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Assessing the potential of electronic procurement in the public sector
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1960 , 1963 , 1984 1601 Words | 5 Pages. ?Sources of Arsenic Garelick H1, Jones H, Dybowska A, Valsami-Jones E. Arsenic is a widely dispersed element in the Earth's . crust and exists at an average concentration of e procurement, approximately 5 mg/kg. There are many possible routes of human exposure to arsenic from order management, both natural and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic occurs as a constituent in e procurement research papers more than 200 minerals, although it primarily exists as arsenopyrite and as a constituent in stalin research paper several other sulfide minerals. The introduction of e procurement research papers, arsenic into order, drinking. Arsenic , Arsenic contamination of groundwater , Igneous rock 501 Words | 2 Pages. Hanoi, Vietnam is Facing the Threats from Water Pollution With the e procurement papers, rapid growth of industrialization in urban cities, the water around . them is getting more and paper more polluted.
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Environmental Pollution John Carter Mrs. DarbySCI 256 University of Phoenix March 12th 2013 Keywich, a small but wonderful city in papers . Writing? Casedonia, Eastern Europe. A city where beauty lays in everything you see. That was up until recently. Now, I have the pleasure as city council chairman to deal with this unexpected environmental change that is happening to e procurement research papers our great city. With the new factories, came new businesses, with the new businesses came more people, more people more resources get used. APA style , Bibliography , Citation 1579 Words | 4 Pages. ?Introduction In China, an increasing population and rapid economic growth as well as lax environmental oversight have increased water . pollution . Therefore, deterioration of funding venture, drinking water quality continues to be a major problem.
Continuous emissions from research, manufacturing are the programme, largest contributor to lowered drinking quality across the country. China’s major river systems exhibit the scope of the problem. Perhaps 70 percent of e procurement research, their water is so polluted that it has been deemed unsafe for stalin research, human contact. Drinking water , People's Republic of China , Toxicology 1300 Words | 4 Pages. Environmental pollution in Dhaka city INTRODUCTION: Pollution is an undesirable change in the physical, chemical or . biological characteristics of air, water, soil or food that can adversely affect the health, survival or activities of human or other living organisms.
The effects of water pollution are far-reaching and affect not only the environment, but human beings and research animals as well. Computer Assignment? The pollution in research Dhaka has reached alarming levels, threatening public health, ecosystems and economic. Acid rain , Groundwater , Pollution 738 Words | 3 Pages. industrial belt of Eloor in Kerala is one of the world’s ‘top toxic hot spots’, according to dissertation programme international environment group Greenpeace. E Procurement Research? Periyar River is . Programme? home to more than 247 chemical industries, including the only DDT-producing facility in India. POLLUTION ASPECTS Industries in the eloor industrial zone discharge waste into research, the river. Highest concentration of stalin, toxic substance is found at kuzhikandom Thodu.Its stream is contaminated with 111 toxic substance out of which 39 are extremely toxic.In 1999. Kerala , Periyar River , Tamil Nadu 1123 Words | 4 Pages. smoke billowing from a factory chimney, flyash generated by thermal power plants, and speeding cars causing dust to rise from the roads. Natural phenomena . E Procurement? such as the eruption of a volcano and even someone smoking a cigarette can also cause air pollution . | | |The gaseous composition of unpolluted air | | . Air pollution , Oxygen , Ozone 2108 Words | 6 Pages.
Name: ______________________________________ Date: ________________________ Student Exploration: Water Pollution Vocabulary: bacterial . pollution , nutrient pollution , sediment pollution , toxic pollution , water pollution Prior Knowledge Questions (Do these BEFORE using the Gizmo.) 1. Scholastic? Water pollution is the addition of harmful substances to water. Some of these substances are found at home. What household chemicals might be harmful if not disposed of properly? _________________________________________________________________________ . Acid rain , Eutrophication , Pollution 476 Words | 6 Pages. Pollution Facts Pollution is a Global Killer Pollution likely affects over a billion people around the world, . with millions poisoned and killed each year. The World Heath Organization estimates that 25 percent of all deaths in the developing world are directly attributable to environmental factor.1 Some researchers estimate that exposure to pollution causes 40 percent of e procurement, deaths annually.2 Pollution is Regarded as a Major (and quickly emerging) Factor in Disease People affected by programming assignment pollution . Acid rain , Air pollution , Cruise ship pollution 798 Words | 3 Pages. ?Final Report Environmental Degradation and e procurement Destruction: Water Pollution in China Japanese Economy EA Introduction As . one of the largest growing economies in the world, China, as a developing country, is now experiencing similar problems that other developed nations faced in stalin research paper their past developing phase. Environmental pollution , deforestation, unemployment and bribery issues are common in China, and e procurement China’s ability to progress at a rapid pace has been affected by dissertation these problems. China , Economic growth , People's Republic of China 2237 Words | 7 Pages. ?Air Pollution Air pollution is defined as any contamination of the atmosphere that disturbs the natural composition and . chemistry of the e procurement research papers, air. This can be in stalin research paper the form of e procurement papers, particulate matter such as dust or excessive gases like carbon dioxide.
Causes of Air pollution Exhaust from vehicles or manufacturing plant Forest fires, volcanic eruptions, dry soil erosion, and funding venture essay other natural sources Building construction or demolition Effects of Air Pollution Smog, acid rain Crop depletion from inadequate. Air pollution , Pollution , Volcano 514 Words | 3 Pages. Introduction Health Effects of Air Pollution (Author) (Institution) Air pollution could affect the climate, the . environment, and human health. E Procurement Papers? Among these areas, the health is the order, main focus of this (Thomson Scientific, 2005). Polluted air may contain one or more hazardous substances that affect human health. The term of papers, measurement for this is ``particulate matter'' or the number of particles of potentially hazardous substances as percentage of air. This includes a wide range of pollutants. Air pollution , Dust , Global warming 1002 Words | 4 Pages. for TI3 students -The information contained in creative writing this handout has been taken from Writing Academic English by Alice Oshima and Ann Hogue- Handout N° 2 . Worksheet N° 2 Topic: What makes a paragraph good?
Learning goal: to write a paragraph using all the paragraph components and elements What makes a paragraph good? THE PROCESS OF ACADEMIC WRITING Semestre 2014-2 A step-to-step Guide to Writing Academic Papers for TI3 students -The information contained in e procurement research this handout has been taken. Academia , Academic writing , Creative writing 582 Words | 8 Pages. Arsenic A Fatal Poison Arsenic A Fatal Poison How Is This Substance Used? Arsenic is used in . agriculture, military and medicine.
It is sprayed on crops as an insecticide in many parts of Canada. The military used it as poison during, World War I and II, and stalin research many medicines are made with arsenic , such as arsphenamine and arsenic trioxide. How Is This Substance Used? Arsenic is used in agriculture, military and e procurement medicine. It is sprayed on crops as an insecticide in a business many parts of.
Arsenic , Atom , Atomic number 958 Words | 4 Pages. Alberto A. Ortiz Bio 112 May 13, 2010 Pollution is e procurement, all around us, everywhere we go, every day we experience some sort of . A Business Venture Essay? pollution . Babies in the womb are more vulnerable than their mothers to DNA harm from air pollution , in spite of the e procurement research, additional protection that the placenta is thought to funding essay supply in removing toxins. In a study of babies and their mothers in New York City, scientists found that babies had accumulated a relatively high amount of mutations, and papers they connected the mutations. Drinking water , Michael Bloomberg , Pollution 1268 Words | 4 Pages. Pollution in the Environment: Types and Causes. Pollution is the introduction of order management, contaminants into the environment.
It is cause mostly by papers human actions, but can also be a result of natural . disasters. Pollution has harmful effect on living and non-living things in an environment, making it difficult to maintain life. There are different types of pollution . Research? The main ones are: 1. Air pollution 2. Water pollution 3. Research Papers? Land pollution 4. Research? Noise pollution Air pollution Air pollution is the accumulation of pollutants into the atmosphere that have. Acid rain , Carbon dioxide , Oxygen 1433 Words | 5 Pages. Pollution Introduction Pollution is the introduction of e procurement research, contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change. . Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants, the components of pollution , can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants.
Pollution is stalin, often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution . The Blacksmith Institute issues an annual list of the research papers, world's worst polluted places. In. Nonpoint source pollution , Pollution , Stormwater 4671 Words | 14 Pages.
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The Impact of E-procurement On Strategic Sourcing A Case Study
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Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to three years each. The jobs have been similar, so the stalin experience looks a bit repetitive. I need to find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions? It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. Good luck on the job hunt! hi resume genius.. i need template resume that suitable for trainer and e procurement, coach.. can u suggest to me with template is suitable.. #128578; I had a job for 7 years and during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. Time Order In Expository Essays. How would I write that on my resume? Perhaps the Company name and then all the related roles under that and the times I did those jobs? I was always the Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period.
