study outline, 2004 . The 2006 data seemed to introduction essay offer some hope with a decline to 39.2 percent, but the 2008 survey recorded a rise to 42 percent . Mortality rose and life expectancy fell from 60 years in 1997 to 31.3 years in 2004, the world#x02019;s lowest . Swaziland is additionally handicapped because the economic success of the child study outline 1980s and early 1990s mean it is categorised as a middle-income country, and cannot access international support available to low-income countries. While it was believed that AIDS was having a drastic impact on many facets of Swazi society and alexander enlightenment, the economy there were few hard data to back this up.
The people of Swaziland knew that they were attending more funerals, agricultural production was declining, and the economy was in difficulty. However, no one had collected data across all sectors and outline, looked at the effects on the country as a whole. In early 2007 the terms of reference for a study to assess the impact of the AIDS epidemic across the nation were drawn up. Atlantis Essays? The ideas were developed primarily by Dr Derek Von Wissell, Head of the National Emergency Response Council on HIV/AIDS in Swaziland (NERCHA) and Professor Alan Whiteside, Director of the study Health Economics and HIV/AIDS Research Division (HEARD) at the University of KwaZulu-Natal. The research was partly funded by HEARD and led by Amy Whalley, a former Overseas Development Institute Fellow who had worked with NERCHA and the Ministry of Health and guided by Whiteside and staff at NERCHA. Whalley#x02019;s task was to advertisement gather and analyse information on what was going on across the nation using available data sets; to compare Swaziland#x02019;s situation with other countries and thus build advocacy material for use inside the country and with the case outline international community. The write up was primarily by Whalley with major input by chemistry Whiteside. In October 2007 the report, #x02018;Reviewing #x02018;Emergencies#x02019; for Swaziland: Shifting the Paradigm in a New Era#x02019;, (here after called #x02018;Reviewing Emergencies#x02019;) was published , distributed and disseminated.
In June 2008 the impact of the child study outline work was evaluated and is the subject of the article. Reviewing Emergencies used key socio-economic indicators from many sources to build a holistic and multidimensional picture of impact of HIV/AIDS in Swaziland. Information was obtained on demographic changes, emergency thresholds, health, social indicators, orphans, coping mechanisms, economic growth and investment and agriculture. These were tracked over time. For advocacy purposes Swazi data was compared with that of Zambia and Malawi, poorer countries with lower prevalence. The report painted a bleak picture showing that Swaziland is experiencing a humanitarian crisis comparable to countries besieged by conflict or struggling in the wake of a severe natural disaster. AIDS has been a slow-onset disaster, leading to a long-term catastrophe, but requiring an urgent response. The report spoke to two audiences. For Swazi#x02019;s it confirmed that AIDS was indeed having a devastating effect on advertisement essay, their nation. The same message was aimed at the international community. However it also urged the latter to re-examine the HIV and AIDS epidemic.
It sought to broaden the traditional consensus on what constitutes an emergency to include #x02018;long-wave emergencies#x02019;. Effective interventions require both an immediate emergency response but also have to build capacity for long-term programmes . In the course of the research the country#x02019;s classification emerged as an important issue. As a lower-middle income country Swaziland is not eligible for child case outline international development assistance (IDA) grants from the World Bank, and concessional-lending . The report challenged the use of essay GDP per capita as an indicator to set the status of a country and its access to support in the face of a generalised AIDS epidemic. It noted the global perception of #x02018;middle-income countries#x02019; is child case, that they need less support and are somehow #x02018;less deserving#x02019;. (Figure #x200B; (Figure1 1 ) Assessing the impact: The research to policy interface.
Much of SRH and pope an essay on man, HIV and AIDS research, particularly in the development arena, aims to influence policy, it is #x0201c;research committed to improvement#x0201d; . Policy makers are increasingly concerned to child outline make policy choices underpinned by rigorous research. The research-to-policy interface is a fast growing area of critical and problem solving course description study, particularly in case outline, the SRH and HIV and AIDS research communities. Ap Literature Frankenstein? The purposes are two fold: accountability of a research organisation, demonstrating achievement and value for money for funders; and as a learning exercise, developing a better understanding of the research impact process in order to enhance future impact . HEARD is an applied research organisation aiming to case mobilise evidence for interventions in health and alexander pope an essay on man enlightenment, HIV in the region . Only by identifying where change has transpired as a result of its research, where it has not, and outline, the reasons for alexander pope on man enlightenment this, can it deliver effective research. Impact assessment is an underdeveloped field of study, in part due to the complex and dynamic nature of research impacts and child case outline, the consequent difficulty in measuring them. Sumner, Perkins and Lindstrom (2008, unpublished) identify a number of significant problems when attempting to track the impact of research: difficulty in determining conceptual influence (on opinion, attitudes and thinking); identifying research users, timing of assessment; attributing impact in the context of other drivers; and using qualitative and subjective data .
Notwithstanding such issues, if real understanding of research-to-policy interface is to be achieved, an assessment must also explain why impacts took place, going beyond just identifying them. Difficult as it may be, there are good reasons for attempting to evaluate the impact of policy research . The assessment considered here offers an example of ap literature this work, in the context of a complex and multi-player environment. It seemed that the Reviewing Emergencies report had been effective in influencing policymakers. We believed the report had had an impact for Swaziland both conceptually, on the way people think about HIV, AIDS and emergency responses and instrumentally, influencing behaviour and policy. In mid 2008, the decision was taken to carry out an assessment of the impact of the case study report to determine the validity of this claim and understand what #x02018;worked#x02019; and what #x02018;didn#x02019;t#x02019;. Fiona Henry, who was awarded a fellowship by the University of Edinburgh to alexander an essay enlightenment work with HEARD, was tasked with leading the child assessment.
The specific objectives were to: #x02022; Document the creation and dissemination of the report; #x02022; Identify and explain its impact; #x02022; Identify any barriers and/or limitations to its impact; #x02022; Draw lessons for maximising the impact of future research. This article was developed from the assessment assisted by a presentation given at the meeting of DFID funded Research Programme Consortia on #x02018;Strengthening the research to policy and practice interface: Exploring strategies used by research organisations working on Sexual and Reproductive Health and HIV and AIDS#x02019; held in Liverpool in May 2009; and advertisement essay, through peer review. In an ideal world an impact assessment should be designed from the outset; this ultimately makes the process of collecting information to track impact easier. This was not done due to lack of staff and time and is acknowledged as a limitation. The lesson learnt is to plan dissemination and the evaluation of activities at the beginning of a project, and budget for this. Two broad categories exist for impact assessments; forward-tracking, from research to outcome, and backwards-tracking, from decisions taken to potential research influence. Our impact assessment wanted to track from publication to outcome.
However, forward-tracking approaches can have serious limitations . They are often linear in approach, neglecting the complexity of the processes at study outline work and the significance of context. The policy environment is influenced by socio-cultural, political and economic factors and these must be acknowledged in order to alexander pope enlightenment understand why an impact took place. Taking this into account, the assessment attempts to put identified #x02018;impacts#x02019; into a relevant context. The assessment cannot claim to fully understand the influence of other #x02018;drivers#x02019; on child case study outline, outcomes. Policy research is is harmful, only one of child case many sources of internet is harmful information used in decision making or to form opinion. To conceptualise the counterfactual, and isolate the case impacts of Reviewing Emergencies alone, would be both resource intensive and introduction, difficult to determine. As a consequence, the impact assessment could not claim outright attribution of policy impacts. It instead recognises impacts as contributions to change, where the evidence supported such claims. This difficult methodological issue of attributing outcomes can result in a #x02018;shying away#x02019; from impact assessments .
However, with a pragmatic approach to understanding impact, based on evidence and informed opinion, and understanding that impacts will rarely be attributed solely to an individual publication or programme, an impact assessment can still be of value. Conceptualising #x02018;impact#x02019;: A temporal approach. #x02018;Impact#x02019; is used interchangeably with terms such as #x02018;influence#x02019;, #x02018;outcomes#x02019;, #x02018;use#x02019; and #x02018;uptake#x02019;, and case study outline, a number of definitions exist in the literature . In the assessment of the Reviewing Emergencies impact is defined temporally, referring to #x02018;initial impact#x02019;, #x02018;long-term impact#x02019; and #x02018;potential impact#x02019;. This is important. Chemistry? Firstly, initial impact refers to the #x02018;sticky messages#x02019; of the outline report: what strikes the reader instantly about the report and its findings and and problem course description, the key messages that they come away with. Identifying those findings, statements or graphs that resonated with the reader would provide powerful tools for communicating messages of future research.
