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ara homework club Attendance at problems, homework clubs soon could rival the thesis on corporate, turnout for more traditional afterschool offerings. The clubs give students the help and structure they need to solving problems complete assignments. Included: Descriptions of how homework clubs are organized. Often when youngsters get around to starting their homework, distractions from television, computers, friends, and family make studying a challenge and help is on corporate not available. So more students are doing their homework in places other than home, such as school-, library-, and community-sponsored homework clubs. Solving Story Problems. After-school homework clubs are growing in many communities, with most of them focused on elementary and kinds of thesis proposal middle school students. Clubs meet at least one day a week after school and are supervised by teachers or faculty members and solving story volunteers.
Students receive general academic help and/or homework assistance. While some homework clubs are more formal than others, most allow students to steps to doing a research attend whenever they feel the need. The programs are geared not only to children having trouble with schoolwork, but those who find it hard to concentrate at home or have no one to provide homework assistance. We try to re-enforce concepts and the instruction from class, said Damiano Russo, assistant principal of Dearborn Street Elementary School in Northridge, California. We have a diverse population, and many parents working two jobs. We want to solving story be available for the students. Kinds Proposal. Sometimes teachers will recommend the club to parents if their children are having trouble concentrating at home. The Dearborn club meets for 90 minutes four days a week, and is staffed by solving, a teaching assistant and a volunteer, who familiarize themselves with classroom assignments. About 25 children attend each day. It's goal-directed, we try to minimize distractions, Russo added. Suzanne Piotrowski, a learning disabled specialist at 12 angry, Beech Street Elementary School, in Manchester, New Hampshire, said her school's homework club for story, third through fifth graders is equally popular.
The club meets for steps to doing a research, an hour after school, three days a week, and draws about story 60 students each week. Term. Students get tutoring and help completing homework, Piotrowski told Education World. Some just do homework and some need re-explanation. School officials had hoped more special education students would attend, but the club has been more popular with mainstream students. The school started the club because a fifth-grade teacher started helping some students after school who she knew had trouble doing homework at solving problems, home because of noise or other difficulties, according to Piotrowski.
MIDDLE LEVEL HELP. The move to middle school also can mean a big change on steps a research paper the homework scene, and the homework club at Granite Mountain Middle School in Prescott, Arizona, has been so heavily attended that the school had to find another teacher for seventh graders, said Marilyn McCready, the school's library media specialist, who oversees the homework club. It's very popular and more popular after report cards come out, McCready told Education World. About 60 students attend every week. Students meet in classrooms with one of solving story problems, four teachers, three of law, whom are math teachers and one a science teacher. McCready said she recruited math teachers because that is the subject with which students have the most difficulty. One reason our homework club is successful is that the teachers maintain it like a regular classroom, she added. They expect the students to be working and quiet. Granite's club also meets for an hour after school two days a week, and solving story problems has a drop-in policy.
The only requirement is that once students show up, they must stay for thesis, the whole hour unless a parent comes to pick them up. We've made it as easy as we can. Teams at Bennet Middle School in Manchester, Connecticut, also organize homework clubs, and set up a schedule for story, staffing them, said language arts teacher Jenna Brohinsky, team leader for the Royal 7's, a seventh grade team. Students can come for an hour of help after school on Tuesdays, Wednesdays, and kinds proposal Thursdays, and some get a chance to work in solving problems the computer lab, Brohinsky added. INTO THE COMMUNITY. Start Essay Describing Place. In some cities, community agencies have taken the lead on homework clubs. Libraries in Sandwell, in the United Kingdom, and Toronto, Ontario, Canada, for example, sponsor clubs.
The Toronto Public Library operates the Leading to Reading program to help youngsters improve reading skills and homework clubs in 33 of its 99 branches. Story. The Toronto clubs are more formal than some of the after-school programs in the U.S. Students in second through sixth grade sign up for the program, and steps to doing paper the library arranges for problems, a volunteer to start essay describing meet with the student at the library once a week at a specific time for between 60 and 90 minutes. Library staff members recruit, screen, and train the volunteers, who range in solving problems age from high school students to senior citizens. Some library branches have been fortunate to get volunteers from nearby York University, which has a teacher education program. The volunteers provide assistance on a one-to-one or one-to-two basis, and essay paid monitors oversee the volunteers. Last year about 347 children participated in the homework clubs and Leading to Reading programs, said Cathy Thompson, east region coordinator for the Leading to Reading and Homework Help programs of the Toronto Public Library. Every branch has a waiting list, said David Kondo, Leading to Reading and Homework Help program coordinator, for the west region of the library. We are limited by solving, space, the number of paper 12 angry, volunteers, and story problems the salaries of the site monitors.
This year, the library started a homework program for teenagers, because so many who had participated as elementary students came back seeking help, said Joanne Hawthorne a specialist in children and teen services for start place, the Toronto Public Library. Teen clubs started this year in six branches, and also involve volunteers doing one-on-one tutoring, Hawthorne told Education World. While originally aimed at high school students, some clubs have been opened up to seventh and eighth graders, she said. Solving Story. HOW MUCH IS IT HELPING? While the supervisors have not done studies on the effectiveness of the homework clubs, the term paper 12 angry man, feedback from teachers has been positive. Solving Story. Anecdotally, we've heard positive things, but we haven't done any follow-up studies, said Russo. Classroom teachers report that more homework assignments are being done when kids go to homework club. So far it has been a very positive experience, and steps a research well-worth the investment.
Teachers do say at least some kids who were not getting their homework in are doing it, added McCready. Toronto library staff members have seen homework club students make big gains, Kondo said. Story. In some cases, the results have been spectacular, he told Education World. Certainly, a student could go from a C to body paragraphs in an essay a B. The fact that the volunteer sees the same child week-to-week means they get used to each other. And any time a child can get individual help, it is great. Submit your own lesson plan for a chance to receive a FREE $50 Classroom Supplies Gift Card!
Receive timely lesson ideas and solving PD tips. Sign up for creative closing paragraph, our free weekly newsletter and receive. top education news, lesson ideas, teaching tips and more! No thanks, I don't need to stay current on solving story problems what works in education! COPYRIGHT 1996-2016 BY EDUCATION WORLD, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
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Make Money Online – Earn Money Online Magazine. Education is not only a name for all round development of human personality but also an effective means for national and social progress. Not only does it mould the character of new generations. It also connects them with their past because no future can be brighter if divorced from its past. Education is the only means of transmitting cultural heritages from one generation to the next one. Story Problems! The pivot of this education process is teacher who is place, also responsible for the education process and development of human personality. The role of a teacher is solving, very significant in our home land-Pakistan. Which is a strong and stable ideological base? Here the responsibility of a teacher becomes manifold. He has to train the letter closing paragraph new generation on ideological lines and he is solving story, also entrusted with the responsibility of closing paragraph enabling them to accept the challenges of modern times.
This can be possible only if his/her own ideological background is steeped in the undying values of solving Islam and he has a strong grasp of the art of teaching. Before embraking upon the ideological role he is to play. From a practical and ideological point of view. He/ she is not only to be open-minded but should have also a strong ideological base he has to be well versed in the practical aspects of teaching. Writing Body Paragraphs In An Essay! For an under training teacher. It is very important to train him on ideological lines.
For meeting these specific goals, it is important that there should be an institution. Which can train teachers on lines? Government Elementary Teachers Training College is such an institution that has been catering to solving story the training needs of Dera Ghazi Khan divisions. In the beginning it was established as “Normal School D.G.Khan”. Then it was named as “Govt.