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E Procurement in the public sector: story, myth - Trinity College Dublin
an essay on criticsm The Harvard Classics. Research? 1909#150;14. The significance of the essay in the formation and perpetuation of critical doctrine is also apparent if one turns to the formal histories of criticism. Systematic treatises on stalin research paper the theory of the fine arts, including literature, have appeared at intervals since the e procurement research time of Aristotle. The science of ?sthetics, as we know it, was developed in Germany during the latter half of the eighteenth century, and it forms an integral portion of the philosophical system of Kant and of many other philosophers. But these formal treatises upon the nature of beauty, involving as they do the analysis of the beautiful as it exists in the natural world and in works of scholastic writing, art, appeal primarily to a few thinkers and scholars, and not to the general public. Research Papers? It is true that men of genius like Goethe, Schiller, and Burke have the faculty of discussing the philosophic basis of ?sthetic theories in such a way as to make them interesting and highly instructive to the general reader.
But as a rule the systematic treatises upon the nature and history of the dissertation fine arts, and of literature in particular, have been necessarily addressed to a limited audience. The discussions which have really caught the ear of the public have been the casual utterances of brilliant men in the act of e procurement research papers, attacking or defending a literary creed, of writing a preface to a book or a play, or of stalin research paper, hazarding, in some dialogue, pamphlet, or essay, a new opinion about beauty, a new theory of poetry or of prose. To understand, therefore, the history of actual critical opinion, one must study the essay. It is a very variable, highly personalized literary form: resembling now a dinner-table monologue or dialogue, and e procurement, now a letter to a friend. Here it is a mere sparkling fragment of some solid mass of philosophical theory, and there it is a tiny jewel of paradox, interrogation, or fancy; here an echo of some great historical debate over tragedy or comedy, and there the first faint stirring of management, some new, living idea, which by and by will be tossed about with all the winds of doctrine. But however changeable this literary type may be, one who reads the various essays in e procurement research The Harvard Classics can hardly fail to creative writing, get a general notion of the nature of #147;the essay.#148; The type will gradually make itself clear to him, as something different from the formal treatise, the dialogue or the letter or the magazine article. He will learn to watch the type emerge into e procurement research, clear outline with Montaigne 1 and Bacon. 2 He will see that it modifies itself under the influence of national traits or of the fashions of successive historical periods, that it differentiates itself into species and varieties, precisely as other literary types undergo variation and development under specific conditions. It will flourish in one age and decline in another, as do the programme drama and the lyric, although, like them, the essay represents a certain permanent mood which never goes wholly out of fashion. The reader who is interested in e procurement literary criticism will soon find that the essay has been a particularly convenient form for conveying literary theories from one mind or age to another.
The #147;critical essay,#148; while conforming in general to the flexible laws of #147;the essay,#148; is research paper, used for a specific purpose. E Procurement Research? It deals with the emergence, continuance, and disappearance of critical opinions; it records, in an informal but none the less effective manner, the judgment of Europe upon books. Let us take a specific example. Scholastic Creative? Charles Lamb#146;s #147;Essay on the Tragedies of e procurement research papers, Shakespeare#148; 3 is a singularly perfect specimen of #147;the essay#148; type. It is personal and casual. Dissertation Programme? It opens with the sentence: #147;Taking a turn the other day in the Abbey, I was struck with the affected attitude of a figure, which I do not remember to e procurement research, have seen before, and which upon venture examination proved to be a whole-length of the celebrated Mr.
Garrick#148;; and then Lamb passes, with apparent artlessness, from the affectations and e procurement papers, tricks of actors to the profound question of the dissertation research possibility of an adequate representation of the personalities of Hamlet and Lear upon the stage. This personal essay, with its odd whims and fancies, deepens page by page into a masterly critical essay, which makes a distinct phase of the attitude of the English mind toward England#146;s greatest poet. The two essays which have just been mentioned#151;personal in their immediate character, and yet even more significant as representing doctrines which came to be held by a generation or a school#151;may also serve to illustrate a third aspect from research which essays may be regarded. One may study them, in order management chronological order, as successive indications of a national point of view. Thus the English critical essay, in the Elizabethan period, in the seventeenth century, or in any subsequent epoch, reveals the precise extent to which the English mind accepts, modifies, or rejects the e procurement main body of European critical doctrine. As affording material for such a chronological study, it is not essential that any particular English critical essay should be marked by personal distinction of style, or by special critical acumen. The undistinguished mass of book reviews, of computer programming assignment, gossip about writers, about the stage and other forms of e procurement papers, contemporary art, is often the most valuable evidence of the instinctive working of the English mind.
What does an average bookish Englishman, in a given decade, understand by the words #147;tragic,#148; #147;comic,#148; #147;heroic,#148; #147;the unities,#148; #147;wit,#148; #147;taste,#148; #147;humor,#148; #147;Nature#148;? The historian finds the order answer in a thousand casual expressions, each one of which bears the stamp of the period and the race. The Englishman interprets the general laws and e procurement, phrases of European criticism in terms of thesis, his own neighborhood and papers, time, and a collection of English critical essays thus illustrates the traits of the English national character. Let us now turn from the broader relations of the essay with criticism, and endeavor to ascertain precisely what the scholastic creative generator word #147;essay#148; means. The older English form of the word is papers, #147;assay,#148; i. e., a trial or experiment. It is derived, through the French, from a late Latin word #147;exagium,#148; which means a standard weight, or more precisely, the dissertation act of weighing. The word #147;examine#148; comes from the same Latin root. As defined by the #147;Century Dictionary,#148; #147;essay#148; means I, A trial, attempt or endeavor; 2, An experimental trial or test; 3, An assay or test of metal; 4, In literature, a discursive composition concerned with a particular subject, usually shorter and less methodical and finished than a treatise; a short disquisition. Dr. Samuel Johnson, who was himself one of the most famous essayists of e procurement, his day, defines #147;essay#148; in scholastic writing his Dictionary as #147;A loose sally of the mind; an irregular indigested piece; not a regular and orderly composition.#148; Possibly it was the Doctor#146;s happy word #147;sally#148; which suggested to a recent writer, Mr. F. E Procurement Research? N. Zabriskie, the following excellent definition: #147;The essay is properly a collection of notes, indicating certain aspects of a subject, or suggesting thoughts concerning it; #133; not a formal siege, but a series of assaults, essays or attempts upon a business it.#148; It is for this reason that Mr.
Zabriskie calls the essayist the e procurement papers excursionist of scholastic creative writing generator, literature, the e procurement papers literary angler, the meditator rather than the scholastic creative writing generator thinker; and he points out that the German mind is not adapted to the essay, since the Germans are not satisfied to make mere assaults upon a subject, mere excursions into it; they must go through a subject from end to end and leave it a conquered territory. E Procurement Research? Montaigne, who was the initiator of the modern essay (1580), laid stress upon scholastic creative writing its essentially autobiographic nature. He confesses that he writes #147;not to discover things, but to lay open myself.#148; He thinks that an essay should be spontaneous and papers, free from every artificial trammel. It should have the computer characteristics of open, varied, wide-ranging talk: #147;I speak unto paper as unto the first man I meet.#148; Lord Bacon, whose first edition of essays appeared in 1597, is more orderly than Montaigne. He masses his material more closely, keeps to his topic, packs his sentences as full as they will hold. He is too austere for the leisurely, personal method of Montaigne; he imparts his concentrated worldly wisdom coolly, almost impassively; he loves the pregnant opening and close. #147;To write just treatises,#148; he says, #147;requireth time in papers the writer and leisure in dissertation research programme the reader, which is the cause that hath made me choose to write certain brief notes, set down rather significantly than curiously, which I have called essays; the word is late, but the e procurement research papers thing is ancient. For Seneca#146;s Epistles to Lucilius, if one mark them well, are but essays#151;that is, dispersed meditations.#148; And finally, Addison, whose essays sum up the early eighteenth century as completely as Montaigne and Bacon represent the funding late Renaissance, is quite as explicit as they are in emphasizing the informal character of this type of literature: #147;When I make choice of a subject that has not been treated on by others, I throw together my reflections on it without any order or method, so that they may appear rather in the looseness and freedom of an essay, than in the regularity of a set discourse.#148; #147;The thing is ancient#148;; there is no doubt of that. Analogies to the mood of the modern essay and to its urbane, free, flexible methods of discussion, may be found in the #147;Dialogues#148; of Plato, 5 in the #147;Lives#148; 6 and #147;Morals#148; of Plutarch, in the letters of Cicero, 7 Horace, and the younger Pliny, 8 in the gossipy #147;Attic Nights#148; of Aulus Gellius, in e procurement the talks of Epictetus, 9 and the Meditations of Marcus Aurelius. 10 There is nothing new under the sun; and there were Greek and Roman gentlemen quite as capable as Montaigne of writing with frankness, ease, quaintness, and an open-minded attitude of skeptical inquiry.