Secondly, impact was assumed to have a longer-term element, influencing thinking and decision making. This constituted the main body of the assessment. #x02018;Long-term impacts#x02019; are those conceptual and child outline, instrumental impacts that change understanding and attitudes or contribute to a change in alexander an essay enlightenment, policy or behaviour. As the assessment took place about a year after the launch of child case outline Reviewing Emergencies, #x02018;potential impact#x02019; considered the possibility of impact in the future. With continued advocacy, and changes to organic chemistry assignment the policy environment, potential impact outlines the #x02018;capability#x02019; of the report#x02019;s findings. It highlights areas in which to focus advocacy efforts in the future. Policy research can be used for multiple, often unforeseen, purposes . Tracking a research contribution, especially one that seeks conceptual change, is case study, difficult.
Taking a pragmatic approach, a good place to and problem begin is identifying likely users of research. The impact assessment chose five sectors for analysis to try to encompass key actors. They were: donors; government; civil society and non-governmental organisations; academia and the media. Identifying them helped to structure the analysis and understand the different #x02018;uptake#x02019; of the research. The categories were purposefully broad in recognition of the broad array of policy players, and to enable flexibility in case study, analysis; crossing national boundaries and disciplines. Lessons from Swaziland, we believed, would be applicable elsewhere in the region, especially in Lesotho, Namibia and atlantis essays, Botswana as these are all defined as lower-middle-income countries; have similar prevalence levels; and are members (with South Africa) of the Southern African Customs Union. It was also important as Ministries of Health are often weak and in case study, many African countries donor policies have a disproportionate influence on health. #x02018;Measuring#x02019; impact posed some difficulty. Changes to thinking and decisions are particularly hard to quantify. For this reason a qualitative approach was used, asking how and atlantis essays, why people believed the report had altered their approach to the Swazi epidemic, and what impact they believed the report had.
Anecdotal evidence and substantive examples were key to supporting such beliefs in the absence of quantitative evidence. Impact was ultimately considered against case study the aims of the report: determining what was achieved as intended, what was not achieved, and organic chemistry assignment, any unintended impacts. The methods consisted first of a literature review, to develop understanding of the study background and terms of reference for the study. Relevant policy documents, articles, op-eds and minutes of key meetings were reviewed. A questionnaire with questions relating to influence to date, potential influence and barriers to internet influence across sectors was distributed to 50 individuals, in the five sectors. Questions asked the respondents to rank how influential they thought the report had been in different areas, from #x02018;no influence#x02019; to child study outline a #x02018;very large influence#x02019; (including a #x02018;don#x02019;t know#x02019; option). They were then asked to give examples or describe why they believed this level of influence had been achieved. Detailed interviews were conducted with five key people who had significant involvement in the creation and dissemination of the report.
Twenty questionnaires were returned; unfortunately, given time restraints, a follow-up of the original questionnaire to increase response rates was not possible. In analysing feedback from questionnaires, the percentage of introduction advertisement essay answers for each ranking were calculated. Similar details or examples from both respondents and interviewees were grouped together to find trends in opinion. Study Outline? We recognised a positive bias could exist. Firstly, the writing of the assessment assumed an impact had occurred. To mitigate this problem, a #x02018;no influence#x02019; option was included in essay, the questionnaire. Secondly, the respondents that worked on child, creating the report, or those in close partnership with the writers, may give optimistic estimates of the report#x02019;s impact to validate their own work. For this reason, weight was given to alexander pope opinion that was reinforced with explicit examples, and to those highlighting barriers, limitations or negative impacts of the report. In the assessment the three elements (initial, long-term, and potential) of child case impact were discussed for each of the five sectors, providing a specific and detailed account of #x02018;impact#x02019; . See Figure #x200B; Figure2 2 for an overview of alexander an essay these findings. The focus is not on the impacts, but on child case study outline, the findings which helped to explain them.
It is these lessons that are key to creating effective HIV and AIDS research in future. The significance of communication. The questionnaire asked, #x0201c;What is the single most striking aspect of the internet essay report (e.g. a graph, a statistic, a statement)?#x0201d; The graphs were singled out by respondents. Where they were not specifically cited, the concepts they conveyed were seen as important. One respondent answered, #x0201c;A combination of statistics, graphical illustrations and child case study, words are used effectively to convey the message#x0201d;, illustrating the clear use of these tools in the original report. Assignment? The demographic implications of the HIV and child case, AIDS epidemic on the Swazi population had a significant impact on ap literature prompts, the readers. In particular respondents cited #x02018;Figure 8: Swaziland Population Pyramids#x02019;, in Whiteside and Whalley 2007 (shown below) and outline, the concept that a permanent alteration of the structure of Swazi society has occurred. (Figure #x200B; (Figure3) 3 ) 
The application of Swaziland#x02019;s HIV prevalence rate to western countries, in Table 2 (page 8) of the report #x02018;stuck#x02019; with some. Atlantis Essays? This table shows if the UK had the equivalent burden there would be nearly 11.5 million British citizens infected. When presenting these data, it would be tailored to the audience #x02013; for example talking in Sweden the presenter said #x02018;Swaziland#x02019;s prevalence would be equivalent to 1.75 million Swedes being infected#x02019;. It is unsurprising that such dramatic predictions of the effects of the epidemic on the structure of the child case study population would strike the reader. It demonstrates the necessity of clearly reiterating and educating about the long-term consequences of the epidemic. Shortly after the publication of Reviewing Emergencies the government released preliminary data from the national 2007 census showing a decline in the population - 17, 489 fewer Swazis than in 1997 . The serendipitous release of this data helped give Reviewing Emergencies momentum. Successful dissemination was crucial, but wide dissemination is thinking solving course description, not the same as wide impact, and it cannot be assumed that the former naturally or inevitably leads to the latter . The communication and advocacy efforts surrounding a message help facilitate impact and are important to understanding where, how and why impact was achieved. The report was presented and formally discussed at a consultation in July 2007.
It was available in print from October 2007, and child, a core set of ap literature frankenstein power point slides was developed and presented to case outline a range of organisations inside and beyond Swaziland. The audiences included civil servants, politicians, the donor community, NGOs, academics and businesses. Informally, according to Von Wissell, many others have discussed the report, including numerous missions, delegations and envoys. The report was made accessible online by HEARD  and NERCHA as well as UNAIDS , Relief Web , Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources Policy Analysis Network  and Aidsportal. (Table #x200B; (Table1 1 ) HEARD and NERCHA co-ordinated their efforts in communicating the findings. The delivery of the message itself was particularly significant. Pope An Essay On Man? It had a coherence achieved by using the same slide set #x02013; presenters were #x02018;singing from the same song sheet.#x02019; However, presentations were tailored to the audiences; Von Wissell presented to Swazi audiences in SiSwati; in Scandinavia the importance of donors was stressed.
An example of the child case study outline impact achieved by this dissemination process was exemplified by the visit of representatives of the introduction advertisement World Bank. In November 2007, the Human Development Vice President and Country Director from the child outline World Bank visited Swaziland to introduction assess first-hand the country#x02019;s situation in human development and HIV and AIDS. They met with key government officials including the Minister of study Finance, and Von Wissell. It was here that Von Wissell presented Reviewing Emergencies. One World Bank official described the effect of this by saying, #x0201c;It was NERCHA#x02019;s presentation that brought home the gravity of the HIV/AIDS situation in ap literature essay prompts frankenstein, Swaziland#x0201d;, and subsequently the World Bank sent a mission to Swaziland to explore next steps for the Bank.
The presentation of the report#x02019;s findings was critical to this decision. Engagement, timing and credibility. The work built on a long-term engagement of Whiteside and HEARD with Swaziland. This historical background is particularly important to both locate the child case study research and ap literature prompts, the response to it. The timeline below shows the progression of HIV/AIDS in Swaziland through significant events and statistics, simultaneous to key examples of research conducted on the epidemic by HEARD and associates. As the child outline timeline shows, Reviewing Emergencies built on three major reports in 1994, 2003 and 2006, which illustrated there was something going seriously wrong.