Elementary Teachers Training College D.G.Khan”. In the beginning B.Ed classes were taught. But now M.Ed classes have also been introduced in this college. In B.Ed programme there are 200 seats for male and female. Science and arts divided equally. But in M.Ed programme 100 seats are reserved for morning and evening class without discriminating male and female applicants. Good institutions always appraise their programmers and follow up their products i.e therefore.
Researcher preferred the follow-up study of M.Ed graduates of Govt. Elementary Teachers Training College D.G.Khan because follow up studies are conducted to see the of thesis effectiveness, of the outcomes and results of any programme. Mistily such type of studies is conducted in he field of guidance. Counseling, and placement. The institute of Education and Research (I.E.R) University of the Punjab, Lahore is the pioneer institute in Punjab, which has conducted the problems follow up studies of its graduates to see the thesis placement value. Studies of its graduates to see the placement value, Govt. Elementary Teachers Training College D.G.Khan has M.Ed programme.
It is considered seriously that such a study must be conducted to find the solving placement of its graduates and appraisal of the programme. The problem proposed for investigation as a follow up of the graduates of Govt. Elementary Teachers Training College, D.G.Khan. De-limitation of the letter problem. Four divisions out of eight selected randomly. Thirty-four students out of 250 were selected by use of convenient sampling from session 2005-2006. Solving Story! The study is further delimited to the investigation of respondents. Job satisfaction.
Professional growth. Usefulness of paper Govt. Elementary Teachers Training College, D.G.Khan programme. Satisfaction with the financial benefits of M.Ed. Degree. Contribution to the general cause of education. The attitude of the headmaster’s pupils, parents, community and colleagues towards the graduates.
Economic or financial benefits of the degree. Participation of the graduates in educational and related activities and; Professional growth of the graduates. signigicance of the study. This study is problems, significant as it attempts to answer the following questions: i) What is the placement position of the M.Ed (Secondary) graduates of Govt. Elementary Teachers Training College D.G.Khan. ii) To what extend graduates of Govt. Elementary Teachers Training College D.G.Khan are succeeded in describing place, realization of the solving objectives for steps a research, which they were prepared and trained at Govt. Elementary Teachers Training College, D.G.Khan. What are problems and difficulties faced by the Govt.
Elementary Teachers Training College D.G.Khan graduates in the field in the pursuit of these objectives? Is study may provide information about the performance of solving problems M.Ed (Secondary) graduates of Govt. On Corporate Law! Elementary Teachers Training College D.G.Khan working in different schools. This study may provide feed back for education department and Govt. Elementary Teachers Training College, D.G.Khan to improve M.Ed (Secondary) programme. This study was further intended to make suggestions and recommendations regarding the improving in the M.Ed (Secondary) programme. The study may help in story, further research. Going through the following steps completed the study: The related literature was reviewed. The questionnaire was developed under supervisor’s guidance and was validated through expert’s opinion. Name and addresses of selected M.Ed graduates from 1192to 1998 were obtained from the college record.
The data was collected through personal contact from the subjects of the study residing in letter closing, traveling range. Questionnaire was mailed to solving story problems the subject of the study residing at distant places along with the term paper purposed of the study. A reminder was sent to the defaulters to send back the filled in questionnaires. The data collected as presented and tabulated. It was analyzed by applying simple percentage and interpreted. There is a dearth of literature about following facilities. However, in the literature available about follow-up study, Mr. Morris L. Bigg has defined it as follow up study is a research activity, guidance and counselor develop follow-up studies as a systematic programme for maintaining content with their former students and solving clients (6:4) Generally speaking follow-up study is a programme of creative continuous evaluation of the programmes and individuals with regular intervals of time.
Procedures of follow-up studies have always a very logical connection with the original programme. It represents and evaluation of the success of the entire programme under study. Thus follow up study of former students infect is and interesting and significant function of any school programme. Lefever says that, there are two essential aspects of follow-up procedure. A Questionnaire to all formers students, weather graduates or drop-outs or weather placed in job or not. A check among employers regarding their degree of satisfaction with products of solving story school or programme (8:546:). Follow-up is more closely concerned wit school. The follow up counseling and guidance programmers.
Medanil has stated that process for thesis law, school counselor involves occasional investigation of the subsequent records of professional value for the counselor. Teacher and students (10: 15). Follow-up studies are widely used in different areas for story problems, different purposes. Some of paper 12 angry man such purposes are as follows: 1) To evaluate the activities of the school particularly to judge the curriculum, administration and level of achievement of school. 2) To evaluate the solving guidance and counseling programme. 3) To evaluate placement poison and performance of former students. Follow-up study can also be used to identify those former students in need of further assistance from the school (11: 15). Follow-up studies usually provide accurate information in concentration with curriculum.
These studies provide accurate information concerning vocational, avenges, economic opportunities and social status. Green made use of follow-up study as research valuable out and causes failure (11: 6). Kelly maintained that, “The results of follow-up study can be used to substantiate that proposed changes in term paper 12 angry, the school programme”. The results can also be used for the following purposes. To improve the story problems public relations. To increase the public motivation. To provide content for creative cover letter closing, class and for story, home work. To provide material for discussions and units of work on occupations. (6: 159).
Follow-up study is conducted to determine the status of a group of interest after some period of time. Like school surveys follow-up studies are often conducted by writing paragraphs essay, educational institutions for the purpose of internal or external evaluation of their instructional programmers or some aspect of it. Accreditation agencies for example typically require systematic follow-up efforts typically seek objective information regarding the current status of the former students (are you presently employed?) as well as attitudinal and opinion data concerning the solving problems graduates perception of there training if a majority of graduates should indicate, for example’ that they fell the career counseling they receive was poor, this finding would suggest an area in of improvement. Paragraphs In An! Similarly, if a number of graduates should indicate that they have unable to obtain employment due to a lack of certain competencies. This information would also be valuable input for solving story problems, the upgrading for creative closing paragraph, the upgrading of the programme interest. Follow-up studies may be conducted solely for research purpose. A researcher may be interested, for solving, example, in cover letter paragraph, assessing the degree to which initial treatment effects have been maintained overtime (3: 253-253). Project Talent (1965) was a follow-up survey conducted by University of Pittsburgh with support from the co-operative research program of the U.S office of education, the national Institute of solving story problems health, the letter closing national science foundation, and the department of defense. Five basic purposes of the study wee mentioned by problems, this survey.
To obtained an inventory of the capacities and potentialities of American youth. To establish a set of start place standards for Educational Psychological measurement. To provide a comprehensive counseling guide indicating patterns of career success. To provide information on how youth choose their life work. Solving Story! To provide better understanding of the educational experiences which prepare students for their life work. Project talent descried as an example of educational survey as well as a follow-up study. One phase of the longitudinal study reported by Combs and Colley (1968) involved the follow-up study of the ninth-grade group who failed to complete the high school programme. This group, which represented by random sample of the ninth grade secondary school population, provides an estimate of the characteristics of the dropout population compared with those of a random sample of students who graduated but did not enter a junior college or A-year learning of higher. Learning, these two samples were compared on number of characteristics. Writing Body! Such as, academic achievement, participation in extra-curricular activities work experiences, hobbies, contacts with school counselors, and self reported personal qualities.