But though they often revealed the spirit of the dissertation research programme modern essayist, they were groping uncertainly after the appropriate literary form. Montaigne#146;s great achievement was to hazard his fortunes in an unsurpassed series of #147;sallies,#148; #147;assaults,#148; #147;assays#148; upon a hundred entrenched topics, and e procurement, always to come bravely off#151;so that his tactics became the model for all literary skirmishes. Time Order? To think and feel and write like Montaigne was to produce the modern essay. Without his example, it is doubtful if we should have had the e procurement research papers essays of Lamb, of Emerson, and of Stevenson. Research Programme? Supporting the research whole theory and practice of Montaigne, undoubtedly, stood the Renaissance itself.
This #147;re-birth#148; of the human mind, this new awakening of vital energies and intellectual powers, involved a new way of looking at the world. Nothing seemed quite the same as it had been. Church and empire and feudal system were apparently weakening; new nationalities, new languages were to be reckoned with; new continents were explored, new inventions altered the research face of daily life; a new intellectual confidence, inquiry, criticism, supplanted the medi?val obedience to research, authority. Assignment? There was a new #147;weighing,#148; #147;assaying#148; of e procurement papers, all things. The actual world was changing before men#146;s eyes, and the inner world changed no less. There was universal curiosity about order, individual capacities and opinions, experiences and tastes. The whole #147;undulating and various#148; scheme of e procurement papers, things#151;to use a favorite expression of Montaigne#151;was a direct provocative of the essay state of mind; and the essay form, in turn, in its looseness, vagueness, and funding, range, was singularly adapted to the intellectual spirit of the period. One type of Renaissance essay, for example, concerned itself with a casual survey of the fragments of the classical and medi?val world.
Modern books like Taylor#146;s #147;Classical Heritage of the Middle Ages,#148; and #147;The Medi?val Mind,#148; Einstein#146;s #147;Italian Renaissance in England,#148; Sir Sidney Lee#146;s #147;French Renaissance in England,#148; Spingarn#146;s #147;Literary Criticism in the Renaissance,#148; and Saintsbury#146;s #147;History of Criticism#148; set before us, with abundance of detail, the kind and extent of knowledge of the past which was possessed by e procurement papers Renaissance essayists. Scholastic Writing? Caxton#146;s naive Prologues and Epilogues 11 to e procurement research papers, the popular classical and programming assignment, medi?val books which he issued in English, Sir Philip Sidney#146;s chivalrous #147;Defense of research, Poesy,#148; 12 and Edmund Spenser#146;s explanation to Sir Walter Raleigh of the purpose of #147;The Faerie Queene#148; 13 are good illustrations of the attitude of typical Englishmen toward the imaginative life of the past. Gregory Smith#146;s collection of computer, #147;Elizabethan Critical Essays#148; affords a fairly complete view of the critical ideas which sixteenth-century England had inherited from Europe. The evolution of the English critical essay, during the three hundred years which have elapsed since then, is mainly the story of the preservation of e procurement, these ideas and their modification or transformation under the successive impacts of new intellectual forces, and of differing social and literary conditions. Paper? Another type of essay, originating in the Renaissance, and a favorite with Montaigne, deals not so much with books as with life itself. The new culture, the novel intellectual perceptions, altered at once the accepted theories of man#146;s duty and destiny. Montaigne does not dogmatize about these matters: he asks questions, he suggests possible answers.
The speculative essay, the philosophical and scientific essay, the social essay which draws its materials from the ever-renewed revelation of the actual life of man, all find their source in e procurement papers an awakened curiosity. The enthusiasm, the gusto, with which sixteenth-century men discussed every topic within their range of vision, has remained an integral element of the effective essay. A man may set himself sadly and grimly to work upon his formal treatise, and write it through to the end with disillusion in his soul. But the born essayist, though knowing well enough that his raids into unconquered territory must be merely a perpetual series of sallies and retreats, nevertheless advances gayly to the assault. Like Lamb and Stevenson, he preaches without being a preacher; like Huxley and Tyndall, he teaches when he means only to inform; so communicable and infectious is this gift of curiosity about life. There is a third type of essay, originating in the Renaissance emphasis upon individualism, and management thesis, confidently asserting itself upon the pages of Montaigne, 14 Addison, Hazlitt, De Quincey, 15 Emerson, 16 Thoreau, 17 and a hundred other men.
It is the autobiographic, #147;egotistic#148; essay#151;in which there is rarely any insolence of e procurement research, egotism, but only an insatiable curiosity about oneself, and an entire willingness to discuss that question in public. If you like the man who is talking, this kind of essay is the most delightful of all. But it betrays a great deal, and like lyric verse#151;the most intensely personalized mode of poetry#151;it sometimes betrays too much. When the right balance is struck between openness and conceit, or when, as with Emerson, the man is sweet and sound to the core, the self-revealing essay justifies itself. Indeed, it is thought by some critics that the subjective or lyrical quality of the essay is a part of its essential character. Thus Professor A. C. Order Management? Bradley has asserted: #147;Brevity, simplicity, and singleness of presentation; the e procurement research papers strong play of personality, the subjective charm, the delicate touch, the limited range of theme and of treatment, and essays, the ordered beauty through exclusion of all disordered moods and fiercer passions#151;these flow directly from the presence and dominance of the lyrical element, and these are the constant features of the Essay.#148; In fact, one of the most interesting studies made available through The Harvard Classics is the survey of research, various national moods in computer successive historical periods. Take, for instance, the English essayists of the eighteenth century. Here are characteristic utterances of men so differently yet richly endowed as Addison and e procurement research, Swift, Steele and Defoe, 19 Sidney and Samuel Johnson, Hume 20 and Burke, 21 yet the student of the eighteenth century, whether he is architecture programming, reading Hume or Burke on Taste, or Johnson explaining the e procurement papers plan of his great Dictionary, 22 Defoe#146;s ironical scheme for ridding the world of Dissenters, or Addison#146;s delicately sentimental musings in Westminster Abbey, detects, beneath all the stalin differences in style and varieties of personal opinion, the unmistakable traits of race, nation, and period. These essays are thus historical documents of high importance. One understands better, for reading them, the England of Marlborough and research, of Walpole, the England of the Pitts and the four Georges.
Any one century, as Carlyle said long ago, is the lineal descendant of dissertation, all the preceding centuries, and an intelligent reading of the English essays of the e procurement papers seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries is management thesis, one of the research papers best ways of learning that significant lesson. Architecture Programming Assignment? Even if the reader of these essays has no special knowledge of English history, and has hitherto paid but little attention to the influence of one school of thought upon its successors, he cannot help discovering one difference between what we have called #147;the essay#148; and its more specialized from #147;the critical essay.#148; #147;The essay#148; moves in a circle. Its orbit tends to return perpetually upon e procurement itself. One may even say that the type was already complete in Montaigne, and writing, that since then it has made no real advance; that we have only e procurement a succession of essayists, doing, of course with infinite personal varieties of pattern, precisely what Montaigne showed them how to do. But the critical essay advances, albeit by zigzag lines. It is obliged to tack, as the winds of doctrine shift and the tides of opinion ebb and flow, yet it is always steering, and not merely drifting. Take, for order in expository, example, the most famous critical essay of the Greeks, the research #147;Poetics#148; of Aristotle. It is an attempt to establish certain fundamental principles of ?sthetic criticism, such as the laws of epic poetry and the nature of tragedy. It analyzed the structure of contemporary works of literary art, tested the psychological effect of poem and play upon dissertation research programme the mind of the research papers reader and spectator, and laid down some shrewd rules for the guidance of poets.
It is an essay rather than an order management, exhaustive treatise, but it is by no means the sort of essay which Montaigne would have written had he been a Greek. It is impersonal, analytical, scientific. And so logical is its matter, so penetrating its insight, that it became a model of sound critical procedure. The writer of the critical essay, in short, finds that his course has been laid out for him by the very nature of the task which he has undertaken. The mere essayist, as we have seen, can sail in a circle, starting and ending with his own fancies; but the man who uses the papers essay as the vehicle of criticism must use chart and venture, compass; must proceed from a given starting point to a definite point of arrival. And he cannot do this if he is ignorant of the efforts of his predecessors, and unaware of the general aims and methods of critical procedure. If he is research papers, writing, for instance, on the theory of poetry, he does not wish to leave the matter where he found it: he desires to make, if he can, a contribution to that branch of human knowledge. But he is research, not likely to succeed unless he has a tolerably clear notion of e procurement papers, just how far the world-old discussion has proceeded at the point where he himself takes up the scholastic creative debate.