Its message was credible - based on a history of research and evidence. It used good and informative scientific indicators to build a body of evidence difficult to advertisement refute. Furthermore, it was it was written at a critical time in Swaziland: with unusual levels of death; increasing numbers of outline orphans; and tuberculosis emerging as a major killer, the grim predictions of previous publications were no longer speculative, but reality . (Figure #x200B; (Figure4 4 ) The timeline illustrates the progression of HIV/AIDS from Stage 1 to Stage 5 in less than 20 years using the concept idea of essay #x02018;Stages of the HIV/AIDS epidemic#x02019; developed by Barnett and Whiteside (2002) . As one interviewee reflected, #x0201c;While, in many ways, Swaziland#x02019;s response has been admirable and unique, it is clear that the HIV prevention programmes have not worked thus far, and more importantly, that the social and economic implications of the child case study epidemic have not been adequately thought through.#x0201d; Reviewing Emergencies tried to ap literature essay prompts explain the significance of the latter, hence filling a crucial gap in the research arena. Significantly, the report was disseminated into a receptive network of researchers, policymakers and associates with whom HEARD and NERCHA had established links. Outline? As one respondent commented, #x0201c;The wide network of individuals, organisations and donors with whom HEARD and NERCHA are affiliated were key to alexander pope its wide reception#x0201d;.
The effectiveness of historic relationships such as these, built on both individual and institutional credibility cannot be underestimated. For example Whiteside had served on a UN Commission with the Deputy President of the World Bank, and is a Governor of a school in Swaziland; Von Wissell held the position of Minister of Trade and Industry and Minister of Health in previous governments. The message was delivered by people driven to see change and who could speak with authority. Both NERCHA and HEARD are known as being responsive to need and based on principled operations. In addition, the involvement of child case study NERCHA - a Swazi based and Swazi run body - created an #x02018;ownership#x02019; of the research and a further credibility to its message. The specific terminology used in research can both help and hinder the impact of a message. In Reviewing Emergencies the term and concept of a #x02018;long-wave emergency#x02019; was particularly significant. A media respondent explained the term #x02018;emergency#x02019; acted as a #x0201c;hook#x0201d;, giving journalists an attention-grabbing story, substantiated by genuine and thinking solving, shocking statistics.
Titles such as #x02018;#x02018;Swaziland: Declare HIV/AIDS a #x0201c;humanitarian emergency#x0201d;#x02019;  and #x0201c;When is HIV/AIDS a disaster?#x0201d;  exemplify how the term renewed interest in the epidemic in Swaziland. Conversely however, concerns over the term #x02018;emergency#x02019; were discussed at length at the Low-Middle-Income Countries meeting hosted by HEARD in February 2008. One respondent explained, #x0201c;There is study, some reluctance on atlantis essays, the part of donors/NGOs/civil society/government to call HIV/AIDS an #x02018;emergency#x02019; because there seems to be fear that terming it so will result in short-term funding for a long-term problem. The sustainability of the HIV/AIDS effort is seen as under threat with short-term language.#x0201d; This meeting concluded there was a need to marry the urgency of the crisis with a long-wave understanding of the future impact of HIV/AIDS on the country, and child study, that #x02018;emergencies#x02019; may not be the atlantis essays best term to represent this . A key message of the report is the long-wave nature of HIV and its impacts should be included in a new kind of thinking on emergencies. Child Study? This debate will continue. Our assessment identified five key limitations: the role of government was not addressed; using Malawi and Zambia as comparator countries had mixed results; issues around timing; the status of AIDS (and Swaziland) on the international agenda; and finally the calls for radical change may not be achievable. The report did not deal with the role of the Swazi Government in the epidemic. Alexander Pope An Essay On Man? This is significant since it is ultimately government who guides and executed HIV strategy in the country. The Government, along with the King, have faced criticism for their response to the epidemic . Case? One respondent reminded us, the crisis #x0201c;cannot be fixed with more funding alone.#x0201d; Another discussed the structural difficulties in addressing the crisis, including the #x02018;vertical#x02019; response, exemplified by a separate AIDS response council (NERCHA) which, it was claimed, failed to join up a national response.
The historic and introduction advertisement, legal relationship between HEARD, NERCHA and the Swazi Government restrained the report#x02019;s ability to criticise. Prescribing how Swaziland should respond to the crisis was never the study intention of the paper. Whiteside argued that attempting to change the behaviour of the and problem solving course description Swazi Government was beyond the scope of case outline what a researcher from outside of the country should attempt: #x0201c;That is for the people of Swaziland to do.#x0201d; Working with the government in a #x02018;strategic alliance#x02019;, rather than against is more productive. Strategically limiting the scope of what, and alexander pope an essay enlightenment, whom, research tries to case influence can be a wise decision when trying to achieve impact within a complex policy arena. The report made comparisons between Swaziland and Zambia and Malawi, in order to demonstrate the scale of the emergency facing Swaziland. Despite the comparison having the desired effect of alexander on man emphasising the scale of the Swazi#x02019;s crisis - some respondents referenced these comparative graphs as a striking and influential tool - it also had unintended consequences. Zambia and Malawi are both countries that, like Swaziland, compete for the attention of donors and outline, development aid. By focusing all attention on Swaziland, the report appeared to belittle the issues faced by both Malawians and Zambians. #x02018;Time#x02019; is no doubt a barrier to the impact of the report, since research is usually most influential when first published. The challenge to HEARD and NERCHA was to continue the momentum behind the report. One respondent warned that the report #x0201c;may lack academic credibility if it is not followed up by further research that is able to collect primary data.#x0201d; The report aimed for both an immediate awareness of Swaziland#x02019;s epidemic, and a longer-term discussion on emergencies and low-middle income classifications.
It is the latter of these in particular that needs to introduction advertisement essay be worked at case study outline or risk a #x02018;fizzling out#x02019; as time marches on. A number of significant international barriers threatened the impact of the report and indeed the issue of HIV/AIDS throughout Sub-Saharan Africa. Firstly, the economic and political weight of Swaziland in the international sphere is small. One frustrated interviewee described that #x0201c;Swaziland is introduction advertisement essay, just not on the list#x0201d;, as it is considered as insignificant by larger countries. Secondly, HIV as a humanitarian emergency must compete for funding with other important humanitarian issues, such as famine and natural disasters. One respondent described a #x02018;shift#x02019; in global priorities to issues such as climate change, terrorism and child case, the rising price of food. Donors have finite resources and HIV and AIDS must compete with other issues. HIV and AIDS was the global health issue receiving the most attention and funding but this will change, already a gap exists between pledges and funding . Finally, the report called for essay a change within the framework that international organisations use to identify countries#x02019; level of development - that of income classification.
It further calls for outline a shift in the paradigm of thinking on emergencies. #x0201c;Effectively what this report says is that it can#x02019;t be business as usual#x0201d;. Changing entrenched ways of thinking is a major task . #x02018;Reviewing #x02018;Emergencies#x02019; for Swaziland#x02019; argued that socio-economic indicators show that the Swazi population is atlantis essays, experiencing a humanitarian crisis comparable to countries besieged by conflict or struggling in the wake of outline a severe natural disaster. In the critical solving course short-term, the report aimed to focus attention on Swaziland and what AIDS was doing to the country. It contributed to raising the profile of the child case plight of the Swazi people amongst donors and policy makers, described by one interviewee as a #x0201c;catalyst for re-engagement#x0201d;. In the medium-term, the report aimed to influence debate on the classification of low-middle income countries.
This has proved more difficult. In the long-term, the report has seen some success in opening the debate on HIV/AIDS as a #x02018;long-wave emergency#x02019;. Advertisement Essay? Likening HIV/AIDS to a large scale humanitarian disaster helped fuel a debate on the need for urgency combined with long-term responses to the epidemic. Donors, academics and NGOs have all engaged with the debate, but further advocacy and research is necessary to continue this, and see a shift in the current paradigm of case thinking on what constitutes an ap literature prompts #x02018;emergency.#x02019; Developing a better understanding of the relationship between research and policy impact is vital to advancing the influence of SRH and HIV and AIDS research. Tracking the impact of research, using one or many case studies, can help facilitate this learning. Crucial to child study outline this process is to chemistry assignment not simply identify impacts, but to study outline seek understanding of how and why they came about. Of particular use for atlantis essays developing effective research in the future is identifying where intended impact has not been achieved and child case outline, why.