The students who graduated score significantly higher on story most of the characteristics, except self-reported qualities of leadership and on corporate impulsiveness. One unusual finding indicated that the dropouts earned as much as those who had finished high school and had been earning it longer. It was pointed out, however, that economic advantages of finishing high school could not be adequately evaluated until later in solving story problems, life. Start Essay Describing Place! Many of the students expressed dis-staisfaction with their schooling and they had not gone to college or vocational school and those they has married too early. More that half still lives within 30 miles of their high schools. The more mobile halves wee the high academic achievers.
Eighty percent of the men but only 65 percent of the women, expressed satisfaction with their jobs in story problems, meeting their long-range goals. (5: 87-88). Mr. Paragraphs! Michael Emmanuel Paradise of Colorado state college conducted a follow-up study of the problems college mathematics graduates in 1959. The purposes of the study were: To ascertain the effectiveness of the mathematics programme of the thesis on corporate law Colorado state college. To identify the strength in weakness of its preparatory programme for problems, mathematics teachers. Writing Paragraphs In An! To study the story problems general, professional, social and vocational adjustment of the graduates. The researcher with the consultation of the mathematical Facility of term Colorado State College developed a questionnaire.
The questionnaire was mailed to solving story students who had majored in mathematics. It was completed and returned by 30% of the graduates. The graduates were in general stable individual in terms of family life, social, vocational and professional status. The graduates were in general satisfied with the services in the college. The method course for body in an, mathematics majors and solving the student teaching supervision needed improvement. The mathematics curriculum for paper, secondary school teachers was adequate except in the area of applied mathematics (9: 42-47). Mr. Gerald Modesty of story problems Indiana University conducted an appraisal of the writing in an programme leading to the Doctor of Education degree at Indiana University based on a follow-up study of its graduates in 1962. The purposes of this study were:
To evaluate quality and problems effectiveness of the steps to doing programme leading to Doctor of Education Degree at Indiana University. To make recommendations for the strengthening of that programme based on the findings of the study. Data was gathered through questionnaire from the graduates who received their degree during the years 1950-60. It includes 445 graduates in the group to be studied, 417 i.e. 97% of these completed and returned the questionnaire. Graduates had broad and varied background of professional and educational experience. Most graduates combined teaching or administration with other professional activities.
Graduates hold many important position of trust and responsibility and a reasonably well paid in their professional field. Graduates are reasonably satisfied with their professional, social and financial status. The doctoral programmer held in high esteem by most of the graduates (4: 14-31). Mr. Arthur Engel of Colorado state college conducted a follow-up study to evaluate the teacher education programme at Huron College to supply information about the effectiveness of its person programme. The population of the study included the students, who had graduated between June 1961-june 1964. Solving! The purpose of follow-up-study wee as follow: To obtain an appraisal of each graduate’s general academic background, teaching abilities and social characteristics. To evaluate these data and recommend desirable revision or continuation of practices as valuable. This research was conducted through the administration of questionnaire 87% of the graduates responded.
The majority of graduates believed that were adequately prepared to teach and to meet the problem, which arose in the classroom. More than two-third of the graduates considered there on the job teaching is a greater factor than the under graduate preparation at Huron College in making them effective teachers (1: 52-62). Miss Perveen Sheikh conducted “A follow-up study of the Master of writing paragraphs essay Arts (M.A) Education Graduates of institute of Education Research, Punjab University Lahore in June 1965. i) To determine whether the graduates are satisfied with their present job or not. ii) To find if the Master of Arts in education programme contribute toward proceeding leader in the field of education. The following procedure was adopted: A questionnaire was developed to gather data need for the study from the graduates of institute of solving education and research University of the Punjab, Lahore who hold the kinds of thesis proposal degree of Master of Arts in Education. Names and solving problems list of the home addresses of the graduates were secured from the Central Record Office of the institute of Education and Research, University of the Punjab, Lahore.
It was mailed along with stamped and self addressed envelopes tom each graduate who was out of Lahore. The researcher herself met the few graduates who were in Lahore, though if was not easy to contact them. No remainders were sent as the graduates were coming to attend the annual conversation to contact them personally. 1) The graduates were scattered in the types of schools. It was that those graduates in the semi government or private schools got comparatively more pay, more adjusted and term man more satisfied to their jobs. 2) It was also found that the Master of Arts in Education programme contributed towards procedure producing leaders in the field of education a Assistant District inspector of schools (11: 6,7,21,22). Miss Rubina Hussain conducted “A follow-up study of story female graduates from Lady Meclagan Training College, Lahore for the year 1966-68 in 1970.
the specific objectives of the proposal study. 1) The determine the unemployment status of the graduates. 2) To determine the ratio of the graduates still unemployed and the reasons for they’re being unemployment. The information was collected by mailing a questionnaire to the home address of the graduates wee passed out from Lady Maciagan Training College, Lahore from 1966-68. The questionnaire was developed in such a way that comprehensive information regarding the mode of employment of the graduates could be obtained. It may also be mentioned that duly stamped envelopes wee also enclosed with the questionnaire for returning the same of the author. Moreover, two subsequent remainders were also sent to the graduates after an interval of ten days in each case. Major findings of this study were as follows: Out of the total respondents 61.2% were employed and 38.8% were unemployed.
Out of the total 61.2% employed graduates 71.1% employed in their home districts and 29.9% were employed in other districts. The highest proportion of the graduates, i.e. 44.9% was unemployed because they had not succeeded in the getting a job. The smallest proportion, i.e. Solving Story Problems! 1.4% worker as A.D. Kinds! Social Workers and guidance associates. Story Problems! Out of those who wee in teaching profession 7.2% was Assistant Mistresses, 17.3% were Headmistresses 1.4% were lecturers. The study shows that 50% of the employed graduates were in government service and 32.5% and creative closing 17.4% were in private and story semi-government employment respectively. It was found that only 38.5% employed graduates were satisfied with their present job and thesis on corporate law 61.5% dissatisfied.
The highest proportion i.e. 56.4% of the employed graduates were dissatisfied with their present job because of in sufficient salary and the second most important reason was place of work being far away from home, 44.9% had given this reason. The smallest proportion i.e. 5.1% was dissatisfied with their present jobs. Story Problems! Because of non co-operative attitude of the to doing inhabitants of that locality and 5.1% also due to ask of interest in this profession. Ch. Khadim Hussain conducted “A follow-up study of M.Ed. (primary secondary) graduates of solving problems institute of Education and Research, University of the Punjab, Lahore” in 1975. the purposes of the study to steps to doing a research investigate. Job satisfaction of the graduates of institute of Education and Research, Lahore. The attitude of the story graduates of institute of Education and Research Lahore towards their profession. Usefulness of the courses studied by the graduates of institute of Education and Research, Lahore.
Economic or financial benefits of the degree. A questionnaire was developed by the researcher to collect data needed for the follow-up study of the M.Ed. (primary and secondary) graduates of the institute of Education and of thesis proposal Research, Lahore. Story Problems! The researcher collected the questionnaire personally from some of the graduates, the start describing place others were received back through mail. The data were thus analyzed and findings were drawn. Findings of the study were as follows:
Majority of the problems respondents indicated job satisfaction. Most of the graduates under study were satisfied with courses taught at institute of writing in an Education and Research, Lahore. Fairly large number of the respondents observed that the teaching methods learnt at the institute of Education and Research, Lahore were applicable in solving problems, actual classroom situation. Writing Paragraphs Essay! Some of the respondents observed that the higher authorities. Some times display cynical attitude towards them. The graduates of institute of Education and Research, Lahore was in story problems, lack of steps to doing a research both financial benefits and chances of promotion in the department concerned on the account of the degree (7: 8,9,30,31). A team of students of Government College of Education for Science Township, Lahore conducted a follow-up study of the B.S.Ed. graduates of their own college in 1989. the objectives of the study were. To know the placement position of B.S.Ed graduates. To know the total number of students who successfully completed the B.S.Ed. course from solving story problems, 1983 to essay 1988 in Punjab.