When Horace wrote that clever versified essay on the poet#146;s art, an essay which has been irreverently termed #147;the business man#146;s guide to poetry,#148; he had no intention of research, slavishly imitating the rules of the Greek theorists. But after all, his father had sent him to scholastic creative, a Greek University, and the ghosts of his old professors were peeping over his shoulders as he wrote. And when, long afterward, the Italian Vida and the Frenchman Boileau came to write their own verse essays on research papers the same topic, the ghost of the clever Roman held their pens. Sidney and Shelley, in composing their eloquent Defences of Poetry, 23 had probably no conscious thought of continuing the formal discussion of poetic theory which the order Greeks began and the Renaissance resuscitated; nevertheless, their confessions of faith in poetry form an essential chapter in the evolution of criticism. So with the prefaces of Wordsworth and Coleridge and Walt Whitman. E Procurement Research Papers? 24 These men are innovators in theory and practice of their craft, but, like most of the successful innovators and #147;modernists#148; in art, they possessed a fairly accurate knowledge of the ancient defenses which they were trying to carry by assault. Yet these assaults, no matter how brilliant, never really end the siege. The final truth escapes complete analysis and definition. The history of the critical essay shows only a series of approximations, a record of endeavors which must be constantly renewed. Out of all this variety of programme, effort, however, three tendencies of criticism emerge. They are usually called the #147;judicial,#148; the #147;interpretative,#148; and the #147;impressionistic.#148; The theoretical distinction between these tendencies of criticism is clear enough. #147;Judicial#148; criticism passes judgment upon established facts.
It deals primarily with rules, with the #147;canons#148; of e procurement research papers, criticism, although it may, of thesis, course, examine the principles upon which these rules are based. Its estimates are likely to papers, be dogmatic and assignment, magisterial. It says bluntly, in the voice of e procurement, Jeffrey, that Wordsworth#146;s #147;Excursion#148; #147;will never do#148;; that his #147;White Doe of Rylstone#148; is #147;the very worst poem we ever saw imprinted in a quarto volume.#148; It declares, with Professor Churton Collins, that #147;Criticism is to literature what legislation and government are to states.#148; The aim of #147;interpretative#148; criticism, on the other hand, is not so much to pass judgment upon research a specific work, as to explain it. It seeks and establishes, if possible, correct texts; it makes clear the biographical and historical facts essential to an understanding of the work in question. It finds and papers, reveals the generator meaning and beauty there contained.
It points out the ethical and social significance of the e procurement research literary product. To explain a book, no doubt, is often tantamount to judging it; for if the book be demonstrated to be full of corruption, that is the most effective way of declaring it a corrupt book. Writing Generator? Nevertheless, the object of the #147;interpretative#148; or #147;appreciative#148; critic is primarily expository, and he prefers that the reader himself should pass ultimate judgment, in the light of the e procurement exposition which has been made. He puts the needful facts before the jury, and then rests his case. Sainte-Beuve 25 is a master of this sort of criticism, as Jeffrey is of the a business magisterial. The #147;impressionistic#148; critic, finally, does not concern himself overmuch with the canons. He leaves #147;universal considerations#148; and #147;the common sense of most#148; to his rivals. Textual criticism bores him. The examination of principles strikes him as too #147;scientific,#148; the massing of biographical and historical details seems to research, him the work of the historian rather than the critic. Research? He deals frankly in his own #147;impressions,#148; his personal preferences, the adventures of his soul in the presence of masterpieces.
He translates the sensations and emotions which he has experienced in e procurement his contact with books into symbols borrowed from all the other arts and from the a business venture inexhaustible stores of natural beauty. His rivals may call him a man of caprice rather than a man of taste, but they cannot really confute him, for such are the infinitely varied modes of physical and psychological reaction to the presence of the beautiful, that nobody knows exactly how the other man feels. We must take his word for it, and the words of impressionistic criticism have often been uttered with an research papers, exquisite delicacy and freshness and radiance that make all other types of literary criticism seem for the moment mere cold and formal pedantries. So much for the theoretical distinction between the three tendencies. But no one can read many pages of the masters of modern criticism without becoming aware that all three tendencies frequently reveal themselves in the same man, and even in the same essay. Some of the famous #147;impressionists,#148; like Lamb, Stevenson, Lemaitre, and Anatole France, know a great deal more about the a business #147;canons#148; than they wish at the moment to confess. They play so skillfully with the overtones of criticism because they know the fundamental tones so well.
Stevenson attempts #147;scientific#148; criticism in his essay on research papers #147;Style,#148; #147;historical#148; criticism in venture his essay on Pepy 26 Jeffrey occasionally writes #147;national character#148; criticism quite in the expository method of Sainte-Beuve. Coleridge and Emerson, Arnold and Ruskin, 27 are too many-sided and richly endowed men to limit their literary essays to any one type of criticism.
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Emilio Jacinto#8217;s Trading Cooperative. A1457 Cooperatives: Principles and practices in papers the 21st century Kimberly A. Zeuli and Robert Cropp ABOUT THE COVER IMAGE: The “twin pines” is a familiar symbol for cooperatives in the United States. The Cooperative League of the USA, which eventually became the National Cooperative Business Association (NCBA), adopted it as their logo in 1922. The pine tree is an ancient symbol of endurance and immortality. The two pines represent mutual cooperation—people helping people. COOPERATIVES: ii Chapter 1 An introduction to cooperatives 1 Chapter 2 Historical development of cooperatives throughout the a business venture, world 5. Chapter 3 Cooperative history, trends, and laws in the United States 59 Chapter 8 Procedures for organizing a cooperative 69 Chapter 9 A summary of cooperative benefits and limitations 77 Notes 81 Glossary 85 Cooperative resources IN 49 Chapter 7 Cooperative financial management PRACTICES 39 Chapter 6 Cooperative roles, responsibilities, and communication #038; 27 Chapter 5 Alternative business models in the United States PRINCIPLES 15 Chapter 4 Cooperative classification Contents Publication notes ? 89 THE 21ST CENTURY i Publication notes This publication is the e procurement, fourth and most extensive revision of the Marvin A. Schaars’ text, Cooperatives, Principles and Practices, University of Wisconsin Extension—Madison, Publication A1457, July 1980. What has come to be known simply as “the Schaars book,” was originally written in 1936 by Chris L. Christensen, Asher Hobson, Henry Bakken, R. K. Froker, and Marvin Schaars, all faculty in the Department of time order in expository essays, Agricultural Economics, University of Wisconsin—Madison. Since its first publication, the Schaars book has served as a basic reference for research, cooperative members and leaders, cooperative instructors and development specialists, and students of cooperatives throughout the United.
Although we focus on cooperative businesses in the United States, and draw most of our references from the agricultural sector, most of the book’s content is pertinent to cooperatives anywhere, in any sector. Readers are encouraged to seek out other publications that deal more extensively with cooperative laws in their own states and countries, and stalin, provide more detailed information on consumer, service and research, worker-owned cooperatives and credit unions. ii Kimberly Zeuli and Robert Cropp, Assistant Professor and Professor Emeritus in the Department of Agricultural and writing, Applied Economics, University of Wisconsin—Madison, re responsible for all of the editing and most of the revised text. The following individuals also contributed to various chapters: David Erickson, Director of Member Relations, Wisconsin Federation of Cooperatives E. G. Nadeau, Director of Research, Planning and Development, Cooperative Development Services David Trechter, Professor, University of Wisconsin— River Falls Richard Vilstrup, Professor Emeritus, Department of Animal Science and Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Wisconsin—Madison This revision would not have been possible without generous funding from The Cooperative. Foundation, Inver Grove Heights, Minnesota. E Procurement Research? COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER 1 ? An introduction to cooperatives According to the International Co-operative Alliance (ICA): a cooperative is an scholastic creative generator, autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly owned and democratically controlled enterprise. E Procurement Research? Cooperative leaders around the dissertation research programme, world recognize the ICA, a non-governmental organization with over 230 member organAlthough the word “cooperaizations from over 100 countries, as a leading tive” can be applied to many uthority on cooperative definition and values. 2 different types of group activities, in this publication The ICA definition recognizes the essential the term is e procurement research, used to reference element of cooperatives: membership is voluntary. Coercion is the essay, antithesis of cooperation. E Procurement Research? Persons a formal business model, compelled to a business act contrary to their wishes are not which has relatively recent origins. The earliest coopera- truly cooperating. True cooperation with others arises from a belief in mutual help; it can’t be tive associations were created in Europe and North dictated.
In authentic cooperatives, persons join The first signs of. America during the 17th and voluntarily and have the e procurement research papers, freedom to quit the cooporganized hunting 18th centuries. Architecture Programming? These associ- erative at any time. 3 The forced collectives prevaactivity based around lent in the former Soviet Union, for example, were ations were precursors to communities are associated with not true cooperatives. cooperatives. The pioneers Homo erectus, of the Rochdale Society in Another widely accepted cooperative definition is modern human 19th-century England are ancestors who lived the one adopted by research papers the United States Department between 500,000 and funding essay, celebrated for launching the f Agriculture (USDA) in 1987: A cooperative is e procurement papers, a 1. 5 million years ago modern cooperative user-owned, user-controlled business that distributes in Africa. movement.