The assessment of the alexander impact of child study outline Reviewing Emergencies attempted to do exactly this. Drawing from the assessment, the following lessons may help inform future SRH and HIV/AIDS research. Communication is critical. The original work - collecting existing data to atlantis essays tell one clear story - is a striking way to demonstrate the reach and scale of disease impact; the case study demographic implications of AIDS powerfully communicated the severity of the epidemic; a targeted, tailored and cohesive dissemination effort helped facilitate the atlantis essays impact of research; sustained advocacy which is vital in keeping momentum for a message, should be reflected in planning and outline, resources; further publications validating and extending a message are a good way to do this; and terminology can help or hinder the impact of a message. Context and essay, timing may be beyond the control of researchers but can significantly influence the uptake of research. These include world events, developments within the policy arena, and specifically within the topic area. If these conditions align in the favour of the research the impact may be much greater, therefore awareness of this, and careful timing of publications and advocacy efforts could maximise impact. The credibility of both evidence and researcher play an important role in the use of research. Case Study? Historical integrity of the evidence and atlantis essays, an established researcher (or institution) can foster confidence in the use of research and increase the likelihood of it being used to inform policy. Established relationships and networks between individuals and institutions can guarantee an case study audience and encourage a dialogue on the findings. #x02018;Ownership#x02019; of research, by the people it affects, is a powerful way to ensure both credibility and essay, drive behind the message. The impact assessment taught further lessons on how to conduct such a study.
An assessment should ideally be planned in advance, facilitating the process of #x02018;tracking#x02019; and information gathering; careful attention should be paid to the measurement and analysis process #x02013; if basing the child study on qualitative data, how will this be analysed and how will the effects of bias be mitigated; the #x02018;net should be cast wide#x02019; when considering areas of potential impact, recognising both the multiplicity of policy players and the potential for unintended impacts; understand that impacts may also change over time; and ultimately, to understand why an impact took place, the socio-cultural, political and economic context must be considered. With hindsight the commissioning of, publication, and dissemination of the Emergencies Report seems to is harmful follow a logical path. The sense of frustration and the need to provide evidence led to this innovative work. It is our belief that it achieved many of its goals and spurred an international dialogue around the issues. The evaluation taught us additional lessons, which can be applied to help maximise the impact of research in the future. This article critically reflects on a research project in which the authors have been involved. AW conceptualised the paper, and was co-author to the original study entitled #x02018;Reviewing #x02018;Emergencies#x02019; for Swaziland#x02019; (2007). AW also edited the manuscript. FH drafted the manuscript, with input from AW.
FH was the author of the case study study #x02018;Assessing the Impact of chemistry #x02018;Reviewing #x02018;Emergencies#x02019; for Swaziland: Shifting the child study Paradigm in a New Era#x02019; (2008). Both authors read and approved the final manuscript. AW is Director of the organic health economics and HIV/AIDS Research Division (HEARD) at the University of KwaZulu-Natal. He has an MA from the School of Development Studies at case study outline the University of KwaZulu-Natal and a D Econ from the University of introduction advertisement Natal. FH has an child case study outline MSc Development Management at pope the Department of International Development from the London School of Economics and MA Economics and Politics from child Edinburgh University. She was a visiting fellow to HEARD in 2008. This work was supported by the DFID Research Partner#x02019;s Consortium (ABBA) and the donors of the Joint Funding Arrangement.
The generous support of the staff of NERCHA is acknowledged. The responsibility for the contents and critical solving, interpretation of the data remains with the authors.
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essay on the arawaks Below is an child, overview of the Arawak#047;Taino Native Americans, the atlantis essays original natives of the land today called Haiti (and Dominican Republic). This is not so much an original treatment, but I pulled a lot of child, material together from atlantis essays about a dozen sources, so it's more like an extended report. The topics I treat are#058; Lifestyle of the Arawak#047;Taino Housing and Dress Food and Agriculture Transportation Defense Religion and Myth The genocidal end of the Arawak#047;Taino Specific Indian leaders at the time of Columbus (The five caciques of the time) I cordially invite comments. If you find that you do not agree with this report in some point, or you wish to add something that I chose not to include, or you wish to study outline, ask me and others for further information, please don't hesitate to write and ask. THE ARAWAK#047;TAINO NATIVES OF THE ISLAND OF HISPANIOLA (HAITI) On December 6th, 1492 Christopher Columbus landed at Mole St. Nicholas in Haiti's north.
Thus began a totally new phase of life on the island of Hispaniola. Most people are aware that Christopher Columbus landed at introduction advertisement San Salvador on October 12th, 1492, thus discovering the New World for Spain. Case Study Outline? Less known is that his second land fall was at atlantis essays Mole St. Nicholas, Haiti on December 1492, or that the first settlement in the New World was La Navidad, on Haiti's north coast. This settlement, which housed sailors from the child case Santa Maria which sank off Haiti's coast, was founded on December 24th, 1492.
Columbus did not discover a lost or unknown land. There was a flourishing civilization of introduction, native Americas. The primary group was the Arawak#047;Taino Indians. Arawak is the outline general group to which they belong, and describes especially the common language that this group of native Americans shared. Alexander Pope? They ranged from Venezuela through the Caribbean and Central America all the way to Florida. However, the study particular group of Arawak-speaking people who lived on the island of Hispaniola was the Taino Indians. Critical Thinking And Problem Course Description? To keep both names before us, I'll use the term Arawak#047;Taino to refer to them. The Arawak#047;Taino society was basically a very gentle culture. Study? It was characterized by happiness, friendliness and a highly organized hierarchical, paternal society, and a lack of guile. Thinking And Problem Course Description? Each society was a small kingdom and the leader was called a cacique. At the time of Columbus there were five different kingdoms on the island of Hispaniola.
The Indians practiced polygamy. Most men had 2 or 3 wives, but the caciques had as many as 30. It was a great honor for a woman to be married to a cacique. Not only child case outline did she enjoy a materially superior lifestyle, but her children were held in ap literature essay prompts frankenstein, high esteem. The Arawak#047;Taino used two primary architectural styles for their homes. The general population lived in circular buildings with poles providing the primary support and these were covered with woven straw and palm leaves. Study Outline? They were somewhat like North American teepees except rather than being covered with skins they needed to reflect the warmth of the climate and essay simply used straw and palm leaves. The caciques were singled out for unique housing.
Their houses were rectangular and child study even featured a small porch. Frankenstein? Despite the difference in shape, and the considerably larger buildings, the same materials were used. When the Africans came beginning in 1507 they introduced mud and wattle as primary building materials. However, there is no record of the Arawak#047;Tainos having used these materials. The house of the cacique contained only his own family. However, given the number of wives he might have, this constituted a huge family.
The round houses of the common people were also large. Each one had about 10-15 men and their whole families. Thus any Arawak#047;Taino home might house a hundred people. The houses did not contain much furniture. People slept in cotton hammocks or simply on mats of banana leaves. They also made wooden chairs with woven seats, couches and built cradles for their children. In addition to houses the typical Arawak#047;Taino village contained a flat court in case, the center of the village which was used for ball games and various festivals, both religious and secular. Houses were around this court. This was a hierarchical society, and while there was only one cacique who was paid a tribute (tax) to oversee the organic assignment village, there were other levels of sub-caciques, who were not paid, but did hold positions of study outline, honor. They were liable for various services to the village and cacique. Stone making was especially developed among the Arawak#047;Tainos, but they seem not to have used it at all in building houses.
It was primarily used for tools and especially religious artifacts. The men were generally naked, but the women sometimes wore short skirts. Alexander Pope An Essay On Man? Men and women alike adorned their bodies with paint and shells and other decorations. The Arawak#047;Taino diet, like ours, centered around meat or fish as the primary source of protein. There never were many wild animals to hunt on Hispaniola, but there were some small mammals that were hunted and enjoyed. Child Outline? They also ate snakes, various rodents, bats, worms, birds, in general any living things they could find with the exception of humans. They were able to hunt ducks and ap literature prompts turtles in the lakes and sea.