To know the performance of B.S.Ed. graduates. The data was collected through a questionnaire from the 343 passed out male and female B.S.Ed graduates of the Government College of Education for solving, Science Town ship, Lahore of the first five session’s i.e. from 180-83 to 1985-888. The team collected the questionnaire personally from some of the writing body graduates. The others were received back through mali. Solving! The data were thus analyzed and findings were drawn. Majority of graduates who applied for job was selected. Majority of the students i.e. Thesis Law! 94% was employed as S.S.T teacher in B.P.S-16 in Education Department.
Almost all the B.S.Ed. graduates wee teaching science subjects to science and solving story arts group at secondary level. To Doing! A few were also teaching to middle classes. Story! The performance of the graduates as indicated by thesis on corporate, their results was quite encouraging. The results was of all the graduates ranged between 80 = 90% (2: 21,22) M. Aslam conducted a follow-up study of story problems B.S.Ed Graduates of of Sargodha and Fiasalabad Division of Government College of Education for 5 science Township, Lahore in 1983. objectives of the creative cover closing study were: To assess the total number of students/ graduates who successfully completed B.S.Ed course from 1989 to 1991 in Faisalabad and solving Sargodha Division in different years.
Assess the placement position of B.S.Ed graduates. To assess the performance of B.S.Ed graduates. The data was collected through a questionnaire from all passed out 31 male and female students of steps a research paper B.S.Ed programme at Government College of Education for Science Township, Lahore residing in Faisalabad and Sargodha Division. A few contacted personally. Questionnaire was mailed to all graduates with a stamped and self-addressed envelope. The data collected was analyzed, organized and tabulated. The consuls on were drawn. There were 28 graduates of Faisalabad and 3 graduates of Sargodha Division who successfully completed B.S.Ed. Solving Story! course from 1989 to 1991 majority of the graduates got through the B.S.Ed. Law! course in normal course time.
A few made one or two extra attempts. Majority of story graduates who applied for job wee not selected. Majority of the graduates 5 i.e. 71.42% was employed as S.S.T. teachers in B.P.S-16 in Education Department. Mostly 5 i.e. Cover! 71.42 graduates received the job after the declaration of B.S.Ed. result. However, there were few examples of those 2 i.e. 28.57% who received job few months before B.S.Ed. result. Almost all B.S.Ed. graduates were teaching science subjects to science and arts group at secondary school level. A few were also teaching to middle classes. Problems! The performance of all the graduates s indicated by their result was quite encouraging.
The result was of all the graduates ranged between 80 = 90% (2: 6,7,8,38,39). Can you plz give me the cover page nd bibliography of this thesis coz i need this for my assignment i wana evaluate and summarize this thesis plz reply watting for ur ans. Enter your email address below to receive updates whenever we publish new content.
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American Studies/13 Colonies: Geographic and Cultural Dif term paper 1701. #65279;As the original thirteen colonies developed, they soon grew to be classified by cultural and. geographic differences. They were classified into the New England colonies, the Middle colonies, and the Southern colonies. This division has long been a source of disunity between the colonies. and later the states. The New England colonies consisted of Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Connecticut, and. Rhode Island. The northern most of the solving story, colonies, New England's main geographic trait was. barely arable land, long winters, and broad forests(1). Unlike the on corporate law, other colonies, agriculture was. never a strong industry in New England. Slaves were never needed to work the solving, small farms that. sprung up occasionally.
Slavery died out in New England in the shortest amount of time because. of this. Writing In An! However, port cities such as Boston became some of the most important trade centers. and harbors in North America. Due to the poor production of food in New England, trade became. the most lucrative profession. By importing food and exporting manufactured goods, New. England cities became wealthy places of commerce. The broad forests supplied ample lumber to. Solving! support the major ship building industry that developed in New England. On Corporate! Also, other industries. that supported sea-based trade like barrel-making and dry-docks(1) brought wealth to New. The culture of New England was most deeply affected by the Puritan founders of the. original settlements of solving, New England. The Puritans were a hard working, religious people. They. tolerated no other religion but their own, despite the fact that they migrated to law, the New World to story, find religious freedom(6).
The resiliency of these people made them able to carve colonies out. Cover Closing! of the hostile environment. Unlike settlers to the other colonies, New England Puritans tended to. stay in the New World, and brought their families and servants with them(6). While. Massachusetts was the major Puritan center, the other New England colonies came about due to. the solving story problems, Puritans strict intolerance to other religions. Term 12 Angry Man! These colonies were founded by solving story, people who. were expelled from Massachusetts by the Puritans for religious and social differences, such as. Roger Williams in Rhode Island. Because of this, these other New England colonies were much. Kinds Of Thesis Proposal! tolerant to all religions. The major cultural aspect of the New England colonies is religion, both. the intolerance by solving story problems, the Puritans and the freedom of kinds proposal, religion by story problems, the other colonies. The middle colonies were geographically different from New England in that most of the. Start Essay Place! region had fertile soil well suited for farming grain and wheat.
These became the bread basket of the colonies. Selling their excess grain from ports such as New York City and Philadelphia, tenant farmers made enough money to eventually buy land. Solving Story! During King George's War, Middle. colonies made tremendous profit selling needed grain for the British and colonial troops that. fought in the Carribean. After the conflict, poor grain crops in Europe made Middle colonies' grain even more expensive, reaping bigger profits for farmers(1). Thesis On Corporate! The major cultural factor of the Middle States was diversity. Each area had its own. separate culture and origin. The New York area was first settled by the Dutch West India Co. Solving! in. Term Paper 12 Angry Man! 1664(1).
The result of solving story, this was a Dutch-like strong trading economy like the Netherlands. Along. with this came many Dutch customs that remained even after English took control of the New. Netherlands, the name given to New York City(1). Wealthy New Yorkers, in the beginning, made their money not from farming, but from trading what others farmed. Pennsylvania's culture. was most influenced by the Quakers that founded it under William Penn.
Being mostly a Quaker. settlement, they ran it comparably to the Puritans in Plymouth, but were more tolerant. They did. Writing Body In An! not expel those who did not practice their religion, as long as they kept to themselves. The Southern colonies were the final group. Made up of Maryland, Virginia, North. Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia, they were cash crop societies. Unlike the foodstuffs. farming of the Middle colonies, the South relied on cash crops such as rice, indigo, and story, tobacco. These were labor intensive crops that required many people to paper, successfully run. To do this, slavery was instituted on the grandest stand of the New World.
The geographic feature that. most influenced the economy of the Southern colonies was that the soil between Virginia and. George was suited for tobacco and to a later on to the other cash crops. Solving Story! Grown in large. quantities, it was then exported to England. Unlike New England, it was not processed in the. Creative Closing Paragraph! colonies, but in solving problems England. This made for fewer profits, as raw materials are always cheaper than.
The major cultural aspect of the of thesis, Southern colonies was slavery. The other colonies also. had slavery, but not at solving so large a scale. This dependence on slavery as the only way to make the. labor intensive cash crop economy profitable separated the South into two classes, wealthy land. owners and artisans, tenant farmers, and small land owners. The contrast was so huge that the. wealthy bought more and body in an essay, more land while the poor had to sell their land to the wealthy land. owners they wished to become(1). Also, as the story, two populations, white and black were mixed. 12 Angry! through interracial liaisons, a new class of mulattos was added to the work force. Most slave. owners did not know what to do with their children from interracial affairs, even though the law. said that they could be kept in slavery(8). This moral dilemma is an problems, example of Southern culture, Christian men who ravage slaves and then don't know what to do with their own offspring.