The unique conbenefits on order management the basis of use. This definition captures tribution of early cooperative organizers in what are generally considered the three primary England was codifying a guiding set of principles cooperative principles: user ownership, user and instigating the creation of new laws that control, and proportional distribution of benefits. helped foster cooperative business development. The “user-owner” principle implies that the people. Today, cooperatives are found in nearly all countries. Chapters 2 and e procurement research, 3 trace the remarkable history who use the co-op (members) help finance the computer programming, coof cooperative development internationally and in op and e procurement papers, therefore, own the co-op. In Expository? Members are responsible for providing at least some of the research, the United States. cooperative’s capital. The equity capital contribution of each member should be in equal proportion to that member’s use (patronage) of the coop. This shared financing creates joint ownership The cooperative model has been adapted to (part of the ICA cooperative definition). numerous and varied businesses. In 1942 Ivan G roups of scholastic creative generator, individuals around the world and research, throughout time have worked together in pursuit of common goals. Examples of cooperation, or collective action, can be traced back to order our prehistoric predecessors who recognized the advantages of hunting, gathering, and living in groups rather than on their own. What is a cooperative?
Emelianoff, a respected cooperative scholar, remarked that “the diversity of cooperatives is kaleidoscopic and their variability is literally infinite. ”1 As a consequence of this diversity, no universally accepted definition of research papers, a cooperative exists. Two definitions, however, are commonly used. PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN The “user-control” concept means that members of the order management, co-op govern the e procurement papers, business directly by order thesis voting on significant and long-term business decisions and indirectly through their representatives on the board of directors. E Procurement Papers? Cooperative statutes and bylaws usually dictate that only active co-op members (those who use the co-op) can become voting directors, although non-members sometimes serve on boards in a non-voting, advisory THE 21ST CENTURY 1 capacity. Advisory directors are becoming more common in large agricultural cooperatives in the. United States, where complex financial and business operations require the creative writing generator, expertise of papers, financial and industry experts. Only co-op members can vote to elect their board of directors and on other cooperative actions. Voting rights are generally tied to membership status—usually one-member, one-vote—and not to the level of order thesis, investment in or patronage of the cooperative. Cooperative law in a number of e procurement research papers, states in the United States and in a business other countries, however, also permits proportional voting. Instead of research papers, one vote per member, voting rights are based on the volume of order in expository essays, business the member transacted he previous year with the cooperative. Generally, however, there is also a maximum number of votes any member may cast to prevent control by a minority of members.
For example, a grain cooperative might permit one vote to e procurement papers be cast for each 1,000 bushels of grain marketed the year before, but any single member would be limited to a maximum of ten votes. Order In Expository Essays? Democratic control is papers, maintained by order in expository essays tying voting rights to patronage. Equitable voting rights, or democratic control (as written in the ICA definition), are a hallmark of cooperatives. “Distribution of benefits on the basis of use,” escribes the principle of e procurement, proportionality, another key foundation for cooperatives. Time In Expository Essays? Members should share the benefits, costs, and research, risks of doing business in equal proportion to their patronage. Creative Writing Generator? The proportional basis is fair, easily explained (transparent), and entirely feasible from an operational standpoint. To do otherwise distorts the individual contributions of members and diminishes their incentives to join and patronize the research, cooperative. 2 Co-op benefits may include better prices for goods and services, improved services, and dependable sources of inputs and research, markets for outputs. Most ooperatives also realize annual net profits, all or part of which are returned to members in proportion to their patronage (thus, they are aptly called patronage refunds).
Cooperatives can also return a portion of their profits as dividends on investment. Research Papers? In the United States, however, federal and most state statutes set an venture, 8 percent maximum on annual dividend payments. The purpose of these limits is to assure that the benefits of a cooperative accrue to e procurement research papers those who use it most rather than to those who may have the most invested; the importance of capital is subordinated. Today, some co-op leaders and scholars consider his dividend restriction arbitrary and harmful to cooperatives. From their perspective, the 8 percent maximum makes investing in cooperatives less attractive than investing in other forms of business. It makes cooperatives less competitive as well, especially in the agricultural processing sector, which requires a lot of capital for start-up and growth.
An overview of the federal laws that govern cooperatives in the United States is included in chapter 3. Why cooperate? People who organize and belong to cooperatives do so for a variety of time in expository, economic, social, and even political reasons. Cooperating with others has often proven to be a satisfactory way of e procurement papers, achieving one’s own objectives while at the same time assisting others in achieving theirs. Farmers create farm supply and marketing cooperatives to help them maximize their net profits. This requires both effective marketing of their products for better prices as well as keeping input costs as low as possible. The farmers recognize that they are usually more efficient and knowledgeable as producers than as marketers or purchasers. By selling and scholastic creative writing generator, buying in larger volumes they can also usually achieve better prices. COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER. Employees organize bargaining associations and labor unions to negotiate collectively with management and owners.
In some cases, employees form worker-owned cooperatives. As the name suggests, a worker-owned cooperative is owned and controlled by e procurement papers its employees. 4 Employees establish bargaining units and programme, cooperatives in research papers the hopes of stalin paper, increasing their wages and fringe benefits, improving their general working conditions, and ensuring job security. Cooperatives do not, as is sometimes assumed, contradict the goals of research, capitalism. If that were the case, cooperatives would not play such an important role in the American economy. About 48,000 cooperatives, operating in nearly every business sector imaginable, serve 120 million members, or roughly 4 out of dissertation research programme, 10 Americans. 5 The top 100 cooperatives in the United States, ranked by revenue, individually generated at e procurement, least $346 million in revenue during 2002 and in the aggregate, $119 billion. 6 They represent agriculture, finance, grocery, hardware, healthcare, recreation, and energy industries (figure 1. 1). An introduction to cooperatives Consumer cooperatives are established to sell the products a group of a business essay, consumers want but cannot find elsewhere at affordable prices. E Procurement Research Papers? The consumer embers are primarily interested in creative writing generator improving their purchasing power—the quantity of goods and e procurement, services they can buy with their income.
They naturally wish to get as much as possible for time in expository, their money in terms of quantity and quality. As owners, the members have a say in what products their stores carry. 1 ? Cooperatives are especially important to agriculture. In 2002, 3,140 agricultural cooperatives provided roughly 3. Research? 1 million farmers (many farmers are members of more than one cooperative) with agricultural marketing, farm supplies, and other farm-related services. They captured 28 percent of the market share. Figure 1. 1. Top 100 revenue generating cooperatives in the U. S. by sector, 2002 PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN THE 21ST CENTURY 3 In terms of a business, non-agricultural cooperatives, 84 million Americans are members of 9,569 credit unions, 865 electric co-ops serve 37 million people in 47 states, over 1. 5 million families live in housing cooperatives, and over 3 million people are members of 5,000 food cooperatives.
8 The involvement of so many people in cooperatives in such a highly competitive economy reflects the general satisfaction of members toward their companies and the apparent efficiency and solid inancial performance of these businesses. Chapter 4 provides a more comprehensive discussion of the various types of cooperatives and the extent of their economic success in the United States. In short, cooperatives are organized to serve member needs and are focused on generating member benefits rather than returns to investors. This member-driven orientation makes them fundamentally different from other corporations. Additional cooperative structural characteristics and guiding principles further distinguish them from other business models. In most countries, the cooperative model represents only one of several ifferent ways a business can choose to legally organize. Chapter 5 presents a comparison of the six major alternative business models in the United States. Cooperative management and development To prosper, cooperatives must be well organized, well financed, well managed, and governed well by a committed membership. They must be progressive, adapting to changing business climates, and responsive to their members’ changing needs. Members, the board of directors, and management each have responsibilities within the papers, cooperative. Strong, viable cooperatives require all three groups to do their share.
Chapter 6 describes each group’s unique and important role. 4 Although capital, employees, business volume, and good management practices are all very important for successful operations, a co-op’s members are its most important asset. Cooperative success also hinges on effective member education and communication. Indeed, providing education, training, and information to members is one of the seven cooperative principles adopted by the ICA. The unique education needs of cooperatives and the essential elements for a successful education and communication program are also discussed in chapter 6. Cooperative financing is also critical and in today’s complex cooperative organizations it can be quite complicated. Adequate capital is one of the fundamental principles of sound business operation and at the same time one of the biggest challenges facing cooperatives today. Financing options must be consistent with principles of cooperation as well as with federal and state laws.
Chapter 7 lays out the main concepts behind cooperative financing, including alternative sources of capital and equity redemption plans. Stalin Research? As with other business forms, cooperatives should be established only to meet a well-defined need in research papers he market. Before cooperatives are created, advance research should be done by a steering committee to ensure sufficient support by other potential members in the community. Chapter 8 discusses in greater detail the procedure for organizing cooperatives. A good feasibility study, strong membership drives, and a comprehensive business plan are essential ingredients. A final analysis of the management thesis, cooperative model’s benefits and limitations, to members and e procurement research, the broader community, is presented in chapter 9. In Expository? COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Revolutionary roots in England The first cooperative businesses created in Europe rose during periods of great social upheaval and distress caused by dramatic shifts in agricultural and industrial production practices. Prior to the Industrial Revolution (about 1750-1850), most families in England and research papers, other parts of Europe were largely self-sufficient, creating enough food and goods for their subsistence and small amounts for trading. The Industrial Revolution introduced the factory system of production and was marked by a rapid succession of remarkable inventions that accelerated the industrialization of business. Examples of inventions during this period include smelting iron with coal instead of charcoal, the otton gin and dissertation programme, power loom, and the steam engine.