The coastal natives relied heavily on case study outline, fishing, and organic chemistry assignment tended to eat their fish either raw or only partially cooked. Since they did grow cotton on the island, the natives had fishing nets made of cotton. Case Study? The natives of the interior relied more on agriculture and de-emphasized meat or fish in their diet. The Arawak#047;Taino had a developed system of critical solving course description, agriculture which was virtually maintenance free. They raised their crops in a conuco, a large mound which was devised especially for farming. They packed the conuco with leaves to protect from soil erosion and fixed a large variety of crops to assure that something would grow, no matter what weather conditions prevailed. (As an child study outline, aside I would like to comment that many people in the pre-Columbian Americas had virtually work free agriculture. This system meant that people living in these materially simple social systems had enormous amounts of free time and often developed elaborate religious rites which took a lot of their time, but also had highly developed systems of atlantis essays, games and recreation. Case Study? There are some nice advantages to very simple living and diet!) One of the Arawak#047;Taino's primary crops was cassava.
This is a root crop from which a poisonous juice must be squeezed. Then it is baked into a bread like slab. The current method of doing this in Haiti produces a flat bread, sort of like a stale burrito or pizza shell. The Arawak#047;Taino grew corn (maize), squash, beans, peppers, sweet potatoes, yams and peanuts. They not only had cotton, but they raised tobacco and enjoyed smoking very much. It was not only a part of their social life, but was used in religious ceremonies too. The Arawak#047;Taino had no large animals like horses, oxen or mules to ride or use for atlantis essays work. But they did have river and sea transportation. Case Study? They used dugout canoes which were cut from a single tree trunk and used with paddles.
They could take 70-80 people in organic, a single canoe and even used them for long travels on the sea. Child Outline? These dugouts allowed fishing the few lakes of Hispaniola as well as fishing out a bit off the coast. The Arawak#047;Taino themselves were quite peaceful people, but they did have to defend themselves from the Caribs who were cannibals. The Caribs of this area were centered at what is today Puerto Rico, but some did live in northeast Hispaniola, an area that today is the Dominican Republic. The Caribs were war-like cannibals. They often raided the more peaceful Arawak#047;Tainos, killing off the critical course men, stealing and holding the case outline women for breeding, and fattening the children to eat. Please note -- Febrauary 2009: A Caribbean scholar has written in a strong note claiming this passage is in error. Atlantis Essays? Her claims sound quite plausible to child study, me, however, it was years ago I wrote this passage and I have no idea of my source, nor the energy to alexander pope on man, seach the passage out at child case this time.
Thus at the bottom of this essay I include her corrective note to me and atlantis essays appreciate her kindness in taking the time to raise this issue. See below at end. Thus the Arawak#047;Taino had some weapons which they used in defense. They used the case study outline bow and internet arrow, and case study had developed some poisons for their arrow tips. Internet Is Harmful? They had cotton ropes for defensive purposes and some spears with fish hooks on the end. Child Study? Since there were hardwoods on the island, they did have a war club made of macana. This was about 1 thick and reminds one very much of the cocomaque stick used in is harmful essay, later Haitian days. They did not develop any armor or specifically defensive weapons (shields, etc.) The Arawak#047;Taino were polytheists and their gods were called ZEMI . The zemi controlled various functions of the universe, very much like Greek gods did, or like later Haitian Voodoo lwa. However, they do not seem to have had particular personalities like the Greek and Haitian gods#047;spirits do.
There were three primary religious practices#058; Religious worship and obeisance to the zemi themselves. Dancing in case, the village court during special festivals of thanksgiving or petition. Medicine men, or priests, consulting the zemi for advice and healing. This was done in public ceremonies with song and dance. There are many stone carvings of zemi which have survived. Hugh Cave in his HAITI#058; HIGH ROAD TO ADVENTURE reports that some of the stalagmites of the caves of Dondon were carved into assignment zemi. Some of my students on a study trip visited the child study outline caves of Dondon but were unable to find and photograph these carvings.
One often sees stone zemi for sale in Haiti, but I have no way of knowing if they are genuine Arawak#047;Taino archaeological finds, or if they have been remade for tourists! (As a footnote to this section I might add that Rev. Dr. William Hodges in Limbe, Haiti, is perhaps the most important of those who have done archaeological work in Haiti, and he bills himself as a amateur who does it on the side for pleasure. However, his small museum in Limbe is simply fantastic, and worth the trip, which is only about 45 minutes from Cap Haitien by taptap. He also has a wealth of materials which he has printed over the years. Dr. Hodges, a U.S. Internet? citizen, operates a missionary hospital in study, Limbe and alexander pope an essay enlightenment has been in Haiti for more than 40 years.) One account of the religious agricultural feasts which were offered both in child study, thanksgiving and petition, describes the following features#058; People had special dress for the ceremonies that included paint and course description feathers.
From their knees on down they would be covered in shells. The shaman (medicine man or priests) presented the carved figures of the zemi. The cacique sat on wooden stool, a place of outline, honor. Frankenstein? (There are many surviving stone carvings of the cacique on his stool.) There was a ceremonial beating of drums. People induced vomiting with a swallowing stick. This was to purge the body of child case study outline, impurities, both a literal physical purging and a symbolic spiritual purging. Critical Thinking Solving Description? This ceremonial purging and other rites were a symbolic changing before zemi. Women served bread (a communion rite), first to zemi, then to child case study, the cacique followed by the other people. The sacred bread was a powerful protector. (The interesting similarities between this ritual and the Christian practice of eucharist is obvious!) Finally came an oral history lesson -- the singing of the village epic in honor of the cacique and is harmful essay his ancestors. As the poet recited he was accompanied by outline, a maraca, a piece of hardwood which was beaten with pebbles.
There was an afterlife where the good would be rewarded. Essay? They would meet up with dead relatives and friends. Since most of the people they would meet in this paradise were women, it is curious to speculate if it was mainly women who were considered good, or if some other reason accounted for child study this division of the sexes in the afterlife. There are many stone religious artifacts which have been found in chemistry assignment, Haiti. The zemi take on strange forms like toads, turtles, snakes, alligators and various distorted and hideous human faces. The zemi, as well as dead caciques, have certain powers over the natural world and child outline must be dealt with. Thus these various services are ways of acknowledging their power (worship and thanksgiving) and at the same time seeking their aid. Because of these powers there are many Arawak#047;Taino stories which account for the origins of some experienced phenomena in pope an essay enlightenment, myth and or magic. Several myths had to do with caves. The sun and moon, for example, came out of caves. Study Outline? Another story tells that the people lived in caves and only came out at night.
One guard was supposed to watch carefully over people to be sure that they were well divided in the land. However, one day he was late in returning and essay the sun caught him and turned him into child case study outline a stone pillar. (Shades of Lot's wife!) Another Indian became angry at the sun for its various tricks and introduction decided to leave. He convinced all the women to abandon their men and come with him along with their children. Child Case Outline? But, the essay prompts children were deserted, and in their hunger they turned into frogs. The women simply disappeared.
This left the child study men without women. But, they did find some sexless creatures roaming around and atlantis essays eventually captured them. Case Study Outline? (Actually they used people with a disease like mange since they had rough hands and could hold on to these elusive creatures.) However, they tied these creatures up and is harmful put woodpeckers on them. The birds, thinking these were trees started pecking on them and carved out the sex organs of women, thus re-establishing the possibility of survival. A different myth simply tells that once there were no women. Man brought woman from an island where there were only women. The origin of the outline oceans was in a huge flood which occurred when a father murdered his son (who was about to murder the father), and internet then put his bones in a calabash. The bones turned to fish and case study then the gourd broke and all the water of the world flowed from the introduction broken gourd. THE GENOCIDAL END OF THE ARAWAK#047;TAINO NATIVES ON THE ISLAND OF HISPANIOLA.
This section of the genocidal end of the Hispaniolan Taino/Arawaks was revised in August 1999 (including the case outline title of the section). There is a great debate as to just how many Arawak#047;Taino inhabited Hispaniola when Columbus landed in 1492. Some of the early Spanish historian#047;observers claimed there were as many as 3,000,000 to 4,000,000. These numbers seem to be based on very little reliable evidence and are thought to be gross exaggerations. However, since nothing like a census was done, the methods for estimating the numbers are extremely shaky, whether by these early historians or later critics. One long technical article on the population comes in the with the low estimate of 100,000. Several other modern scholars seem to lean more forcefully in the area of 300,000 to 400,000. Whatever the number, what happened to them is extremely tragic. They were not immune to European diseases, especially smallpox, and the Spanish worked them unmercifully in the mines and fields.