In conclusion, the original thirteen colonies were divided into groups by their separate. cultures and economies. The difference between New England's strict Puritan culture, the of thesis, Middle. Solving Story Problems! colonies grain and cultural diversity, and the South's slavery and cash crop economy made it. almost as three separate countries who shared borders. These differences between the colonies. would lead to many problems in the future including the Civil War. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on any level under time constraints. Well-versed in thesis most subjects and citation styles, our writers have years of ghostwriting experience doing both academic and professional projects.
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Essay on Religion: Meaning, Nature , Role and other details (5931 Words) Here is your essay on religion, it’s meaning, nature, role and other details! Religion is an almost universal institution in human society. It is found in all societies, past and present. All the preliterate societies known to us have religion.
Religion goes back to the beginning of the culture itself. It is a very ancient institution. There is no primitive society without religion. Image Courtesy : upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/9d/Religios_collage_%28large%29.jpg/1280px-Religios_collage_%28large%29.jpg. Like other social institutions, religion also arose from the intellectual power of story problems man in response to certain felt needs of men. While most people consider religion as universal and closing therefore, a significant institution of societies. It is the foundation on which the normative structure of society stands.
It is the social institution that deals with sacred things, that lie beyond our knowledge and control. It has influenced other institutions. It has been exerting tremendous influence upon political and economic aspects of life. It is said that man from the earliest times has been incurably religious. Judaism, Christianity, Islam (Semitic religions), Hinduism and Buddhism; Confucianism, Taoism and Shinto (Chinese-Japanese religions) etc. are examples of the great religions of the world. Religion is story, concerned with the cover letter closing paragraph, shared beliefs and solving story practices of human beings. It is the human response to those elements in a research paper, the life and environment of mankind which are beyond their ordinary comprehension. Religion is pre-eminently social and is found in nearly all societies.
Majumdar and Madan explain that the word religion has its origin in the Latin word Rel (I) igio. This is derived from two root words. The first root is Leg, meaning “together, count or observe”. The second root is Lig, meaning ‘to bind’. Solving Story Problems? The first root refers to belief in and practice of “signs of steps to doing a research paper Divine Communication”. The second root refers to the carrying out those activities which link human beings with the supernatural powers. Thus, we find that the word religion basically represents beliefs and practices which are generally the main characteristics of all religions.
Central to all religions is the concept of faith. Religion in this sense is the story problems, organisation of thesis on corporate law faith which binds human beings to their temporal and transcendental foundation. By faith man is distinguished from other beings. It is essentially a subjective and solving problems private matter. Faith is something which binds us together and is therefore, more important than reason. Pfleiderer defined religion as “that reference men’s life to a word governing power which seeks to grow into a living union with it.” According to James G. Frazer considered religion as a belief in “Powers superior to man which are believed to direct and cover letter control the solving story problems, course of describing place nature and solving story of human life”.
As Christopher Dauson writes, “Whenever and cover letter closing paragraph wherever man has a sense of dependence on external powers which are conceived as mysterious and higher than man’s own, there is religion, and the feelings of awe and self-abasement with which man is filled in the presence of such powers is essentially a religious emotion, the root of worship and prayer.” Arnold W. Green defines religion as “a system of beliefs and symbolic practices and objects, governed by solving faith rather than by knowledge, which relates man to an unseen supernatural realm beyond the known and beyond the controllable.” According to Maclver and Page, “Religion, as we understand the term, implies a relationship not merely between man and man but also between man and some higher power.” As Gillin and Gillin says, “The social field of religion may be regarded as including those emotionalized beliefs prevalent in a social group concurring the supernatural plus crest and behaviour, material objects and creative letter paragraph symbols associated with such beliefs.” Thus, there are numerous definitions of religion given thinkers according to their own conceptions. Story Problems? As a matter of fact the forms in which religion expresses itself vary so much that it is difficult to agree upon a definition. Some maintain that religion includes a belief in supernatural or mysterious powers and that it expresses itself in overt activities designed to deal with those powers. Others regard religion as something very earthly and steps to doing materialistic, designed to solving problems achieve practical ends. Sumner and Keller asserted that, “Religion in history, from the earliest to very recent days, has not been a matter of morality at term 12 angry all but of rites, rituals, observance and ceremony”. Religion, in fact, is not a mere process of solving mediations about man’s life; it is also a means of closing preserving the values of life. While it is possible to define religion as belief in God or some super-natural powers, it is well to remember that there can also be a Godless religion as Buddhism.
In sociology, the word religion is used in a wider sense than that used in religious books. Solving Problems? A common characteristic found among all religions is that they represent a complex of emotional feelings and attitudes towards mysterious and perplexities of life. According to Radin it consists of two parts: (a) Physiological and (b) psychological. The physiological part expresses itself in such acts as kneeling, closing the eyes, touching the feet. The psychological part consists of supernormal sensitivity to certain traditions and beliefs. While belief in supernatural powers may be considered basic to all religion, equally fundamental is the presence of a deeply emotional feeling which Golden Weiber called the “religion thrill”. If we analyse the great religions of the world, we shall find that each of them contains, five basic elements: (1) belief in supernatural powers, (2) belief in the holy, (3) ritual, (4) acts defined as sinful and (5) some method of salvation. The first basic element of religion is the belief that there are supernatural powers. These powers are believed to influence human life and control all natural phenomena.
Some call these supernatural forces God, other call them Gods. There are even others who do not call them by any name. They simply consider them as forces in their universe. Thus, belief in the non-sensory, super-empirical world is the first element of religion. There are certain holy or sacred elements of religion. These constitute the paper, heart of the religion.
There are certain things which are regarded as holy or sacred. But a thing is holy or sacred not because of solving story a peculiar quality of thing. An attitude makes a thing holy. The sacred character of a tangible thing is not observable to the senses. Sacred things are symbols. They symbolize the things of the unseen, super-empirical world, they symbolize certain sacred but tangible realities. When a Hindu worships a cow, he worships it not because of the kind of animal the start describing place, cow is, but because of a host of super-empirical characteristics which this animal is imagined to represent.
Religious ritual is “the active side of religion. It is behaviour with reference to super empirical entities and sacred- objects”. Problems? It includes any kind of behavior (such as the wearing of special clothing and the immersion in certain rivers, in the Ganga for instance), prayers, hymns, creedal recitations, and other forms of to doing a research reverence, usually performed with other people and in public. It can include singing, dancing, weeping, crawling, starving, feasting, etc. Failure to solving story problems perform these acts is considered a sin. Each religion defines certain acts as sinful and profane (unholy). Kinds Of Thesis? They are certain moral principles which are explained to have a supernatural origin. It is believed that the powers of the solving story, other world cherish these principles.
The violation of these principles creates man’s sense of guilty. It may also bring upon him the disfavour of the supernatural powers. If the start, behaviour is solving story, not in accordance with the religions code, the behaviour or act is cover closing paragraph, considered as sinful. A method of story problems salvation is the fifth basic element of religion. Man needs some method by to doing a research which he can regain harmony with the Gods through removal of guilt. In Hindu religion Moksha or Salvation represents the end of life, the realisation of an inner spirituality in man. The Hindu seeks release from the bondage of Karma, which is the joy or suffering he undergoes as a result of his actions in story problems, his life. The ultimate end of life is to attain Moksha.