The writings of papers, Adam Smith at the time, especially his advocacy of the laissez faire principle (no government intervention in the economy), further spurred the revolution. The industrial system gradually replaced cottage industries and home-based production. Workers were required to move into a business venture essay cities to papers find work. Away from dissertation research programme, land, their families were increasingly integrated into a market economy; instead of pro- PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN ducing most of their household requirements, especially food, they had no other choice but to purchase them. E Procurement Research Papers? Advances in time essays production were not, nfortunately, accompanied by fair labor standards. Workers were typically paid very low wages and were subjected to harsh working conditions. 10 People remaining in rural areas were not much better off. An agricultural revolution was already well underway in the 18th century. The introduction of new cultivation methods and crop varieties supported a dramatic change in land tenure patterns. Scattered, small plots of farmland were aggregated into large, enclosed estates, primarily for the purpose of grazing sheep and papers, other live- The historical development of cooperative businesses cannot be disconnected from the social and conomic forces that shaped them. Co-ops then, as now, were created in times and places of economic stress and social upheaval.
9 stock. Between 1760 and 1843, nearly seven million acres of agricultural land in assignment England were enclosed in estates. As a result, large numbers of small farmers were driven from their land into neighboring towns and e procurement research, villages with few remaining jobs. A movement towards greater freedom of expression was another hallmark of this revolutionary period. The citizens of England began to publicly dissent with government policies, taking issue with the paper, status quo and demanding more personal ights. E Procurement Papers? Therefore, the widespread poverty, unemployment, and general social deterioration that were left in the wake of the industrial and agricultural revolutions were met with a public outcry to the government for scholastic creative writing, improved working and living conditions.
THE 21ST CENTURY Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world T he historical development of cooperative businesses cannot be disconnected from the social and economic forces that shaped them. Co-ops then, as now, were created in times and places of economic stress and social upheaval. 9 Ancient records and archeological discoveries oint to the existence of cooperative organizations created by early civilizations in diverse parts of the world (China, Greece, Egypt, etc. ). But it is the founders of the papers, Rochdale Society in order management thesis 19th century England who are celebrated for launching the e procurement research, modern cooperative movement. The Rochdale pioneers, and the early European cooperative thinkers and organizers who laid the funding, foundation for their success, are responsible for codifying a guiding set of principles that helped guide the development of e procurement research papers, cooperatives across the world. 2 ? 5 Early cooperative societies Robert Owen and In the absence of public assistance, the people of. Charles Fourier— Europe established various types of self-help organizations. Mutual fire insurance companies Cooperative visionaries existed in London and Paris as early as 1530, although the first highly successful and wellknown example was organized in England in 1696, the Amicable Contributionship. 11 The people of England also created Mutual Aid Societies (they eventually became known as Friendly Societies) that offered financial payments and assistance to members in times of sickness, unemployment, or death. 12 By the management thesis, mid-18th century many well-established societies were already in operation. They were legalized with the passing of the e procurement research papers, first Friendly Society Act (also called the Rose Act) in 1793.
A number of time order essays, bills were introduced in the 19th century to encourage Friendly Societies since they lessened the public burden. E Procurement Research? 13 Workers organized labor unions to bargain with employers for stalin paper, more favorable working conditions and to lobby the government for improved labor legislation. Cooperative or quasi-cooperative industrial businesses were in operation in England by 1760. Research Papers? Most were consumer-controlled organizations focused on flour milling and baking industries. Cooperative orn mills for computer programming assignment, grinding flour appeared in a number of cities shortly after the turn of the research, 19th century to cut the cost of flour and computer assignment, prevent tampering by greedy millers.
Purchasing cooperatives already existed in most Western European countries by the 18th century. The Weaver’s Society in Fenwick, Scotland (often referred to papers as “penny capitalists”) began to purchase supplies as a group in generator 1769. 14 The precursors to mutuals and unions were guilds, the associations of merchants, artisans, and craftsmen that date back to Medieval times. Guilds had binding rules for production and business practices. Although guilds were created partially in an attempt to establish local trade monopolies, they incorporated socialist practices: member control, equitable treatment of all members, and financial support of papers, members who were ill or faced family crises. 6 “Often men wish to escape the realities of life, and when they do, they dream of Utopias. ” 15 The first cooperative movement, that is, the establishment of paper, a coherent argument for the cooperative form of research papers, organization, gained momentum in the early 19th century with the writings and advocacy efforts of Robert Robert Owen (1771- Owen and William King in time 858):“The Father England and Charles Fourier in of Cooperation. ” France. Robert Owen and Charles Fourier were both well-known Utopian Socialists; not only did they envision ideal societies, they tried to create them in e procurement Europe and computer programming, the United States. 16 Robert Owen (1771-1858) was a prominent industrialist who began to advocate the establishment of a new type of community to alleviate the poverty and suffering caused by the Industrial Revolution. Charles Fourier (1772-1837) was a bourgeois, famous French social philosopher whose plans for self-reliant communities were motivated by the French Revolution and research papers, his view hat the time, working class was being dehumanized and repressed.
They both envisioned rural villages composed of farms and small-scale industry, all operated cooperatively by the citizens who would also live together communally. Owen originally conceived of these communities as a solution for unemployment, but later believed (like Fourier) that they were a better alternative to research papers private capitalism and competition, providing self-employment opportunities and other conditions that would provide universal happiness. Fourier called his planned communal cities “phalanxes. A Business Venture? ” COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Fourier never found philanthropists willing to e procurement fund he creation of programming, a phalanx. After his death, several were attempted in France and e procurement, more than thirty organized in the United States. Time In Expository? 18 The most notable in the United States were Brook Farm, near Cambridge, Massachusetts (1842-1846), and one in Fond du Lac County (now the city of Ripon), Wisconsin (1845-1850). The phalanxes suffered from a conflict between treating everyone equally and rewarding those who provided more capital and labor. The phalanx model, however, influenced the e procurement research, successful kibbutzim in Israel (discussed later). Venture Essay? Owen was a visionary idealist, not a realistic cooperative developer. He was not at all interested, therefore, in papers helping the early consumer cooperatives in England:“Joint stock retailing is not the Social System which we contemplate…and will not form any part of the arrangements in the New Moral World. ”19 In 1839 he did not even bother to funding venture respond to an urgent request by Charles Howarth to visit Rochdale, England to discuss organizational plans for a new retail cooperative.
Owen’s attack upon individualism, the family, competition, private property, the market economy, and organized religion, alienated many people from cooperation and e procurement papers, provoked condemnation of cooperatives from various religious groups. Even so, Owen is often called the “father of cooperation. ” Despite his failures, Owen continued preaching that cooperative production and living were the best medicines for the ills of society. His advocacy stimulated the creation of cooperative societies, labor exchanges (where handicrafts were traded based on the amount of labor involved in their making), and trade unions. Stalin Paper? Although most of the organizations he started lasted only a short time, PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN they provided the e procurement, groundwork for another generation of cooperative development in Europe and North America. William King— A cooperative developer and pragmatist Dr. Time Essays? William King (1786-1865), another social reformer in England, was in many respects more responsible than Robert Owen for spreading the cooperative idea and for the actual organization of cooperatives.
Although he accepted much of Owen’s social philosophy, he disagreed on e procurement research how to reach those goals. King was more realistic about cooperatives, advocating and inspiring the development of consumer cooperatives across England. In Expository? As a physician, King became interested in e procurement papers improving the welfare of the working people of Brighton, England. He was involved in organizing numerous ocial and educational institutions, including an infants’ school, a mechanics’ institute, and stalin, a library. Between 1828 and 1830, King published (at his own expense) a small magazine called “The Cooperator” that was widely distributed throughout England. Its 28 issues were a source of inspiration, information, and instruction on cooperation in theory as well as in practice. Research? The magazine advocated a more realistic type of cooperation within reach of the working class. King believed that cooperatives should start small with the original capital supplied by members, a significant deviation from Owen and Fourier’s arge-scale operations funded by wealthy investors.
King did not necessarily object to Owen’s self-sustaining cooperative communities, as long as they were funded with the members’ own capital and were restricted to Christians. King was a religious fundamentalist who believed that biblical scripture should guide the ethics and research, operations of cooperatives. E Procurement Papers? He also taught that cooperatives should not pay patronage refunds, but instead reinvest all net profits to increase the scope of their activities and to employ as many members as possible. King also proposed the following guidelines for consumer cooperatives: THE 1ST CENTURY Historical development of research paper, cooperatives throughout the world Owen and Fourier were not abstract thinkers; they laid out very specific details for their communities. For instance, they believed that the communities should contain 1,000-1,800 people living on e procurement research papers a relatively small tract of dissertation research programme, land. Fourier was more explicit: the area should be three square miles. 17 Wealthy supporters of Owen’s ideas were willing to finance the creation of such communities. Four were eventually created: New Harmony, Indiana (USA); Orbiston, Scotland; Ralahine, Ireland; and Queenswood, England. All ultimately failed. 2 ? 7 1) members should pay cash for all merchandise purchased at the cooperative; (2) the co-op should adopt democratic principles of governance; and papers, (3) it should publicize the cooperative movement. In addition to the advocacy of Owen and King, the cooperative movement in England was supported by a number of short-lived cooperative journals, which were circulated between 1825 and 1830.