By 1507 the Spanish were settled and able to ap literature essay prompts, do a more reliable job of counting the Arawak#047;Tainos. Child Outline? It is generally agreed that by 1507 their numbers had shrunk to 60,000. Organic Chemistry? By 1531 the number was down to 600. Today there are no easily discerned traces of the Arawak#047;Taino at all except for outline some of the archaeological remains that have been found. Not only on essay, Hispaniola, but also across the Windward Passage in Cuba, complete genocide was practiced on child outline, these natives. The next three paragraphs were added in August 1999. It is important to pause and think about what is claimed here. The claim is not that the entire population of CARIBBEAN (and possibly even Floridian) Taino/Arawaks were wiped out, but that population which was on the island of introduction advertisement, Hispaniola when Columbus arrived. Further, this is not to say that no drop of Taino/Arawak blood survived, or than not a single word of the language drifted in later Haitian Creole, perhaps even a zemi god influenced Voodoo here or there. Rather, the claim is child case outline, that the Taino/Arawak as a discernible people with a discernible culture simply disappeared ON THE ISLAND OF HISPANIOLA.
It is clear that the Taino/Arawak survived in others areas of the Caribbean, even in near-by Puerto Rico. The claim I am making is limited to those Taino/Arawaks who inhabited the island of Hispaniola when Columbus arrived in chemistry, 1492. Disease was a major cause of their demise. However, on Columbus' 2nd voyage he began to require a tribute from the Arawak#047;Tainos. They were expected to yield a certain quantity of case study, gold per capita. Failing that each adult of introduction essay, 14 was required to submit 25lbs. of cotton. For those who could not produce the cotton either, there was a service requirement for them to work for child study outline the Spanish.
This set the stage for is harmful a system of assigning the Arawak#047;Taino to child case, Spanish settlers as effective slave labor. This system contributed significantly to their genocide. In Sidney Lintz's interesting introduction to James Leyburn's THE HAITIANS , he argues that not only did the natives die out, but nearly all cultural traces did too. He says this is a very unusual phenomenon. Haiti's culture is and problem solving, almost entirely African and child case outline European. There are some anthropologists who believe that some Voodoo rites, and especially the Petwo Voodoo rites, might have their origins in Arawak#047;Taino religion, but this is speculative. Regardless, it does seem that the Arawak#047;Tainos disappeared without a trace. Michel Laguerre does caution that despite the early date of the demise of the Arawak#047;Taino, numbers of them did last long enough to have worked alongside the African slaves who were being brought to Haiti in increasing numbers. Laguerre suggests that there would probably have been some inter-mating and thus it is highly unlikely that Indian blood completely died out in Haiti, even though their cultural heritage did disappear without a trace. [Special note#058; Given my focus on the history of atlantis essays, Haiti as shaping the current situation in Haiti and using history to understand Haiti today, what is child case outline, contained in the few paragraphs before this note is very important.
It says, in effect, that the pre-Columbian period has virtually no role at all in is harmful essay, shaping contemporary Haiti. This should be noted, since if my analysis is accurate, that important conclusion follows.] SPECIFIC NATIVE LEADERS AT THE TIME OF COLUMBUS. There were five major caciques when Columbus landed and child case study they had various relations with Columbus. These caciques, their provinces and relations with the Spanish were#058;
The province of Marien (Bainoa) This province was on the north east coast + interior, in the area of the bay of Samana in the Dominican Republic. He wanted Columbus to protect him from the introduction marauding Caribs who often came into outline this area, and he became a friendly advisor to Columbus and is harmful essay a lifelong friend of the Spanish invaders. Child Outline? His own village was about organic chemistry assignment, 2 miles SE of case study outline, Cap Haitien. The province of Ciguayos (Cayabo or Maguana) After the introduction advertisement essay Spanish settlers at La Navidad perpetrated many horrors on local natives, Caonabo led a band which crossed into the province of Maden and killed all the child case sailors. Caonabo then became the rallying point for resistance to the Spanish. Under a pretext of making peace, Columbus lured Caonabo into a trap. Advertisement Essay? The Spaniard Ojeda gave Caonabo a gift of polished iron chains and handcuffs. Mistaking them for case study ornaments, Caonabo allowed himself to be chained and taken away. Introduction Advertisement Essay? Columbus then sent him off to Spain.
Caonabo's brother, Manicatoex, then led an study, uprising. The Spanish, with their superior firepower crushed the natives and critical and problem solving the defeated Arawak#047;Taino were forced to agree to child case outline, pay tribute to the Spanish. There seems to be some unclarity among scholars about these natives. Enlightenment? Some claim that these Indians were not from the Arawak#047;Taino group, but some other tribe. lt does seem that an earlier group, the Ciboney, did live in this area. Child Case Study? But, it's not clear if at the time of Caonabo these were Arawak#047; Taino or not.
The province of Magua (Huhabo) This was a densely populated area. This was good inland agricultural land. Chemistry Assignment? In 1494 Guarionex was made to submit, then was imprisoned. The Spanish raped his wife in front of him, then executed him. They suspected him of outline, being involved in the attack which Caonabo led on La Navidad.
(A brief digression on La Navidad. Columbus landed at Mole St. Nicholas on Dec. 6, 1492, his second land fall in the New World. On Dec. 24, 1492 he was sailing away and on Christmas Eve the enlightenment Santa Maria ran aground and sank off the north coast of Haiti, just near Cap Haitien. The Pinta was lost and the Nina could not accommodate all the sailors. Thus Columbus, with the help of Arawak#047;Taino, salvaged a good deal of the Santa Maria and built a small fort called La Navidad (The Nativity) and left a group of sailors there.)
On his return on the second voyage all the sailors were discovered to have been killed. It seems that they began to violate native women and property and the natives rose up against them.) The province of Xaragua. This was in child case study, the southwest peninsula. They grew lots of ap literature, cotton here and also in the cul de sac, north of where Port-au-Prince lies today. Behechio's sister was Anacaona, widow of Caonabo. After the Spanish killed Caonabo and Behechio, she succeeded her husband in child case, Xaragua and was much loved by her people. However, the Spanish were threatened by this popularity and the power that went with it. Ovando, a successor to Columbus, went to her village under the pretext of collecting the Spanish tribute. Despite Anacaona's instructions to the people to be fully cooperative and hospitable, and despite her own friendly welcome, the Spanish began a slaughter, burned the village and took Anacaona prisoner.
She was hanged at Santo Domingo. Cacique Cotubanama or Cayacoa. The province of Higuey (Caizcimu) There were rumors of there being gold in Higuey. Atlantis Essays? De Las Casas reported that infinite was the number of child study outline, people l saw burned alive in organic chemistry assignment, order that the people tell where the child case nonexistent gold was. (I'll do a separate piece on De Las Casas, a most interesting fellow.) After the death of Anacaona, Cotubanama too was considered dangerous. The Spanish attacked his province, captured him and hung him in Santo Domingo. [Another interruption#058; A word about advertisement essay, originality. I am not an study outline, historian by profession or training.
I gather virtually no data from original archival sources. Rather, I read a great deal of what historians have written about Haiti, and I pull information together. However, I do then build interpretations of that data that is internet is harmful, sometimes not the same use of the data that the original historian made of it. Thus, while I want to caution you that I am not original in the sense of data gathering, I do accept the responsibility for case study outline many of my interpretations of that data, or for other's interpretations which I've come to accept. I'll try, as best I can, to defend controversial interpretations which that controversy is brought to my attention.] The word genocide is an introduction advertisement, interesting term. Etymologically it means the killing of an entire gens, a whole people.
The word is used a good deal in politically charged language these days with people often charging that some group or other is attempting genocide. Certainly Adolf Hitler and the Third Reich of Germany attempted it on the Jews of Europe, and failed. Outline? As far as I know, the only case in history of where complete and total genocide was carried out was here on the island of Hispaniola. The entire GENS , the whole people of the chemistry native Americans of the Arawak#047;Taino people were wiped out. It is a horrible and astonishing story. [My claim of genocide is a controversial interpretation, and is vehemently denied by a group of living Tainos. Child Outline? Now, one may ask, if there was genocide on the Hispaniola Arawak#047;Tainos, then how can their be living Tainos? That's the organic assignment rub, and that's why I stand behind my claim.] The Tainos were throughout the Caribbean, Bahamas and some areas of the child mainland, especially near northern coastal South America. But, from what I have read, the Arawak#047;Tainos of the island of Hispaniola did not survive at introduction essay all. However, if this topic interests you, then I urge you to child case study, get in touch with the active Taino group which has a WWW site and can offer you a contrary view.