The Buddhist hopes to essay describing attain Salvation by being absorbed in solving problems, the Godhead and 12 angry man entering Nirvana. The Christian has a redeemer in Christ who gave his life for man’s sins. In short, religion is the institutionalised set of beliefs men hold about supernatural forces. Solving Story Problems? It is more or less coherent system of beliefs and essay describing place practices concerning a supernatural order of beings, forces, places or other entities. Religion is interwoven with all aspects of solving problems human life: with kinship systems, economic and political institutions. Prior to the advent of what may be called as “the age of paper 12 angry reason”, religion has been the chief supporter of the spiritual and moral values of life. It has shaped domestic, economic and political institutions. Hence, it is solving story problems, obvious that religion performs a number of functions both for the religious group and for the wider society.
These functions of religion are discussed bellow. 1. Religion Helps in the Struggle for Societal Survival: Religion may be said to help in thesis on corporate, the struggle for societal survival. Rushton Coulborn has shown that religion played a crucial role in the formation and early development of solving problems seven primary civilisations: Egyptian Mesopotamian, Indian, Cretan, Chinese, Middle American and Andean. Religion in thesis on corporate law, each of these societies gave its members the courage needed for survival in an unfavourable environment, by solving problems giving explanations to certain aspects of the human conditions which could not be explained in a rational manner. In present societies religion also performs this role. By relating the empirical world to the super-empirical world religion gives the individual a sense of security in this rapidly changing world. This sense of security of the individual has significance for the society. Since religion helps man to forget the suffering, disappointments and sorrows in this life’, social dissatisfaction and social unrest become less frequent and the social system continues functioning. 2. Religion Promotes Social Integration:
Religion acts as a unifying force and hence, promotes social integration in man, several ways. Religion plays an important part in crystallising, symbolising and solving story problems reinforcing common values and norms. Writing Body In An? It thus provides support for social standards, socially accepted behaviour. Common faith, values and norms etc. are significant in unifying people. As the individuals perform rituals collectively their devotion to solving story problems group ends is enhanced. Through a ritual individual expresses common beliefs and sentiments. It thus helps him to identify himself more with his fellows, and to distinguish himself more from members of other groups, communities or nations. By distinguishing between holy and kinds proposal unholy things, religion creates sacred symbol for solving story problems the values and writing essay this symbol becomes the rallying point for all persons who share the story, same values. The cow as a sacred symbol of the letter closing paragraph, Hindus, for solving problems example, is a rallying point which gives cohesion to Hindu society.
Religion performs its function of integration through social control. It regulates the conduct of individuals by enforcing moral principles on them and by prescribing powerful sanctions against them for violation. 3. Steps To Doing Paper? Religion helps to knit the Social Values of a Society into a Cohesive Whole: It is the ultimate source of social cohesion. The primary requirement of solving story society is the common possession of social values by which individuals control the actions of self and others and through which society is perpetuated. These social values emanate from religious faith. Religion is the proposal, foundation upon which these values rest. Children should obey their parents, should not tell a lie or cheat, women should be faithful to men; people should be honest and virtuous are some of the social values which maintain social cohesion. It is religion that asks man to renounce unsocial activities and requires him to accept limitations upon his wants and desires. All the religions have preached love and non-violence. Solving Problems? They have emphasized sacrifice and forbearance.
4. Religions Acts as an Agent of Social Control: It is one of the means of informal means of social control. Religion not only defines moral expectations for members of the religious group but usually enforces them. Term Paper 12 Angry? It supports certain types of solving social conduct by placing the powerful sanctions of the supernatural behind them. It makes certain forms of social behaviour as offences not only against to doing a research paper society but also against God.
Hence, any violation of the acceptable norm is solving, punishable not only by God but by society. Hinduism gives sanction to the caste system which regulates social relations of various classes in India. 5. Religion Promotes Social Welfare: Religion encourages people to render services to the needy and poor and promote their welfare. It develops philanthropic attitude of people. Help and assistance are rendered to poor and destitute persons due to religion inspiration. It is believed that one can obtain the cherished goal of creative religion by way of problems giving alms and law assistance to the helpless and needy persons. In this way religion promotes the welfare of individuals, groups and community. The priesthood often was dedicated to art and culture.
The priests laid the foundations of medicine. Magic supplied the roots of observation and experimentation from which science developed. It also inculcated the solving problems, habit of charity among the people who opened many charitable institutions like hospitals, rest houses, temples to help the needy and the poor. 7. It Rationalizes and Makes bearable Individual Suffering in the known World: Religion serves to of thesis soothe the man in times of solving his suffering and disappointment. In this world man often suffers disappointment even in the midst of all hopes and achievements. The things for which he strives are in some measure always denied to him.
When human hopes are blighted, when all that was planned and striven for has been swept away, man naturally wants something to console and thesis on corporate compensate him. When a son dies man seeks to story assuage his grief in ritualistic exchanges of condolence. On God he puts faith and entertains the belief that some unseen power moves in mysterious ways to make even his loss meaningful. Faith in God compensates him and term 12 angry man sustains his interest in life and solving problems makes it bearable. In this way religion helps man to bear his frustrations and encourages him to accept his lot on earth. 8. Religion Enhances Self-importance: It expands one’s self to infinite proportions. Man unites himself with the 12 angry, infinite and story feels ennobled. Through unity with the infinite the self is made majestic and triumphant. Creative Letter? Man considers himself the noblest work of solving problems God with whom he shall be united and his self thus becomes grand and luminous. Besides this, religion shapes domestic, economic and political institutions.
Religion supports institutional pattern more explicitly. All the great religions of the kinds of thesis, world have attempted to solving regulate kinship relations, especially marriage and family. Of Thesis Proposal? Political institutions are often sanctioned by religion: the emperor of China or Japan was sacred; the ruling caste of India was sanctioned by Brahmanism; the kings of France were supposed to rule by divine right. Religious rites are performed on solving story, many occasions in relation to vital events and dominant interests: birth, initiation, marriage, sickness, death, hunting, animal husbandry and so on; and writing essay they are intimately concerned with family and kinship interests and with political institutions. Solving Story Problems? Religion is the central element in the life of civilisation. Religion has also performed some other services to humanity among which Sumner and Keller included the provision of work, the spread of education, the accumulation of capital and the creation of a leisure class. For thousands of years, religion has exerted a great influence over economic and political life.
Even today religion is called upon to support rulers, contacts and other legal procedures. In addition to positive functions of religion, there are some negative aspects of its social functions. Although religion is an integrative force, it may be disruptive for the society as a whole. Sumner and Keller, Benjamin Kidd, Karl Marx, Thomas F. O’ Dea and others have pointed the dysfunctions of religion. The dysfunctions of religion are as follows. 1. Religion Inhibits Protests and Hinders Social Changes: According to Thomas F. Start Essay Place? O’ Dea, religion inhibits protests and impedes social changes which may even prove to be beneficial to the welfare of the society. All protests and conflicts are not always negative. Protests and conflicts often become necessary for bringing out changes.
Some changes would certainly lead to positive reforms. By inhibiting protests and preventing changes religion may postpone reforms. 2. Hampers the Adaptation of Society to Changed Conditions: Social values and norms emanate from religious faith. Some of the norms which lose their appropriateness under changed conditions may also be imposed by religion. This can “impede a more functionally appropriate adaptation of society to changing conditions.” For example, during the medieval Europe, the Church refused to grant the ethical legitimacy of money lending at interest, despite the story problems, great functional need of essay this activity in a situation of developing capitalism”. Even today, traditional Muslims face religio-ethical problems concerning interest-taking.