Cooperative congresses also advocated and promoted cooperation; the first took place in 1830 in Manchester, the second in 1831 in time Birmingham, and the third in 1832 in London. Owen’s influence and rhetoric were exhibited in these and e procurement, later congresses. For instance, the Third Congress stated that “the grand ultimate object of all cooperative societies is community on land. ” What began with a few cooperative societies in research 1826 quickly grew to e procurement papers about 300 consumer cooperatives by dissertation 1830, many patterned after King’s Brighton Cooperative Trading Association. King’s ideas may have also influenced early American cooperatives. Research Papers? A treasurer of a cooperative in Brighton, England, William Bryan, helped organize a consumer cooperative in New York City in computer assignment 1830. King was compelled to discontinue his active role in papers the cooperative movement in generator the late 1830s for wo reasons: his medical practice was suffering and poor management and internal discontent plagued individual co-op stores. By 1840, the cooperative movement in England was basically at a standstill and King’s ideas were forgotten, ignored in the cooperative literature for several decades. The Rochdale Pioneers In the first wave of consumer cooperatives, a shortlived society was created in Rochdale, England in 1833. James Smithies, one of the original organizers, was inspired by King’s cooperative magazine and shared it with his co-founders. E Procurement Papers? Their ultimate cooperative goals, however, echoed Owen’s teachings.
Although their first co-op effort failed after only two years, a core group of 28 continued to work actively for social reform and eventually created the prototype cooperative model for a modest shop on Toad Lane in 1844. Research Paper? The so-called Rochdale Pioneers were ambitious and had lofty goals for their co-op: (1) to sell provisions at the store; (2) to e procurement purchase homes for their members; (3) to manufacture goods their members needed; and (4) to order management thesis provide employment for their members who were either out of work or poorly paid. In sum, they wanted to “establish a self-supporting home colony of united interests” nd to “arrange the powers of production, distribution, education, and government” in the interests of its members. In addition, they hoped to open a “temperance hotel” in one of the cooperative houses to promote sobriety. The foundation for the Rochdale cooperative was built upon the intelligent combination of various ideas that had been tried by previous cooperatives. The Pioneers learned from the co-op failures of the research, past. For example, the business practices they adopted for stalin research, their small store, later called the Rochdale Principles (sidebar), were novel primarily in their combination; many had been borrowed rom other cooperatives.
The original Rochdale Cooperative shop on Toad Lane. It is now preserved as a museum. 8 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER The Industrial and papers, Provident Societies Act, authorized in architecture programming England in e procurement papers 1852, was a major development in research programme the cooperative movement. Prior to the enactment of e procurement research, this law, the Friendly Societies Acts of 1834 and 1846 regulated the registration of cooperatives, even though these acts were designed for mutual-aid groups and not for businesses engaged in trade. Therefore, the funding venture essay, consumer cooperatives did not have the proper legal protection essential for their business operations. The acts further prevented them from selling to people other than their members. E Procurement? 1. Voting is by members on a democratic (one-member, one-vote) basis. Dissertation? 2. Membership is open. 3. Equity is provided by members. 4. Equity ownership share of e procurement, individual members is limited. 5. Net income is distributed to members as patronage refunds on a cost basis.
6. Dividends on equity capital are limited. 7. Exchange of goods and services at market prices. 8. Duty to educate. 9. Dissertation Programme? Cash trading only. 10. No unusual risk assumption. 11. E Procurement Research Papers? Political and religious neutrality. 12.
Equality in membership (no discrimination y gender). Adapted from David Barton,“Principles,” in David Cobia (ed. Research Paper? ), Cooperatives in papers Agriculture. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1989. Some of the Rochdale Principles, such as democratic control (one-member, one-vote) and limited dividends on equity capital, are still followed by most cooperatives around the world. Other principles, such as cash trading, are clearly outdated in most countries where credit cards and creative writing, (in agricultural co-ops) seasonal loans are the norm. As a set of guiding principles, they are not necessarily appropriate for all types of cooperatives in all locations. They are after all a product of a historical period and economy and were meant to govern a small retail store (see chapter 4 for further discussion of cooperative principles). The phenomenal success of the Rochdale cooperative, which is still in operation today, was just the boost that the cooperative movement in England needed. Rochdale became the cooperative beacon for others to follow.
It provided the organizational pattern that became the prototype for research papers, other cooperatives and spurred on the cooperative movement in Europe and North America. PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN The Industrial and Provident Societies Act rovided both important legal protections for the cooperatives while also imposing some operating restrictions. It protected the property of the societies, gave binding legal authority for their rules, safeguarded the savings of their investors, allowed them to sell to funding essay non-members, and provided legal status so that an association could sue fraudulent officials. It allowed cooperatives to e procurement papers pay patronage refunds on purchases but limited dividends on dissertation programme shares of stock to five percent. Although members still faced unlimited liability for research papers, cooperative debts, share limits of essay, ? 100 per member were enforced. The passage of the Industrial and Provident Societies Act of e procurement papers, 1862 loosened some of the restrictions and provided limited liability for members, meaning they would be liable only for co-op debts less than or equal to the value of programme, their stock. Share limits were increased to ? 200 per member and cooperatives were permitted to invest in other cooperatives.
As a result of these changes, the organization of the North of England Co-operative Society became possible. Established in 1863 to e procurement research create cost savings for members by purchasing a variety of goods in paper bulk, today the Co-operative Group comprises a family of businesses employed n a wide range of activities (food, finance, farms, funerals, etc. ). E Procurement Papers? It is a unique consumer-owned business that is the largest of essays, its kind in the world. THE 21ST CENTURY Historical development of e procurement research papers, cooperatives throughout the world The first cooperative law Rochdale cooperative principles 2 ? 9 The beginnings of cooperative credit During the 1840s, later called “the Hungry Forties,” famine and venture essay, extreme hardship spread throughout Europe. A blight ruined potato crops in many European countries, although Ireland was the most severely hit, during 1845-47. The shortage of papers, potatoes drove up other food prices. Low fishing yields further exacerbated the food shortage, which caused millions of deaths and led to research paper severe economic depression, high unemployment, and political unrest in research the region.
The Communist Manifesto was published in 1848. During this same year, F. W. Raiffeisen, a mayor of a group of villages in Northern Germany, created a cooperative society to alleviate some of the management thesis, suffering in his community. The cooperative gave potatoes and bread to the poor. He soon realized, however, that charity alone could not solve the problems of poor farmers; they needed to become self-sufficient and earn more money. Research Papers? Raiffeisen hen started to organize loan societies, which embraced various cooperative features. Although Raiffeisen continued to advocate self-help, his first societies were mainly efforts to funding a business venture transfer money from the rich to the poor. E Procurement Research Papers? In 1862, he helped the rural farmers of the little town of Anhausen organize a truly cooperative loan society. Programme? Early agricultural marketing and farm supply cooperatives in e procurement Europe Denmark is generally regarded as the most outstanding example of early and successful cooperative farm marketing and farm supply organizations. 20 The first cooperative creamery in dissertation Denmark was established in 1875 at Kaslunde. The early ooperative creameries incorporated some significant improvements in the butter-making process, including a standardized grading system.
The high quality butter was marketed under a government brand to reflect their supervision of the grading. The first cooperative creameries were very successful. News of their success and popularity spread to other rural areas of Denmark; many others were soon organized throughout the country. These developments took place without government assistance or subsidies. The early and striking success of cooperatives in Denmark can be primarily attributed to the role of the Folk High School. An institution unique to the country, this school educated young adults in papers rural areas. The schools were inspired by the philosopher and clergyman, Bishop Nikolai (N. S. F. ) Grundtvig (1783-1873), and popularized by Kristen Meanwhile, Herman Schulze had created a somewhat similar credit institution among artisans Kold, an educator. Research? Grundtvig established the e procurement research papers, first in Eilenburg in 1850. He further refined this model Folk High School in 1844; the order essays, one created by papers Kold in 1851, however, was more successful and widely to fit the credit needs of artisans and in expository essays, other smallscale industries and developed other credit organi- replicated. The mission of the schools was to enlighten Danish citizens (beyond what they were zations.
Raiffeisen may have been familiar with learning in primary schools) so they could particithese organizations and used them to inform his pate in the governance of the kingdom. They were own co-op development efforts. Both the not meant to be vocational or cooperative training Raiffeisen and Schulze cooperative bank models schools but rather designed to research expose students to rapidly spread across Europe. Funding Essay? Features of research, both new ideas and experiences. Order Management Thesis? Today, we would call models were used to e procurement research form credit unions in North them liberal arts schools. Numerous such schools America.
Incidentally, the Credit Union National still thrive in Denmark. Although supported finanAssociation’s headquarters in Madison, Wisconsin was called “Raiffeisen House” for a number of years. cially by the state, they are free to set their own curricula and order management thesis, are required to be nonvocational and without examinations. E Procurement Papers? 10 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Cooperatives around the world The cooperative movement gradually spread around the world in time in expository essays the 19th century (table 2. 1). Another notable cooperative advocate is Sir Horace Plunkett (1854-1932), an Irishman (who spent 10 years as a cattle rancher in the United. States in e procurement research the 1800s) famous for advocating the benefits of agricultural cooperatives in Ireland and beyond. 21 He was instrumental in creating an programme, international cooperative movement and promoting the cooperative principle of papers, political neutrality. Management Thesis? The Irish Cooperative Organization Society (formerly the Irish Agricultural Organization Society), originally founded by Plunkett in 1894, is located in The Plunkett House in Dublin. Today, cooperative businesses are found in e procurement papers nearly all countries, from the funding, developing nations of Africa, Asia, and South America to e procurement research the industrial countries of Europe and North America. Northern Europe, where the cooperative movement took hold very early, still contains a strong cooperative presence, especially in management agriculture.
Many of the cooperatives in these countries have long histories and are extremely successful. However, as is the case in the United States (see chapter 3), economic pressures have been met with cooperative mergers and consolidations. As a result, cooperative numbers in these countries appear quite low (tables 2. 2 and 2. 3). Cooperative numbers in India, even on a per capita basis, are by comparison astounding. In the case of India and other countries with relatively high ooperative numbers, this situation typically reflects the existence of numerous, local cooperatives.
More cooperatives do not imply necessarily that the research, cooperative sector as a whole is stronger or more competitive, however. The spread of the cooperative business model from 18th century England to dissertation research such diverse countries as India, Korea and Uganda, points to the universal adaptability and diversity of the cooperative model. Cooperative businesses are found in nearly all countries, from the e procurement research, developing nations of Africa, Asia, and South America to the industrial countries of Europe and North America. Generator? PRINCIPLES PRACTICES IN THE 21ST CENTURY Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world Folk High Schools created trained, rural leadership. They also established bonds of trust among those who came to live and study at the schools.
The students developed a willingness to think together, work together, and play together—in short, to cooperate. Although not an intended outcome, the spirit of cooperation produced in these schools has been, without doubt, an important factor in the growth of Denmark’s cooperative movement. 2 ? 11 Table 2. 1. Historical cooperative statistics for selected countries Country. First co-op First co-op law Membership (% of population) Albania 1946 NA NA Austria 1794 1873 47. E Procurement Research Papers? 4 Belgium 1848 1873 35. Creative Writing Generator? 4 Czech Republic 1852 1873 13. 4 Denmark 1851 NA 34. 2 Finland 1870 1901 45. 8 France 1750 1887 30. Research Papers? 1 Germany 1845 1867 27. 9 Greece 1780 1914 9. 9 Iceland 1844 1937 20.
0 Ireland 1859 1893 59. 5 Italy 1806 1886 13. 3 Lithuania 1869 1917 6. 8 Luxembourg 1808 1884 4. 8 Netherlands 1860 1855 41. 1 Norway 1851 1935 36. 4 Poland 1816 1920 NA Portugal 1871 1867 21. 9 Romania 1852 1903 28. 5 Russia 1825 1907 9. 5 Spain 1838 1885 11.
1 Sweden 1850 1895 53. Computer Architecture Assignment? 7 Switzerland 1816 1881 50. 1 Turkey 1863 867 12. 9 United Kingdom 1750 1852 16. Research? 6 United States 1752 1865 56. Dissertation Programme? 7 Yugoslavia 1870 1925 6. 5 NA = not available Source: Adapted from Shaffer, J. (1999). E Procurement Papers? Historical dictionary of the cooperative movement.
London: Scarecrow Press, Inc. (pp. 437-39). 12 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Region Number of countries Organizations Individual members Societies Africa 12 19 27,214 9,561,443 Americas 18 61 43,945 182,486,437 Asia 28 64 480,648 414,383,079 Europe 35 88 197,293 118,473,862 Total 93 232 749,100 724,904,821 Source: International Co-operative Alliance, www. coop. Research Programme? org/statistics. html (July 1,1998). Table 2. 3. Agriculture cooperative statistics from select countries Number of co-ops Country Membership (millions) Brazil 4,744 3. 74 Canada 7,880 14. 52 Columbia 1,936 4. 82 Denmark 1,446 1. E Procurement Research? 39 Egypt 6,992 4. 28 46 1. 07 23,573 17.
49 Finland France Germany 9,112 21. 64 India 446,784 182. 92 Israel 256 0. 03 Japan 3,860 42. Architecture Assignment? 84 NA 0. 63 Morocco 9,635 0. 68 Norway 4,259 1. 59 Repub. Korea 7,669 17. 07 15,106 Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world Table 2. 2. Cooperatives and membership by international region 2 ? 4. 78 Mexico Sweden Switzerland Uganda United Kingdom United States Zambia 16 1. 51 3,131 0. 4 42 9. E Procurement Research Papers? 04 27,076 156. Order? 19 2,174 0. 57 Source: International Co-operative Alliance, www. coop. org/statistics. html (April 26, 2002). E Procurement Research Papers? PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 14 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER The driving forces behind cooperative development in the United States include the following five interrelated dynamics: 1. Order Management Thesis? Market failure (monopoly power, excess supply, missing markets, etc. E Procurement Papers? ). 2. Economic crises (depressions and recessions). Dissertation? 3. New technology. E Procurement? 4. Creative Generator? Farm organizations and cooperative advocates.
5. Favorable public policy (presidential interest, legislative initiatives at both state and federal evels, and judicial interpretation). The relative importance of these forces at different periods will become apparent as we trace the path of cooperative development. Since some of the most significant contributions Americans have made to the cooperative model and movement have been in the agricultural sector, farm cooperatives will dominate this discussion. PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN The first American cooperatives The first recognized cooperative business in the United States (a mutual insurance company) was founded in e procurement research 1752, almost a quarter-century before the birth of the country (America achieved independence in 1776). Benjamin Franklin, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, worked with other members of fire fighting associations to order create the first successful fire insurance company in the colonies: The Philadelphia Contributionship for the Insurance of Houses from Loss by Fire. 24 Franklin had already formed the Union Fire Company in 1736, which became the model for volunteer fire fighting companies. E Procurement Research? Franklin had witnessed the success and importance of mutual societies when he was living in England. The Philadelphia Contributionship was based on a similar London association created in 1696.
25 Although European models and European immigrant cultures remained influential, it was in agriculture that co-ops began to take root in new and distinctive North American forms. ” 26 Cooperative history, trends, Cooperative history, trends, and laws in scholastic generator the United States and e procurement research, laws in the United States C ooperatives are neither indigenous to paper the United States, nor are they an American invention. As Fairbairn reminds us,“The idea of the co-op was both imported by the colonists from e procurement papers, Europe and research, also independently developed and adapted by settlers of European origin under North American conditions. ”22 Pilgrims coming to he new world on the Mayflower in 1620 signed the Mayflower Compact, which described the operations of an organization, or constitution, with cooperative characteristics. Once they arrived, the papers, early settlers worked together collectively to clear the land, build homes and communities, start farming, and provide protection for their families. 23 The overview of cooperative development in the United States provided here supports the idea that cooperatives in the United States are both an artifact of early settlers’ European heritage and a collective response to harsh living conditions in rural areas. ? American farmers first attempted to organize in 1785 with the establishment of the Philadelphia Society for Promotion of Agriculture. The first formal farmer cooperatives were created in 1810: a dairy cooperative in Goshen, Connecticut, and a cheese manufacturing cooperative in South Trenton, New Jersey. On the heels of these organizations, other cooperatives involving different commodities were formed in many parts of the country (table 3. 1). Scholastic Generator? There was no identified coordinated leadership and papers, most cooperatives restricted their operations to their local community.
Most of assignment, he early agricultural cooperatives were ultimately unsuccessful. THE 21ST CENTURY 15 Table 3. 1. Selected early cooperatives and mutuals in the United States Year Cooperative 1752 Philadelphia Contributionship for the Insurance of Houses from Loss by Fire (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) 1810 Dairy cooperative (Goshen, Conneticut) and cheese cooperative (South Trenton, New Jersey) 1820 Hog marketing, slaughtering, and e procurement research papers, packing cooperative (Granville, Ohio) 1853 Irrigation cooperative (Tulare County, California) 1857 Grain elevator (Madison, Wisconsin) 1862 Tobacco marketing cooperative (Connecticut) 1863. Haven’t found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected] Hi there, would you like to get such a paper?
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