In 1997 I explained my case and invited them to respond specifically to the question of the island of Hispaniola, but to date they have not done that. Their home page can be found at#058; From#058; Cacique Ciba Guanikeyu. great grandson of Cacique Orocobix. The Taino Inter-Tribal Council. THE NJ COUNCIL OFFICE Tel#058; 609-825-7776 FAX #038; TAINO BBS#058; 609-825-7922. We Are Still Here! Taino Indigenous Nation of the Caribbean #038; Florida. The head of this organization is internet essay, Peter Torres Torresp#064;algorithms.com. Note added February 2009. I am an indigenous Caribbean scholar (Lokono Arawak) who is doing my doctoral work on the history and culture of the indigenous people of the Caribbean at outline York University in atlantis essays, Toronto.
As a part of my research I came across your page entitled, PRE-COLUMBIAN HISPANIOLA -- ARAWAK/TAINO NATIVE AMERICANS. While the majority of your work regarding the study Taino is accurate there are some inaccuracies in your paper I felt sufficiently offended by to write to you about. Your information about the Carib (who are actually called the Kalinago) is incorrect. Ap Literature Essay Prompts? The information I am referring to is: . they did have to defend themselves from the Caribs who were cannibals. The Caribs of this area were centered at what is today Puerto Rico, but some did live in northeast Hispaniola, an area that today is the case Dominican Republic.
The Caribs were war-like cannibals. They often raided the more peaceful Arawak/Tainos, killing off the men, stealing and holding the is harmful essay women for breeding, and fattening the child study children to eat. There is atlantis essays, no archaeological, anthropological or traditional cultural evidence to support this view that the Kalinago were Cannibals which makes your writings about them inadvertently a part of the perpetuation of an outdated and unsupported scholarly view.
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Una vida que se basta a sí misma: la revancha de los valores del sur La politica es una disputa entre diferentes formas de vida, sensibilidades, ideas de felicidad. Outline. La toma del poder no sirve de nada si no se proponen mundos alternativos. P.I.G.S: acción artística del colectivo Claire Fontaine (octubre, 2013) En los años 70, el cineasta italiano Pier Paolo Pasolini propuso pensar el conflicto político como una disputa fundamentalmente antropológica : entre diferentes modos de ser, sensibilidades, ideas de felicidad. Chemistry Assignment. Una fuerza política no es nada (no tiene ninguna fuerza) si no arraiga en un mundo que rivalice con el dominante en términos de formas de vida deseables . Mientras los hombres políticos de su tiempo (dirigentes de partido, militantes de vanguardia, teóricos críticos) miraban hacia el poder estatal como el lugar privilegiado para la transformación social (se toma el poder y desde arriba se cambia la sociedad), Pasolini advertía con sensibilidad poética, esto es, sismográfica que el capitalismo estaba avanzando mediante un proceso de homologación cultural que arruinaba los mundos otros (campesinos, proletarios, subproletarios) contagiando los valores y modelos del consumo horizontalmente: a través de la moda, la publicidad, la información, la televisión, la cultura de masas, etc. Child. El nuevo poder no emana, irradia o desciende desde un lugar central, sino que se propaga indirectamente, en la vivencia, lo existencial, lo concreto, decía Pasolini. En el vestir y en los andares, en la seriedad y las sonrisas, en la gesticulación y los comportamientos, el poeta descifraba los signos de una mutación antropológica en marcha: la revolución del consumo.
Frenarla desde el poder político sería como tratar de contener una inundación con una manguera. Alexander Pope An Essay. No es posible imponer otros contenidos o finalidades a un mismo marco de acumulación y crecimiento. Case. Es más bien al revés: el modo de producción-consumo será el que determine los márgenes del poder político. Atlantis Essays. Una civilización sólo se para con otra. Case Outline. Son necesarios otros vestires y otros andares, otra seriedad y otras sonrisas, otra gesticulación y otros comportamientos. La disputa política (la que no es simple juego de tronos) expresa un desacuerdo ético entre diferentes ideas de la vida o, mejor, de la buena vida . Essay. No ideas que flotan por ahí o se enuncian retóricamente, sino ideas prácticas encarnadas, materializadas, inscritas en los gestos y los dispositivos más cotidianos (Facebook, Uber o Airbnb son figuras del deseo , de ahí su fuerza). Child Outline. ¿Qué podría decirnos una mirada antropológica sobre la política? ¿Qué mundos colisionan hoy? ¿En qué desacuerdos éticos sobre la vida buena podrían aflorar acciones políticas transformadoras? Demos primero un paso atrás. Critical Solving. ¿Dónde nació la idea de organizar la vida entera en torno al trabajo, la eficacia y la productividad?
Según Max Weber, la cultura burguesa encontró su origen, motor y combustible en la ética protestante (sobre todo del protestantismo ascético). Case Study. A través de la reconceptualización del trabajo como profesión y de la teoría de la predestinación (sólo en el éxito terrenal podemos encontrar signos de nuestra salvación), se genera una subjetividad que pone en el centro de la vida el dinero y el enriquecimiento, que aspira a la racionalización de la existencia entera (la relación con el tiempo, el cuerpo, el honor, la educación de los hijos), que condena la pobreza como el peor de los males (elegir la pobreza es como elegir la enfermedad), etc. Esta subjetividad no es un reflejo automático de la objetividad económica, sino un elemento decisivo de la cultura capitalista sin la cual sencillamente no hay capitalismo. Is Harmful. Sólo un nuevo tipo de imaginario y subjetividad (una nueva organización del deseo) podía tener la fuerza suficiente para quebrar la mentalidad tradicionalista (imperante entonces) según la cual no se vive para trabajar (eso sería absurdo), sino que se trabaja para vivir y si se dispone de riqueza (por trabajo propio, ajeno o buena ventura) se dedica uno a la contemplación o a la guerra, al juego o a la caza, a dormir tranquilo o al goce sensual de la vida, pero no se le pasa por la cabeza reinvertirla para seguir acumulando . La cultura burguesa nace por tanto de la potencia de un imaginario religioso que abandona luego, laicizando sus valores: el sentido de la responsabilidad individual, el self made man , la meritocracia, el crédito, el progreso, la sensibilidad puritana y severa, etc. Study. La modernidad ha sido predominantemente una cultura del Norte: anglosajona, masculina, blanca y protestante. Atlantis Essays. Pero el dominio de este imaginario (vivir para trabajar, invertir los beneficios en obtener más beneficios, someter todos los aspectos de la vida a un control reglamentado y sistemático, etc.) nunca ha sido completo. Según el sociólogo (de la vida cotidiana) Michel Maffesoli, siempre ha existido, insistido y resistido una “socialidad del sur”.
Una socialidad difusa, sumergida y oculta, difícil de ver pero presente, capaz de rebelarse y activarse si resulta amenazada. Child. Una dinámica informal (formas de vínculo, de pertenencia subjetiva, de hacer práctico) determinante en la vida diaria, como substrato o “manto freático” de la existencia colectiva. ¿En qué consiste esta socialidad del sur? En primer lugar, es un impulso vital, a-racional. Critical Thinking Solving Description. Una voluntad de vivir, un querer vivir. Child. Pero no vivir de cualquier modo, sino afirmando un tipo de vínculo, un tipo de existencia, una cierta idea de felicidad: un estar-juntos antropológico. Chemistry. Es también un conjunto de saberes y estrategias para reproducir esos vínculos, esas formas de vida.
Ese sur se refiere original e históricamente a los países mediterráneos y latinoamericanos, pero se convierte enseguida en la obra del autor en una noción más movediza que apunta a valores y climas afectivos más que a una localización geográfica. Child Case Study. En ese sentido, hay sur en el norte, como también hay norte en el sur. Introduction Advertisement Essay. Colonia (vividora, alegre, habladora, proletaria) sería el sur en Alemania y la financiera Frankfurt, el Norte. Podemos entresacar ahora cinco valores (lo que vale) para esta socialidad del sur: en primer lugar, el presente : la vida no se proyecta hacia adelante (un futuro de salvación, de perfección), sino que se afirma ahora. Child. Esa cierta despreocupación hacia el mañana no excluye (¿paradójicamente?) una obstinación por reproducirse y durar. Ap Literature Essay. La temporalidad de la socialidad del sur es intensa y no extensa, pero ella se empeña en perseverar en su ser. en segundo lugar, el vínculo: La vida se da en continuidad con otros, entramada con otros, enredada con otros.
No solamente por necesidad, sino también por el placer de compartir. Child Case Study Outline. El vínculo más apreciado es el vínculo cercano, próximo, al alcance de la mano (lo táctil como valor). Organic Assignment. Este aquí no nos separa de lo que está allí (lo lejano), sino al revés: a partir de lo que vivimos aquí nos puede resonar algo allí. en tercer lugar, lo trágico: la asunción de la anarquía de lo que hay, de lo que es. Child Study. No se trata de solucionar o superar lo dado (incierto, oscuro, múltiple), sino más bien de saber componérselas con ello. Introduction Essay. Otra relación pues con el mal, el riesgo o la muerte, que no son algo a erradicar (según las lógicas imperantes del control, la securización y la previsibilidad total), sino un costado de la vida (y también pueden ser fuerza, palanca, si nos sabemos componer). en cuarto lugar, lo dionisíaco: no la vida encerrada en uno mismo (trabajo, éxito, progreso), sino la vida extática que busca salir de sí a través del goce del cuerpo, el gusto por la máscara y el disfraz (las apariencias), la fusión con el otro en las celebraciones colectivas (musicales, deportivas, religiosas), etc. Child Case Study. Exceso, derroche, vértigo, entrega, destrucción: lo dionisíaco son tanteos con la alteridad.
por último, el doble juego: no la pasión por lo recto, lo frontal y lo explícito, sino por el desvío, la astucia, el apaño, el rebusque, la brega, la duplicidad, el disimulo, el juego con la ley y la norma, las estrategias informales de conservación y supervivencia (mía y de los míos). Alexander Pope On Man. No la pasión por corregir y enderezar, sino por sortear, regatear, driblar y burlar. Los economistas neoliberales hacen su propia lectura antropológica del mundo y concluyen que la crisis económica de 2008 tiene que ver con la insuficiente movilidad geográfica, el limitado espíritu emprendedor, el colchón familiar, el trabajo informal o la indiferencia (o incluso la repugnancia) hacia el enriquecimiento aún demasiado presentes en los países del sur (los llamados PIGS: Portugal, Italia, Grecia, España, ninguno de ellos un país protestante, por cierto). Child Case Study. Al trasluz de estos análisis, vemos a la socialidad del sur en acción. ¿Podemos leer la gestión neoliberal de la crisis como la tentativa de suprimir por fin todas esas inadecuaciones culturales y acelerar así el devenir mundo del capital (Laval y Dardot)?
La crisis de la deuda sería de ese modo la ocasión perfecta para desatar la destrucción creativa de todo aquello que, dentro y fuera de nosotros mismos, nos indispone para pensarnos y actuar como simples átomos sociales, partículas egocéntricas desvinculadas, máquinas del cálculo egoísta. And Problem Course. Costumbres y vínculos, apegos y solidaridades. Eliminando las protecciones sociales, fragilizando los derechos asociados al trabajo, favoreciendo el endeudamiento general de los estudiantes y las familias, precarizando, reduciendo los salarios y el gasto social, se trata de fomentar el sálvese quien pueda y destruir todo aquello que permita a la gente cualquier margen de libertad con respecto al mercado. Child Study. Todo lo que hay entre los seres y hace de ellos algo más que partículas elementales en competencia: lazos de mil clases, derechos conquistados, lugares vivos, recursos públicos y comunes, redes de solidaridad y apoyo, circuitos no mercantiles de bienes y servicios, etc. Internet. La base material de cualquier autonomía. Child Case Study Outline. Gobernar hoy consiste precisamente en erosionar ese entre, esa trama densa de lazos, afectos, apoyo mutuo. Pero justo cuando se quería extirpar, la socialidad del sur se tensa y activa. Internet Is Harmful. En la España de la crisis han proliferado por ejemplo los micro-grupos informales de solidaridad y apoyo mutuo (familiares, vecinales, amistosos) que han atemperado los efectos devastadores de la gestión neoliberal de la crisis: miedo, soledad y desamparo. Child Case Outline. Una proliferación que impugna en sí misma el paradigma liberal-individualista: cada uno tiene su vida. Justo cuando se nos dijo que habíamos vivido por encima de nuestras posibilidades y tocaba expiar y pagar, los valores del sur se toman su revancha, afirmando y difundiendo otras ideas de riqueza y felicidad: más basadas en el presente que en el futuro, en los vínculos que en la soledad, en el tiempo disponible y no en la vida para el trabajo, en la empatía y no en la competencia, en el disfrute de la gracia más que en la culpa por la deuda.
Más difícil todavía. Critical Thinking Course Description. Según algunos autores, estaríamos atravesando hoy el pasaje hacia la superación (¿intensificación, radicalización?) del antiguo espíritu del capitalismo cuyos orígenes estudió Weber. Por ejemplo, según Franco Berardi (Bifo ), la burguesía aún vivía en los vínculos (con una comunidad, unos lugares, unos bienes físicos, una clase trabajadora que no podía suprimir, la relación entre valor y tiempo de trabajo). Study Outline. Sin embargo, el capitalismo financiero es mucho más abstracto: no se identifica con ningún lugar, con ninguna población concreta, con ninguna clase del trabajo, con ninguna regla, aunque sus decisiones tengan consecuencias (devastadoras) sobre lugares, poblaciones, trabajadores, etc. Por otro lado, según Christian Laval y Pierre Dardot, esta lógica de acumulación infinita del capital se ha vuelto hoy una modalidad subjetiva. Is Harmful Essay. ¿Qué quiere decir esto? Pues que al homo economicus (definido por la prudencia, la ponderación, el equilibrio en los intercambios, la felicidad sin excesos, la balanza de los esfuerzos y los placeres) le sustituye el empresario de sí mismo (definido por la competencia y la autosuperación constante: vivir en el riesgo, ir más allá de uno mismo, asumir un desequilibrio permanente, no descansar o pararse jamás, poner todo el goce en la autosuperación). Child Case. Una expresión resume según los autores franceses el tipo subjetivo del capitalismo actual: siempre más. Alexander Pope An Essay On Man. El gozo de la ilimitación.
En esta transformación habría que reevaluar seguramente la resistencia que presenta la socialidad del sur, cuando por ejemplo la cultura capitalista hoy ya no exige la represión de lo afectivo/pasional, sino más bien su completa instrumentalización al servicio de la lógica del beneficio: la instrumentalización de lo íntimo. Child. Pero sin duda la afirmación de una vida que se basta a sí misma sigue siendo absolutamente subversiva (¿más que nunca?). Internet Is Harmful Essay. Una vida que no persigue extraer y acumular siempre más, sino que se vive en el gozo de cuidar y compartir, lo más cercanamente posible, aquello que nos ha sido dado, aquí y ahora. La insurrección de la socialidad del sur consistiría en afirmar políticamente esta otra idea de felicidad, esta potencia subterránea, este mar de fondo. -Cartas luteranas (Trotta) y Escritos corsarios (Ediciones del Oriente y el Meditarráneo), de Pier Paolo Pasolini. -A nuestros amigos y Ahora (ambos en Pepitas de Calabaza), del Comité Invisible. -La ética protestante y el espíritu del capitalismo (Alianza), de Max Weber. -La sublevación (ediciones castellanas en Hekht y Artefakt), de Franco Berardi, Bifo. -La pesadilla que nunca acaba (Gedisa) , de Christian Laval y Pierre Dardot.
- El tiempo de las tribus (Icaria), La tajada del diablo (Siglo XXI) y La transfiguración de lo político (Herder), de Michel Maffesoli. Los socios son el muro que nos blinda ante las presiones del poder. Interferencia (Wikipedia): fenomeno en el que dos o mas ondas se superponen para formar una onda resultante de mayor o menor amplitud. Interferencias es un blog de Amador Fernandez-Savater y Stephane M. Child Outline. Grueso (@fanetin), donde tambien participan Felipe G. Thinking And Problem Solving. Gil, Silvia Nanclares, Guillermo Zapata y Mayo Fuster. Child Study. Palabras e imagenes para contarnos de otra manera, porque somos lo que nos contamos que somos.
Necesitamos tu apoyo economico para hacer un periodismo riguroso y con valores sociales.