Similar social conflict is evident in the case of birth control measures including abortion, in the Catholic world. 3. Religion may Foster Dependence and Irresponsibility: Religion often makes its followers dependent on religious institutions and leaders. But it does not develop an ability in them to assume individual responsibility. For example, a good number of solving story problems people in India prefer to take the advises of priests and religious leaders before starting some ventures.
But they do not take the suggestion of describing those who are competent in the field. In its course of development religion has supported and promoted evil practices such as cannibalism, slavery, untouchability, human and animal sacrifice etc. As religion interprets misfortune and suffering in this world as manifestations of the supernatural order itself, it sanctifies the existing social structure. Religion preaches submission to the existing socio-economic condition and to fate. It is this control function of solving story problems religion that caused Marx to call religion as “the sigh of the oppressed creature, the of thesis, sentiment of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. Story? It is the opiate of the people.” By sanctifying norms and closing legitimizing social institutions, religion serves as a guardian of the status quo. Religion is the source of solving story many superstitions. These superstitions have caused harm to human being. Start Essay Describing? Superstitions like evil spirits and ghosts cause diseases; poverty is the desire of the God etc. hinder the welfare of human beings.
Religion results in inter-group conflicts by solving dividing people along religious lines. It is deeply related with conflicts. Wars and battles have been fought in the name of religion. Sumner and steps to doing a research paper Keller are of the opinion that religion often causes economic wastes. For example, investing huge sums of money on building temples, churches, mosques, etc., spending much on religious fairs, festivals and ceremonies, spoiling huge quantity of food articles, material things etc., in the name offerings. It leads to waste of human labour, energy and time. Religion creates diversities among people.
It creates a gap among them. In the name of God and religion, loot, plundering, mass killing, rape and other cruel and inhuman treatments have been meted out to people. Religion has made people blind, dumb and deaf to the reality. They have faith without reasoning which is blind. On the contrary, it has often made people to become bigots and fanatics. Bigotry and solving story fanaticism have led to persecution, inhuman treatment and misery in the past. Religion preserves traditions. It preaches submission to the existing conditions and maintenance of status quo.
Religion is not readily amenable to social change and progress. 12. Religion Retards Scientific Achievement: Religion has tried to prevent the scientists from discovering new facts. For example, it tried to suppress the doctrines of Darwin, Huxley and others. By placing high premium on paper 12 angry, divine power religion has made people fatalistic. They think that all events in life is due to some divine power and hence due to fate. As a result, his power and potentiality is undermined. Thus, religion affects the creativity of man. Marx has strongly criticised religion. For Marx all that was fundamental in the science of society proceeded from the material and especially the economic sphere.
For him therefore religion is, to be sure, superstition, but to stop at this point is to limit religion to merely abstract belief. It leaves the impression that religion may be dislodged simply by new, rational belief. Marx’s sense of the matter is more profound. Merely changing beliefs is not enough. Story? The transformation of an entire social order is required, for belief is deeply rooted in the social relations of men. Religion, writes Marx, “is the ‘self-consciousness and self-feeling of man who either has not yet found himself or has already lost himself. But man is no abstract being, squatting outside the world. Man is the world of man, the state, and essay society. This state, this society produce religion, a perverted world consciousness, because they are a perverted world.
Religion is the compendium of that world, its encyclopedic, its enthusiasm, its moral sanction, its solemn completion, its universal ground for consolation and story problems justification. It is the essay, fantastic realization of the human essence because the human essence has no true reality. Marx believed, like Luduig Feuerbach, that what man gives to God in the form of solving problems worship, he takes from himself. That is, man is persuaded through suffering or through false teaching to project what is his to essay describing a supernatural being. But he was convinced, unlike Feuerbach, that what is problems, fundamental is kinds proposal, not religious forms – against which Feuerbach had urged revolt-but the economic forms of existence. The abolition of religion as the “illusory happiness” of the people is required for their real happiness, declared Marx.
But before religion can be abolished the conditions which nurture it must be done away with. Solving Problems? “The demand to give up the illusions about writing body paragraphs in an essay its condition is the demand to solving give up a condition which needs illusion”. Marx’s criticism of religion is thus deeply connected with the criticism of right and the criticism of politics. As Marx put it… “The criticism of heaven transforms itself into the criticism of earth, the criticism of religion into the criticism of law and the criticism of theology into the criticism of politics”. Marx was an atheist as well as a great humanist. He had profound sympathy for all who look up to religion for salvation. This is essay, amply clear from his following observation: “The criticism of religion ends with the teaching that man is the highest essence of solving man, hence with the start describing, categorical imperative to overthrow all relations in solving story problems, which man is debased, enslaved abandoned…” Change is the very essence of a living thing. A living religion must grow, must advance and must change. No form of steps to doing paper religion is static. Solving Story? In some cases the change may be slow and minor, in others relatively rapid and major. Every religion claims its first principle supreme, original and eternal.
Hence, there is also an element of censure for change. Broadly, there are three types of changes in religion: (i) from simple to complex, (ii) from complex to simple and (iii) mixing forms. Contact with complex form of religion adds many new elements in the simple form of tribal religion. For example, with the gradual spread of Vaishnavism in start essay describing place, chhotanagpur, the Oraons tribe which lives in that region, began to reorganise traditional faith. There are also examples of simplification of complex form of religion, specially of rituals and ceremonies. Buddhism for instance, came as a revolt against the Vedic ritual which was both complex and expensive, and story problems also beyond the common man’s reach. In the 19 century, Brahmo Samaj again tried to simplify the complex nature of thesis law Brahmanic Hinduism. Mixing of more than one form has caused development of story new religious organisation. The most excellent example is of Sophism. It has evolved from Persian, Zoroastrianism and Arab Islamism.
Sikhism, Kabirpantha and many other Santa-Sampradayas of their kind are Sanatan Hinduism, modified by Buddhism and Suphism. The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from paragraph small isolated village towards large, complex, urban, industrialised society the character of influence of religion on man and his life changes. In the earlier phases of religion the primary needs of mankind, those concerned with the necessities of life, played a dominant part. As man’s knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to control them by natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions. As religious explanation of the universe is gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and various group activities (such as politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from solving story ecclesiastical to civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of God as a power over man and his society loses its importance. This movement is sometimes referred to as secularisation. Thus secularisation as Bryan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance. In Europe, secularisation is held to be the body, outcome of the social changes brought about by urban, industrial society. It means that religious beliefs and practices have tended to decline in modern urban, industrial societies, particularly among the working class in Western societies.
Religion in Western societies has tended to place less emphasis on dogma and more on social values. It has tried to reconcile its doctrine with scientific knowledge. As Barnes has pointed out religion adapted to our changed conditions of life is worth preserving and it must seek to organise. The masses and solving guide their activities for the benefit of the society rather than for cover closing the purpose of pleasing the God. Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the dialectic of modern science and Protestantism, not from simple repudiation of religion and the rise of rationalism. However, the solving problems, process of secularisation has affected the kinds of thesis, domination of religious institutions and symbols. The process of secularisation was started in India during the British rule. Story? But the thesis on corporate, process of secularisation took its course unlike Western Europe renaissance and reformation in the fifteenth and sixteenth century.
The process was very slow. However, this worldly outlook, rationality and story secular education gradually affected various aspects of religion in India. Various laws of social reformation, modern education, transport and communication contributed towards decline in term 12 angry, religiosity among the Hindus. No doubt we are moving from religiosity to secular way of life. But evidences show that religious beliefs have not declined in West as well as in our society. First, organised Christianity plays an important political force in Europe and North America. Second, the vitality of Zionism, militant Islam (Islamic fundamentalism), radical Catholicism in Latin America and Sikhism, fundamentalism and communalism in India suggest that no necessary connection exists between modernisation and solving problems secularisation. All these criticisms are formidable indeed. But it should be noted that the diversity of religious sects and cults in modern societies demonstrates that religion has become an individual matter and not a dominant feature of thesis social life.
It can also be argued that, while religion may play a part in solving story problems, ideological struggles against colonialism (as in Iran), in the long run modernisation of society brings about secularisation. The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from creative cover letter paragraph small isolated villages towards large, complex, urban, industrial society; the solving, influence of writing paragraphs religion on man and his life changes. In the earlier phases of religion the primary needs of mankind were very much influenced by it. As man’s knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to control them by natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions. As religious explanation of the universe is gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and various group activities (politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastic to civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of God as power over man and his society loses its importance. This movement is sometimes referred to as secularization. Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the dialectic of modern science and Protestantism, not from solving problems a simple repudiation of religion and the rise of rationalism. ‘Secularisation’, in the words of Peter Berger, refers to ‘the process by writing body paragraphs in an essay which sectors of problems society and culture are removed from the domination of religious institutions and thesis on corporate symbols. Brayan Wilson argues that the following factors encouraged the development of rational thinking and a rational world view.
Firstly, ascetic Protestantism, which created an ethic which was pragmatic, rational controlled and anti-emotional. Secondly, the rational organizations, firms, public service, educational institution, Government, the State which impose rational behaviour upon them. Thirdly, the greater knowledge of social and physical world which results from the development of physical, biological and social sciences. He says that this knowledge is based on reason rather than faith. He claims that science not only explained many facts of life and the material environment in a way more satisfactory (than religion), but it also provided confirmation of its explanation in practical results. The term ‘secularisation’ has been used in different ways. Some have misunderstood, misconceived and misinterpreted the meaning of the concept. Others have included discrete and separate elements loosely, put them together that create confusion. The range of meaning attached to the term has become so wide, that David Martin advocates its removal from the sociological vocabulary.
There are two meanings of the word current in modern and solving problems modernizing India and even in the whole of this subcontinent. Start Essay? One of the two meanings is solving problems, found by consulting any standard dictionary. On Corporate Law? But there is the difficulty in finding the other, for it is non-standard, local meaning which, many like to believe, is typically and distinctively Indian or South Asian. The first meaning becomes clear when people talk of secular trends in history or economics, or when they speak of solving story secularizing the State. The word secular has been used in this sense, at writing body essay least in the English-speaking West, for more than three hundred years. This secularism chalks out an area in public life where religion is not admitted. One can have religion in one’s private life. Solving Story? One can be a good Hindu or a good Muslim within one’s home or at to doing paper one’s place of worship. But when one enters public life, one is expected to leave one’s faith behind. In contrast, the non-Western meaning of secularism revolves round equal respect for all religions. In the Indian context the word has very different meaning from its standard use in the English language.
It is held that India is not Europe and hence secularism in India cannot mean the same thing as it does in Europe. What does it matter if secularism means something else in Europe and American political discourse? As long as there are clear and commonly agreed referents for the world in the Indian context, we should go ahead and solving problems address ourselves to on corporate law the specifically Indian meaning of secularism. Unfortunately the matter cannot be settled that easily. The Indian meaning of secularism did not emerge in ignorance of the European or American meanings of the word. Indian meaning of secularism is debated in its Western genealogies. New meaning is acquired by the word secularism in India. The original concept is named by story problems the English words, Secular and secularism in the Indian languages, by neologisms such as ‘Dharma-nirapekshata.
This is translation of those English words and dharma-nirapekshata is thesis, used to refer to solving story the range of meanings indicated by essay the English term. The term dharma-nirapekshata cannot be a substitute of secular or secularism which is story, standardly used in talking about the start place, role of religion in problems, a modern State or society. Dharma-nirapekshata is the outcome of vested interests inherent in our political system. Dharma-nirapekshata is steps, understood in terms of practice of story problems any religion by any citizen. Besides, the State is not to give preference to any religion over another. But this term is irrelevant in a democratic structure and it bears no application in reality because three principles are mentioned in the liberal-doctrine (Liberty which requires that the State, permits the practice of any religion, equality which requires that State not to give preference to any religion and the principle of neutrality). Indian secularism has been inadequately defined ‘attitude’ of goodwill towards all religions, ‘Sarvadharma Sadbhava’. In a narrower formulation it has been a negative or a defensive policy of religious neutrality on the part of the State. Hence, the original concept will not admit the Indian case with its range of references. Well-established and well-defined concept of secularism cannot be explained differently in terms of Western or Indian model.
To Herberg, ‘authentic religion’ means an emphasis on the supernatural, a deep inner conviction of the reality of supernatural power, a serious commitment to describing religious teaching, a strong element of the theological doctrine and a refusal to compromise religious beliefs and solving values with those of the wider society. If there is any trend of decline in 12 angry man, any aspect of religion mentioned above, then it is indicative of the process of secularisation. Thus secularization, as Brayan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance. Religion in America is solving story, subordinated to the American way of kinds of thesis proposal life. It means that religious belief and practices have tended to decline. Secularism is taken to story mean that one’s religious ideals and beliefs should not interfere in general with social, economic and political field. Paying equal importance or constitutional guarantee for coexistence of religions does not mean secularism.
There are other aspects of secularism. Secularism is related to rationalism and empiricism. Secularisation involves reduction of religious influence on men, elimination of some aspects of it which are not beneficial to human welfare, elimination of superstitions and blind beliefs. In this manner, the process of secularisation implies the following assumptions. The process of thesis secularisation implies the transformation of solving religious institutions as a whole.
There is the creative closing paragraph, need to secularise the religious institutions. This means less emphasis on supernatural power, lack of theological doctrine, and desirability to compromise with religious beliefs and values. The religious institutions undergo a process of change in the context of changing society. In a modern society sacred has little or no place, that a society undergoes a process of solving story problems ‘desacrilisation’ . This means that supernatural forces are no longer seen as controlling the world. Action is body, not directed by religious beliefs. People in a modern society increasingly look upon the world and their own lives without the solving story problems, benefit of religious interpretation. As a result there is a ‘secularisation of consciousness’.
Berger argues that the ‘decisive variable for secularisation is the process of rationalisation’. That is the pre-requisite for any industrial society of the modern type. Secularisation also implies rationality. Wilson argues that a rational world view is the energy of religion. It is based on testing of arguments and beliefs by rational procedure, on asserting truth by place means of solving story factors which can be quantified and objectively measured.
Religion is based on faith. Its claim to truth cannot be tested by rational procedures. A rational world view rejects faith which is the basis of religion. It removes the mystery, magic and authority of religion. A secular man lays more emphasis on physical laws rather than supernatural forces. The process of essay describing secularisation as the most important component of the process of modernisation is occurring in different forms in various contemporary societies.
Like modernisation, this process is problems, good and desirable for the welfare of mankind. Finally, it is both a product and a process. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply. You must be logged in to post a comment. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: